Farfield Environment

The large-scale effects of a device beyond those affecting the direct site.

Farfield Environment

Farfield is often composed of areas more than 10 meters distant from the device or array. While the farfield environment is similar to the nearfield habitat in that they both can be affected by the same stressors, the farfield environment can have more complex changes that are difficult to measure/monitor. For example, scouring caused by an offshore wind monopole in the nearfield habitat can be seen on a small temporal scale due to the physical presence of that monopole. The effect that the monopole has on the farfield environment can be far more complex and may only occur after a long period of time. The severity of impact that a stressor has on the farfield environment also depends on the scale of the project; a larger scale commercial project which causes more removal of ocean energy will likely have a greater impact on the farfield environment than a smaller scale pilot project.

Total Results: 257
Title Author Datesort descending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Final Environmental Impact Statement National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration July 1981 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, Noise, Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Noise Measurements for Single and Multiple Operation of 50-kW Wind Turbine Generators Hubbard, H., Shepherd, K. February 1982 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Update on the Marine Environmental Consequences of Tidal Power Development in the Upper Reaches of the Bay of Fundy Gordon, D., Dadswell, M. June 1984 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Prediction of Far Field Noise from Wind Energy Farms Shepherd, K., Hubbard, H. April 1986 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Farfield Environment
Ocean Energies: Environmental, Economic and Technological Aspects of Alternative Power Sources Charlier, R., Justus, J. September 1993 Book Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
Renewable Energy From the Ocean: A Guide to OTEC Avery, W., Wu, C. January 1994 Book Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, Static Device Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Guidelines for the Assessment of Indirect and Cumulative Impacts as well as Impact Interactions Walker, L., Johnston, J. May 1999 Report Farfield Environment
Environmental Report: High Prairie II Wind Project Minnesota Department of Commerce February 2001 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Farfield Environment
Potential Effects of Offshore Wind Developments on Coastal Processes Beiboer, F., Cooper, B. January 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Persistence of Antifouling Agents in the Marine Biosphere Ranke, J. February 2002 Journal Article Marine Energy general Chemicals Farfield Environment
High Level Environmental Screening Study for Offshore Wind Farm Developments - Marine Habitats and Species Project Hiscock, K., Tyler-Walters, H., Jones, H. August 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
The Influence Of Large-Scale Wind Power On Global Climate Keith, D., et al. November 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Socio-economics, Climate Change
The Need for Integrated Assessment of Large-Scale Offshore Wind Farm Development Kannen, A., et al. January 2005 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
Greater Gabbard Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement Greater Gabbard Offshore Winds January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm: Offshore ES Description of the Physical Baseline Environment Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Farfield Environment
The Environmental Case for Wind Power in New Jersey Ridlington, E., Rusch, E. March 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Farfield Environment, Socio-economics, Climate Change
Sand Banks, Sand Transport and Offshore Wind Farms: Technical Report Kenyon, N., Cooper, B. May 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
On Post-Glacial Sea Level - II. Numerical Formulation and Comparative Results on Spherically Symmetric Models Kendall, R., Mitrovica, J., Milne, G. June 2005 Journal Article Farfield Environment
Environmental Issues of Natural Temperature Differences Utilization Gauthier, M. August 2005 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, OTEC Energy Removal, Static Device Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Offshore renewable energy: ecological implications of generating electricity in the costal zone Gill, A. August 2005 Journal Article Dynamic Device, EMF, Noise, Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Review Report 2004: The Danish Offshore Wind Farm Demonstration Project: Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farms Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring Boesen, C., Kjær, J. October 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Wake Effects of Large Offshore Wind Farms Identified from Satellite SAR Christiansen, M., Hasager, C. October 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
An Unstructured Grid, Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) System Chen, C., Beardsley, R., Cowles, G. March 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy general Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Scroby Sands Offshore Wind Farm - Coastal Processes Monitoring Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Simulation of Sediment Transport and Deposition from Cable Burial Operations for the Alternative Site of the Cape Wind Energy Project Swanson, C., Isaji, T. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Farfield Environment
Analysis of Effects of Wind Turbine Generator Array for the Alternative Site of the Cape Wind Energy Project Swanson, C., Subbayya, S. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Farfield Environment
Proceedings of the Effects of Oil on Wildlife: Research, Rehabilitation, and General Concerns Massey, J. January 2007 Conference Paper Chemicals Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Renewable Energy Resources and Wildlife: Impacts and Opportunities Arnett, E., Strickland, M., Morrison, M. February 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Climate Change
Worldwide Synthesis and Analysis of Existing Information Regarding Environmental Effects of Alternative Energy Uses on the Outer Continental Shelf Michel, J., et al. July 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, OTEC, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Socio-economics
