Birds

Generic term that applies to all types of birds.

Birds

Birds (class Aves) are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, a beak with no teeth, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a lightweight but strong skeleton. Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) ostrich. They rank as the class of tetrapods with the most living species, at approximately ten thousand, with more than half of these being passerines. Collision with wind turbine blades can kill birds, though the impact of individual deaths on the greater population varies greatly based on species. Reserach is exploring mitigation such as operation limitations, siting location, and lighting selection. Bird collisions with offshore wind turbines present the additional challenge of being unable to count bodies to determine the scale of mortality. Marine energy poses some threat to diving birds colliding with tidal turbines, or birds colliding with floating wave devices during adverse weather conditions. Birds are classified in the following categories:

Photo Credit: "Birds in sunset over water" by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Total Results: 1452
Title Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptorsort descending
A Stochastic Collision Risk Model for Seabirds in Flight McGregor, R., et al. April 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Assessing the Cumulative Adverse Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Development on Seabird Foraging Guilds Along the East Coast of the United States Goodale, M,, Milman, A., Griffin, C. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
A review of the occurrence of inter‐colony segregation of seabird foraging areas and the implications for marine environmental impact assessment Bolton, M., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Birds, Seabirds
Minimizing wildlife impacts for offshore wind energy development: Winning tradeoffs for seabirds in space and cetaceans in time Best, B., Halpin, P. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Collision, Noise Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Collision, Displacement and Barrier Effect Concept Note Humphreys, E., Cook, S., Burton, N. January 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Marine bird colony and at-sea distributions along the Oregon coast: Implications for marine spatial planning and information gap analysis Suryan, R., et al. April 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
OSPAR request to advise on the current state and knowledge of studies into the deployment and environmental impacts of wet renewable technologies and marine energy storage systems April 2019 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Changes in Flow, Noise Birds, Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts
Bird and Bat Conservation Strategy Deuel Harvest North Wind Farm Deuel County, South Dakota Simon, S., Welch-Acosta, B. March 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Assess risk of individual turbines to Golden Eagles Miller, T. March 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Effects of wind turbine noise on the surrounding soundscape in the context of greater-prairie chicken courtship vocalizations Whalen, C., et al. October 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Effect of wind turbines on bird abundance: A national scale analysis based on fixed effects models Miao, R., et al. September 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Effect of anthropogenic light on bird movement, habitat selection, and distribution: A systematic map protocol Adams, C., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Lighting Birds
Evaluating Effects of Stressors - Fiscal Year 2010 Progress Report: Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Anderson, R., Copping, A., Van Cleve, F. November 2010 Report Marine Energy general Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals
Wind turbines in high quality habitat cause disproportionate increases in collision mortality of the white-tailed eagle Heuck, C., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
A framework to evaluate the environmental impact of OCEAN energy devices Mendoza, E., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Offshore Wind Collision, Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Ecosystem Processes, Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, Nearfield Habitat, Environmental Impact Assessment
Wave Energy in Tropical Regions: Deployment Challenges, Environmental and Social Perspectives Felix, A., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
Estimating Potential Costs of Cumulative Barrier Effects on Migrating Raptors: A Case Study Using Global Positioning System Tracking in Japan Kikuchi, D., et al. March 2019 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
A long‐term assessment of raptor displacement at a wind farm Dohm, R., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Developing a Habitat Loss Method for Assessing Displacement Impacts from Offshore Wind Farms Busch, M., et al. March 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Effects on birds of Offshore Wind farm Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ): An overview and integration of insights obtained Hartman, J., et al. June 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Renewable Energy and Wildlife Conservation Moorman, C., Grodsky, S., Rupp, S. January 2019 Book Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
