Birds

A broad term that applies to all species of birds.

Birds

 

Birds are a group of endothermic vertebrates characterized by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong, lightweight skeleton. With approximately ten thousand species, birds rank as the class of tetrapods with the most living species, with more than half of those being passerines.

 

Collision with wind turbine blades can kill birds, though the impact of individual deaths on the greater population varies greatly based on species. Research continues to explore mitigation such as operation limitations, siting location, and lighting selection. Bird collisions with offshore wind turbines present an additional challenge of being unable to count bodies to determine the scale of mortality. Marine renewable energy devices likely pose little threat to diving birds colliding with tidal turbines, or birds colliding with floating wave energy devices. Birds are classified in the following categories:

 

 

Total Results: 1451
Title Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressorsort descending Receptor
No Evidence of Displacement due to Wind Turbines in Breeding Grassland Songbirds Hale, A., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
A Vehicle-Mounted Radar for Dual-Purpose Monitoring of Birds Harmata, A., Leighty, G., O'Neil, E. September 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Wind Turbines do Not Negatively Affect Nest Success in the Dickcissel (Spiza americana) Hatchett, W., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
A Preliminary Overview of Monitoring for Raptors in Sweden Hellstrom, P., Helander, B. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
The Potential Distribution of the Red Kite in Germany Heuck, C., et al. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Assessing Avian-Wind Turbine Collision Risk: An Approach Angle Dependent Model Holmstrom, L., et al. June 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Behavior of Red-Tailed Hawks in a Wind Turbine Development Hoover, S., Morrison, M. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Evidence of Negative Effects of Anthropogenic Structures on Wildlife: A Review of Grouse Survival and Behaviour Hovick, T., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Behavior and Turbine Avoidance Rates of Eagles at Two Wind Farms in Tasmania, Australia Hull, C., Muir, S. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Avian Collisions at Two Wind Farms in Tasmania, Australia: Taxonomic and Ecological Characteristics of Colliders Versus Non-Colliders Hull, C., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Accounting for Unsearched Areas in Estimating Wind Turbine-Caused Fatality Huso, M., Dalthorp, D. February 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
A Comment on Novel Scavenger Removal Trials Increase Wind Turbine-Caused Avian Fatality Estimates Huso, M., Erickson, W. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Flight Paths of Migrating Golden Eagles and the Risk Associated with Wind Energy Development in the Rocky Mountains Johnson, N., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Increased Flight Altitudes among Migrating Golden Eagles Suggest Turbine Avoidance at a Rocky Mountain Wind Installation Johnston, N., Bradley, J., Otter, K. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
The Remote Environmental Assessment Laboratory's Acoustic Library: An Archive for Studying Soundscape Ecology Kasten, E., et al. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Noise Birds
Topography drives migratory flight altitude of golden eagles: implications for on-shore wind energy development Katzner, T., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Raptor Baseline Studies in Energy Development Kennedy, P. June 1980 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Avian Collision Mortality at 50- and 60- m Guyed Towers in Central California Kerlinger, P., et al. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Passerines
Adverse Impacts of Wind Power Generation on Collision Behaviour of Birds and Anti-Predator Behaviour of Squirrels Kikuchi, R. March 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Noise, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors, Nearfield Habitat, Terrestrial Mammals
Investigation on Design for a 500 W Wind Turbine Composite Blade Considering Impact Damage Kong, C., Choi, S., Park, H. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Estimating Bat and Bird Mortality Occurring at Wind Energy Turbines from Covariates and Carcass Searches Using Mixture Models Korner-Nievergelt, F., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
A new method to determine bird and bat fatality at wind energy turbines from carcass searches Korner-Nievergelt, F., et al. December 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Raptors in Bosnia and Herzegovina - their status and perspectives for monitoring development Kotrosan, D., Hatibovic, E. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Collision Risk of Birds with Modern Large Wind Turbines Krijgsveld, K., et al. October 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
The return of the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) to northern Germany: Modelling the past to predict the future Kruger, O., Grunkorn, T., Struwe-Juhl, B. March 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Impact of wind turbines on birds: a case study from Gujarat, India Kumar, S., Ali, A., Arun, P. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Fate of Unproductive and Unattractive Habitats: Recent Changes in Iberian Steppes and their Effects on Endangered Avifauna Laiolo, P., Tella, J. October 2006 Journal Article Birds, Passerines, Nearfield Habitat
Short-Term Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Greater Sage-Grouse Fitness LeBeau, C., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Effects of Wind Turbines on Upland Nesting Birds in Conservation Reserve Program Grasslands Leddy, K., Higgins, K., Naugle, D. September 1999 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines
Whirly Birds Linn, A. March 1995 Magazine Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Effect of wind energy development on breeding duck densities in the Prairie Pothole Region Loesch, C., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Insect Attraction to Wind Turbines: Does Colour Play a Role? Long, C., Flint, J., Lepper, P. April 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Direct human-caused mortality of birds: improving quantification of magnitude and assessment of population impact Loss, S., Will, T., Marra, P. September 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Nocturnal Bird Migration in Northeastern Oregon and Southeastern Washington Mabee, T., Cooper, B. October 2004 Journal Article Birds, Passerines, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Nocturnal Bird Migration Over an Appalachian Ridge at a Proposed Wind Power Project Mabee, T., et al. October 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Golden Eagles in a Multiple Land-Use Environment: A Case Study in Conflict Management Madders, M., Walker, D. January 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Upland Raptors and the Assessment of Wind Farm Impacts Madders, M., Whitfield, D. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Animal Behavioral Adaptation to Changing Landscapes: Spring-Staging Geese Habituate to Wind Farms Madsen, J., Boertmann, D. November 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
Bird Collisions with Power Lines: Failing to See the Way Ahead? Martin, G., Shaw, J. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Shorebirds
Visual Fields, Foraging and Collision Vulnerability in Gyps Vultures Martin, G., Portugal, S., Murn, C. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Potential impact of wind farms on territories of large eagles in southeastern Spain Martinez, J., et al. December 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Effects of wind farms and food scarcity on a large scavenging bird species following an epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy Martinez-Abrain, A., et al. November 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors, Ecosystem Processes
How do diurnal long-distance migrants select flight altitude in relation to wind? Mateos-Rodriguez, M., Liechti, F. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds
Habitat Utilization in White-Tailed Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) and the Displacement Impact of the Smøla Wind-Power Plant May, R., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
A Preliminary Overview of Monitoring for Raptors in Croatia Mazal, V., Mikulic, K. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
New Discoveries in Landbird Migration using Geolocators, and a Flight Plan for the Future McKinnon, E., Fraser, K., Stutchbury, B. March 2013 Journal Article Habitat Change Birds
Regulating Avian Impacts Under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act and Other Laws: The Wind Industry Collides with One of its Own, the Environmental Protection Movement McKinsey, J. January 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions
Effects of Wind Energy Development on Nesting Ecology of Greater Prairie-Chickens in Fragmented Grasslands McNew, L., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
An Overview of Monitoring for Raptors in Ireland Mee, A. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
The Effects of Aero-Generators on Moorland Bird Populations in the Orkney Islands, Scotland Meek, E., et al. January 1993 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds
Putting Aeolus to work without the death toll: federal wind farm siting guidelines can mitigate avian and Chiropteran mortality Mensing, B. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
Experimental Evidence for the Effect of Small Wind Turbine Proximity and Operation on Bird and Bat Activity Miderman, J., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Assessing Risk to Birds from Industrial Wind Energy Development via Paired Resource Selection Models Miller, T., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Understanding Landscape Patterns of Temporal Variability in Avian Populations to Improve Environmental Impact Assessments Milne, R., Bennett, L. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Differential Mortality of Birds Killed at Wind Farms in Northern Portugal Morinha, F., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
From Ground to Above Canopy - Bat Activity in Mature Forests is Driven by Vegetation Density and Height Muller, J., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Birds, Wind and the Making of Wind Power Landscapes in Aude, Southern France Nadaï, A., Labussiere, O. March 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
International importance of Extremadura, Spain, for overwintering migratory dabbling ducks: a role for reservoirs Navedo, J., et al. September 2012 Journal Article Habitat Change Birds
Influence of Wind Turbines on Presence of Willet, Marbled Godwit, Wilson's Phalarope and Black Tern on Wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota and South Dakota Niemuth, N., et al. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Migration pathways, migration speeds and non-breeding areas used by northern hemisphere wintering Red Knots Calidris canutus of the subspecies rufa Niles, L., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Birds, Shorebirds