Wind Energy Development and Wildlife Conservation: Challenges and Opportunities Kuvlesky, W. Jr., et al. July 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Birds, Farfield Environment
Measurement and Interpretation of Underwater Noise During Construction and Operation of Offshore Windfarms in UK Waters Nedwell, J., et al. December 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Marine Energy: More than Just a Drop in the Ocean? Armstrong, J., Consultancy, F. January 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
Ecological Effects of Wave Energy Development in the Pacific Northwest Boehlert, G., et al. January 2008 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Quantifying "Exposure" with Cost Effective Wave Resource Measurements Beharie, R., Side, J. January 2008 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Noise Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Sediment Transport Patterns at Trafalgar Offshore Windfarm Besio, G., Losada, M. May 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Impacts of TEC and WEC Array Operation on Sediment Dynamics August 2008 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Assessment of Tidal Current Energy in the Minas Passage, Bay of Fundy Karsten, R., et al. August 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
On The Influence Of Large Wind Farms On The Upper Ocean Circulation Broström, G. November 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Potential Impacts of, and Mitigation Strategies for, Small-Scale Tidal Generation Projects on Coastal Marine Ecosystems in the Bay of Fundy Fisheries and Oceans Canada December 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Farfield Environment, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Cape Wind Final Environmental Impact Statement Minerals Management Service January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental impacts of tidal power schemes Wolf, J., et al. January 2009 Journal Article Tidal Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Threats to Sandy Beach Ecosystems: A Review Defeo, O., et al. January 2009 Journal Article Energy Removal Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Hydrodynamic Effects of Kinetic Power Extraction by In-Stream Tidal Turbines Polagye, B. January 2009 Thesis Marine Energy general, Riverine, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Peninsula Research Institute for Marine Renewable Energy (PRIMaRE) January 2009 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Bats, Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Navigation
Modeling Tidal Circulation and Stratification in Skagit River Estuary Using an Unstructured Grid Ocean Model Yang, Z., Khangaonkar, T. January 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
In-Stream Tidal Energy Potential of Puget Sound, Washington Polagye, B., Kawase, M., Malte, P. January 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine, Tidal Farfield Environment
A Scoping Study on: Research into Changes in Sediment Dynamics Linked to Marine Renewable Energy Installations Amoudry, L., et al. April 2009 Report Marine Energy general Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
Effects of Artificial Reefs (Southern Portugal) on Sediment-Water Transport of Nutrients: Importance of the Hydrodynamic Regime Falcão, M., et al. August 2009 Journal Article Energy Removal Farfield Environment
La Rance Tidal Power Plant: 40-Year Operation Feedback - Lessons Learnt de Laleu, V. October 2009 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal, Static Device Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Current State of Knowledge on the Environmental Impacts of Tidal and Wave Energy Technology in Canada Isaacman, L., Lee, K. November 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Assessment of Tidal and Wave Energy Conversion Technologies in Canada Fisheries and Oceans Canada November 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Nature Conservation Implications of a Severn Tidal Barrage - A Preliminary Assessment of Geomorphological Change Pethick, J., Morris, R., Evans, D. December 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Report to Congress on the Potential Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Technologies US Department of Energy December 2009 Report Marine Energy general Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
The Impact of Tidal Stream Turbines on Large-Scale Sediment Dynamics Neill, S., et al. December 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Sediment Transport Study: Baseline Observations and Modeling for the Reedsport Wave Energy Site Ozkan-Haller, H., et al. December 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Flow Modification in Tory Channel January 2010 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal, Static Device Farfield Environment
Potential Climatic Impacts And Reliability Of Very Large-scale Wind Farms Wang, C., Prinn, G. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Cumulative Impact Assessments and Bird/Wind Farm Interactions: Developing a Conceptual Framework Masden, E., et al. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Farfield Environment
Potential OTEC Impacts in the Hawaiian Marine Environment Parke, M. January 2010 Presentation Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, EMF, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
A Study of the Change in the Wave Field Due to the Presence of Wave Energy Converters Kalén, O. January 2010 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
The Impact Of Wave Energy Farms In The Shoreline Wave Climate: Portuguese Pilot Zone Case Study Using Pelamis Energy Wave Devices Palha, A., et al. January 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Impacts Of Wind Farms On Surface Air Temperatures Traiteur, J., Roy, S. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Farfield Environment
Distance Software: Design and Analysis of Distance Sampling Surveys for Estimating Population Size Thomas, L., et al. February 2010 Journal Article Farfield Environment
Installation of Tidal Turbine Array at Kyle Rhea, Scotland: Scoping Study Bedford, G., Tarrant, D., Trendall, J. March 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Cumulative Impacts of Wave Energy In Oregon: Data Atlas Parametrix, Aquatera April 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
Cumulative Impacts of Wave Energy In Oregon: A Literature and Research Review Aquatera, Parametrix April 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