The consequences of seabird habitat loss from offshore wind turbines: a research plan for five selected species van Kooten, T., Soudijn, F., Leopold, M. September 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Use of an optical rangefinder to assess the reliability of seabird flight heights from boat‐based surveyors: implications for collision risk at offshore wind farms Harwood, A., Perrow, M., Berridge, R. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds
Pilot field study: observations from a fixed platform on occurrence and behaviour of common guillemots and other seabirds in offshore wind farm Luchterduinen Leopold, M., Verdaat, H. September 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds
Kentish Flats Wind Farm Fifth Ornithological Monitoring Report Gill, J., et al. July 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Environmental Aspects of Developing Ireland’s Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS) Kavanagh, P., et al. September 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Marine Mammals
Meeting Europe's Renewable Energy Targets in Harmony with Nature BirdLife Europe January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general Birds
Seabird Surveys at Ireland’s Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS) Hunt, J., Beaubier, J., McLoughlin, D. January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Seabirds
Predictable shorebird departure patterns from a staging site can inform collision risks and mitigation of wind energy developments Howell, J., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Shorebirds
Columbian sharp‐tailed grouse nesting ecology: wind energy and habitat Proett, M., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Nearfield Habitat
The Influence of Wind Energy Development on Columbian Sharp-tailed Grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus) Breeding Season Ecology in Eastern Idaho Proett, M. May 2017 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Evaluation of Wind‐Energy Survey Protocols for Migrating Eagle Detection Chabot, E., Slater, S. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Review of Raptor Sections of the Bluestone Wind Avian Risk Assessment Miller, T. March 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
The Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Volume II: Environmental Statement Royal Haskoning, Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts, Fisheries, Recreation & Tourism, Stakeholder Engagement
The consequences of seabird habitat loss from offshore wind turbines, version 2 van Kooten, T., et al. July 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds, Nearfield Habitat
Scale-dependent habitat selection by wintering geese: implications for landscape management Harrison, A., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Waterfowl
Impacts to Wildlife of Wind Energy Siting and Operation in the United States Allison, T., et al. September 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Avian vulnerability to wind farm collision through the year: insights from Lesser Black-backed Gulls (Larus fuscus) tracked from multiple breeding colonies Thaxter, C., et al. September 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general Collision Birds, Seabirds
Modelling flight heights of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Great Skuas from GPS: a Bayesian approach Ross-Smith, V., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
The Scientific Validity of Criticisms made by the RSPB of Metrics used to Assess Population Level Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on Seabirds Cook, A., Robinson, R. November 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Assessing the risk of offshore wind farm development to migratory birds designated as features of UK Special Protection Areas (and other Annex 1 species) Wright, L., et al. October 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Identifying a Range of Options to Prevent or Reduce Avian Collision with Offshore Wind Farms using a UK-Based Case Study Cook, A., et al. May 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
The Potential Effects on Birds arising from the Onshore Infrastructure of the Proposed Greater Gabbard Offshore Wind Farm Burton, N., et al. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
The possible impact of wind power generators on flying birds Mead, C. January 1982 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Evaluating the potential impacts of tidal power schemes on estuarine waterbirds Burton, N., et al. January 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Waterfowl
Future Directions in Conservation Research on Petrels and Shearwaters Rodríguez, A., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds
Testing efficacy of bird deterrents at wind turbine facilities: a pilot study in Nova Scotia, Canada Dorey, K., Dicky, S., Walker, T. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Machine learning applied to wind turbine blades impact detection Hu, C., Albertani, R. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Developing a science-based approach to defining key species of birds and bats of concern for wind farm developments in Victoria Lumsden, L., Moloney, P., Smales, I. September 2019 Report Wind Energy general Collision Bats, Birds
Investigation of existing post-construction mortality monitoring at Victorian wind farms to assess its utility in estimating mortality rates Moloney, P., Lumsden, L., Smales, I. September 2019 Report Wind Energy general Bats, Birds
Wave & Tidal Consenting Position Paper Series: Ornithological Impacts Kirby, A., et al. October 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Birds
Modeling spatiotemporal abundance of mobile wildlife in highly variable environments using boosted GAMLSS hurdle models Smith, A., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds

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