Characterising the Impacts of Emerging Energy Development on Wildlife, with an Eye Towards Mitigation Northrup, J., Wittemyer, G. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Some Clouds Have a Silver Lining: Paradoxes of Anthropogenic Perturbations from Study Cases on Long-Lived Social Birds Oro, D., Jimenez, J., Curco, A. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Bird Mortality Associated with Wind Turbines at the Buffalo Ridge Wind Resource Area, Minnesota Osborn, R., et al. January 2000 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Bald Eagle and Golden Eagle Mortalities at Wind Energy Facilities in the Contiguous United States Pagel, J., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Avian Collision Threat Assessment at 'Bhambarwadi Wind Farm Plateau' in Northern Western Ghats, India Pande, S., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Integrating applied ecology and planning policy: the case of micro-turbines and wildlife conservation Park, K., Turner, A., Minderman, J. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Impacts of Wind Energy Developments on Wildlife: A Southern Hemisphere Perspective Parsons, S., Battley, P. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Dogs as a Tool to Improve Bird-Strike Mortality Estimates at Wind Farms Paula, J., et al. September 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Greater impacts of wind farms on bird populations during construction than subsequent operation: results of a multi-site and multi-species analysis Pearce-Higgins, J., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
The Distribution of Breeding Birds around Upland Wind Farms Pearce-Higgins, J., et al. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds
Interannual Home Range Variation, Territoriality and Overlap in Breeding Bonelli's Eagles (Aquila fasciata) Tracked by GPS Satellite Telemetry Perez-Garcia, J., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Estimation of Bird and Bat Mortality at Wind-Power Farms with Superpopulation Models Peron, G., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
EIA for Wind Farms in the United Kingdom and Germany Phylip-Jones, J., Fischer, T. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Modeling the Distribution of Migratory Bird Stopovers to Inform Landscape-Scale Siting of Wind Development Pocewicz, A., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Avoidance Behavior by Prairie Grouse: Implications for Development of Wind Energy Pruett, C., Patten, M., Wolfe, D. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
The Effects of Wind Turbines on Antipredator Behavior in California Ground Squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) Rabin, L., Coss, R., Owings, D. August 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Noise Birds, Raptors, Ecosystem Processes, Terrestrial Mammals
Environmental Aspects of Large-Scale Wind-Power Systems in the UK Robson, A. December 1983 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Noise Birds, Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts, Stakeholder Engagement
Nesting Success of Scissor-Tailed Flycatchers (Tyrannus forficatus) at a Wind Farm in Northern Texas Rubenstahl, T., Hale, A., Karsten, K. June 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Wind Farms Threaten Southern Africa's Cliff-Nesting Vultures Rushworth, I., Kruger, S. May 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Spatial Distribution of Wind Turbines is Crucial for the Survival of Red Kite Populations Schaub, M. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
The New Zealand Falcon and Wind Farms: A Risk Assessment Framework Seaton, R., Barea, L. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Determination of Raptor Migratory Patterns Over a Large Landscape Seeland, H., et al. June 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Characteristics of Soaring Birds' Spring Migration over Inland SE Bulgaria Shurulinkov, P., et al. May 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Shorebirds
A Description of the Biosis Model to Assess Risk of Bird Collisions with Wind Turbines Smales, I., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Estimating Wind Turbine Caused Bird Mortality Smallwood, K. November 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Comparing Bird and Bat Fatality-Rate Estimates Among North American Wind-Energy Projects Smallwood, K. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Introduction: Wind-Energy Development and Wildlife Conservation Smallwood, K. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Response to Huso and Erickson's Comments on Novel Scavenger Removal Trials Smallwood, K., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Novel Scavenger Removal Trials Increase Wind Turbine - Caused Avian Fatality Estimates Smallwood, K., et al. July 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Avian and Bat Fatality Rates at Old-Generation and Repowered Wind Turbines in California Smallwood, K., Karas, B. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds, Raptors
Map-Based Repowering and Reorganization of a Wind Resource Area to Minimize Burrowing Owl and Other Bird Fatalities Smallwood, K., Neher, L., Bell, D. October 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Nesting Burrowing Owl Density and Abundance in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California Smallwood, K., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Bird Mortality in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California Smallwood, K., Thelander, C. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Burrowing Owl Mortality in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Smallwood, K., et al. July 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Wind Power Company Compliance with Mitigation Plans in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Smallwood, K. April 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Megawatts are not megawatt-hours and other responses to Willis et al. Sovacool, B. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
The avian and wildlife costs of fossil fuels and nuclear power Sovacool, B. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
The Avian Benefits of Wind Energy: A 2009 Update Sovacool, B. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
An Overview of Monitoring for Raptors in Bulgaria Spasov, S., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
An Analysis of Displacement from Wind Turbines in a Wintering Grassland Bird Community Stevens, T., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds

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