Simulation of Cumulative Effects of Nearshore Restoration Projects on Estuarine Hydrodynamics Yang, Z., et al. April 2010 Journal Article Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Potential Environmental Effects of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Sound and Sea Technologies April 2010 Presentation Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Farfield Environment, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Protocol to Develop an Environmental Impact Study of Wave Energy Converters Bald, J., et al. May 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Development of a Local Ocean Prediction Model of the Fort Lauderdale Region for Energy Extraction Purposes Bozec, A., Chassignet, E., Hanson, H. June 2010 Conference Paper Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Coastal And Offshore Wind Energy Generation: Is It Environmentally Benign? Wilson, J., et al. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general EMF, Noise, Static Device Bats, Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Observations Of Turbulent Flow Fields In The Chesapeake Bay Estuary For Tidal Energy Conversion Luznik, L., Flack, K. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Simulating Environmental Changes Due to Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Installations James, S., et al. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Simulation Of Wave Damping Near Coast Due To Offshore Wind Farms Alari, V., Raudsepp, U. September 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Modelling of Inland Marine Waters of Washington State, United States, for Tidal Resource and Environmental Impact Assessment Kawase, M., Thyng, K. November 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Samlet belastning av vindkraftutbygging på fugl: standardvilkår for for- og etterundersøkelser May, R., et al. December 2010 Report Wind Energy general Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Farfield Environment
Multi-Scale Modeling of Puget Sound Using an Unstructured-Grid Coastal Ocean Model: From Tide Flats to Estuaries and Coastal Waters Yang, Z., Khangaonkar, T. December 2010 Journal Article Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Power Availability in the Florida Current and Impact of its Extraction on the Gulf Stream Bozec, A., Hanson, H., Duerr, A. December 2010 Presentation Marine Energy general, Ocean Current Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Offshore Wind Farms: Foundations and Influence on the Littoral Processes Esteban, M., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Risk Evaluation for Federally Listed (Roseate Tern, Piping Plover) or Candidate (Red Knot) Bird Species in Offshore Waters: A First Step for Managing the Potential Impacts of Wind Facility Development on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Burger, J., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Farfield Environment
Wave Energy Converters for use in Coastal Protection January 2011 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave Farfield Environment
The Effect of a Giant Wind Farm on Precipitation in a Regional Climate Model Fiedler, B., Bukovsky, M. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Farfield Environment
Far-field Dynamics Of Tidal Energy Extraction In Channel Networks Malte, P., Polagye, B. January 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Marine Renewable Energy: The Ecological Implications of Altering the Hydrodynamics of the Marine Environment Shields, M., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Examples of State and International Guidance for Duration and Intensity of Pre-Construction and Post-Construction Monitoring US Fish and Wildlife Service January 2011 Report Wind Energy general Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Optimising Array Form for Energy Extraction and Environmental Benefit (EBAO) January 2011 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
SeaGen Environmental Monitoring Programme: Final Report Keenan, G., et al. January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Effect Of Tidal Stream Power Generation On The Region-wide Circulation In A Shallow Sea Shapiro, G. February 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Scotland's Marine Atlas: Information for the National Marine Plan Baxter, J., et al. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Tidal Technologies: Key Issues Across Planning and Development for Environmental Regulators Bell, M., Side, J. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
Impact of Tidal Stream Turbines on Sand Bank Dynamics Neill, S., Jordan, J., Couch, S. May 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Integrated Modeling of Flood Flows and Tidal Hydrodynamics over a Coastal Floodplain Yang, Z., et al. May 2011 Journal Article Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Inch Cape Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement Inch Cape Offshore June 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Screening Analysis for the Environmental Risk Evaluation System - Environmental Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Copping, A., Hanna, L. September 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles
Final Environmental Assessment of Maine's Deepwater Offshore Floating Wind Turbine Testing and Demonstration Project US Department of Energy September 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Assessment Of Tidal Energy Removal Impacts On Physical Systems: Development Of MHK Module And Analysis Of Effects On Hydrodynamics Yang, Z., Wang, T. September 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Screening Analysis for the Environmental Risk Evaluation System - Environmental Effects of MHK Energy Copping, A., et al. September 2011 Report Marine Energy general Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles
Impact of Tidal Energy Converter (TEC) Array Operation on Sediment Dynamics Neill, S., Couch, S. September 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Far-Field Effects of Tidal Energy Extraction in the Minas Passage on Tidal Circulation in the Bay of Fundy and Gulf of Maine Using a Nested-Grid Coastal Circulation Model Hasegawa, D., et al. November 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Pathways of Effects for Offshore Renewable Energy in Canada Isaacman, L., Daborn, G. December 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Lighting, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles, Socio-economics

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