Birds

Generic term that applies to all types of birds.

Birds

Birds (class Aves) are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, a beak with no teeth, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a lightweight but strong skeleton. Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) ostrich. They rank as the class of tetrapods with the most living species, at approximately ten thousand, with more than half of these being passerines. Collision with wind turbine blades can kill birds, though the impact of individual deaths on the greater population varies greatly based on species. Reserach is exploring mitigation such as operation limitations, siting location, and lighting selection. Bird collisions with offshore wind turbines present the additional challenge of being unable to count bodies to determine the scale of mortality. Marine energy poses some threat to diving birds colliding with tidal turbines, or birds colliding with floating wave devices during adverse weather conditions. Birds are classified in the following categories:

Photo Credit: "Birds in sunset over water" by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Total Results: 1437
Titlesort descending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Altamont Avian Plan: Status Report to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service By the Consortium of Altamont Owners Richard Curry Associates December 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area 48-Hour Search Interval Bird Fatality Study Jones & Stokes Associates June 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Repowing Draft Program Environmental Impact Report Alameda County Community Development Agency June 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise, Static Device Birds, Socio-economics
Amendment to the On-Shore Bird and Bat Pre- and Post- Construction Monitoring Protocol for Commercial Wind Energy Facilities in Ohio Ohio Department of Natural Resources June 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
An Analysis of Displacement from Wind Turbines in a Wintering Grassland Bird Community Stevens, T., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
An Assessment of the Impacts of Green Mountain Power Corporation's Wind Power Facility on Breeding and Migrating Birds in Searsburg, Vermont: July 1996-July 1998 Kerlinger, P. March 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors
An Ecological Risk Assessment of Wind Energy Development in Montana Martin, B., Pearson, A., Bauer, B. January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
An estimator of wildlife fatality from observed carcasses Huso, M. April 2011 Journal Article Bats, Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
An Evaluation of the Impact of the Alameda County/Land Owner Ground Squirrel Management Program on Squirrel Abundance, Raptor Use, and Raptor Fatalities: A status report Kerlinger, P., Curry, R. June 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
An Evaluation of the Use of Shore-Based Surveys for Estimating Spatial Overlap between Deep-Diving Seabirds and Tidal Stream Turbines Waggitt, J., Bell, P., Scott, B. December 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds
An Evaluation of the Wildlife Impacts of Offshore Wind Development Relative to Fossil Fuel Power Production Jarvis, C. September 2005 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Socio-economics
An improved marine radar system for studies of bird migration Cooper, B., et al. January 1991 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
An Overview of Monitoring for Raptors in Bulgaria Spasov, S., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
An Overview of Monitoring for Raptors in Ireland Mee, A. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
An Overview on Methods to Assess Bird and Bat Collision Risk in Wind Farms Rodrigues, S., Rosa, L., Mascarenhas, M. September 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Analysis of Bird and Marine Mammal Data for Billia Croo Wave Test Site, Orkney Robbins, A. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Analysis of Bird and Marine Mammal Data for Billia Croo Wave Test Site, Orkney January 2009 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Marine Mammals
Analysis of Bird and Marine Mammal Data for Fall of Warness Tidal Test Site, Orkney Robbins, A. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Analysis of Marine Environmental Monitoring Plan Data from the Robin Rigg Offshore Wind Farm, Scotland (Operational Year 1) Walls, R., et al. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Analysis of Potential Wildlife/Wind Plant Interactions Bighorn Site, Klickitat County, Washington Johnson, G., Erickson, W. August 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Analysis of the Argyll Array Turbine Layout Iterations in Relation to Ornithological Constraints Bullman, R., Shaylon, S. November 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Analysis of the Overlap between Priority Greater Sage-Grouse Habitats and Existing and Potential Energy Development Across the West: Final Report LeBeau, C., Fruhwirth, J., Boehrs, J. October 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Analysis of the Possible Displacement of Bird and Marine Mammal Species Related to the Installation and Operation of Marine Energy Conversion Systems Long, C. January 2017 Report Marine Energy general Static Device Birds, Marine Mammals
Analysis of Wind Farm Effects on the Surrounding Environment: Assessing Population Trends of Breeding Passerines Garcia, D., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Analyzing Coastal and Marine Changes – Offshore Wind Farming as a Case Study Lange, M., et al. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Socio-economics
Animal Behavioral Adaptation to Changing Landscapes: Spring-Staging Geese Habituate to Wind Farms Madsen, J., Boertmann, D. November 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
Animal Reactions to Oncoming Vehicles: A Conceptual Review Lima, S., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Dynamic Device Birds, Marine Mammals
Annex IV 2016 State of the Science Report: Environmental Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Development Around the World Copping, A., et al. April 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles, Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Annual Report for the Maple Ridge Wind Power Project Post-construction Bird and Bat Fatality Study - 2006 Jain, A., et al. June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Annual Report for the Maple Ridge Wind Power Project Post-Construction Bird and Bat Fatality Study - 2008 Jain, A., et al. May 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds
Appendix J WEST NEXRAD Analysis: Assessment of Nocturnal Bird Migration Activity from Weather Radar Data for the Proposed Icebreaker Wind Energy Facility, Lake Erie, Ohio Nations, C., Gordon, C. January 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds
Appendix K Tetra Tech Bird Survey Report: Spring - Fall 2010 Avian and Bat Studies Report Lake Erie Wind Power Study Svedlow, A., Gilpatrick, L., McIlvain, D. July 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds
Appendix L-1 WEST Summary of Risks to Birds and Bats Gordon, C., Erickson, W. November 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds
Appendix L-2 WEST Bird and Bat Annual Report 2018 Gordon, C., et al. February 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds
Application of GIS and Spatial Analysis of Golden Eagle Fatalities Caused by Wind Turbines at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Pinger, A. April 2013 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Applications of Acoustic Bird Monitoring for the Wind Power Industry Evans, W. May 1998 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Applying bioacoustic methods for long-term monitoring of a nocturnal wetland bird Frommolt, K., Tauchert, K. May 2014 Journal Article Birds
Applying citizen-science data and mark–recapture models to estimate numbers of migrant Golden Eagles in an Important Bird Area in eastern North America Dennhardt, A., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Birds, Raptors
Applying Ecological Risk Assessment Methodology for Outlining Ecosystem Effects of Ocean Energy Technologies Hammar, L., Gullström, M. January 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Applying Radar Technology to Migratory Bird Conservation and Management: Strengthening and Expanding a Collaborative Ruth, J. January 2007 Report Wind Energy general Bats, Birds
Approaching Population Thresholds in Presence of Uncertainty: Assessing Displacement of Seabirds from Offshore Wind Farms Busch, M., Garthe, S. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Appropriate assessment of plans and projects for Croatian National Ecological Network - utilization of bird and bat impact zonation in the southern coastal part of Croatia Schneider, D., et al. May 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general Bats, Birds
Appropriate Assessment Screening for AMETS, Co. Mayo January 2011 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Are Flying Wildlife Attracted to (or do they Avoid) Wind Turbines? Larkin, R. March 2010 Report Wind Energy general Static Device Bats, Birds
Argyll Array Offshore Wind Farm: Habitat Regulations Assessment - Screening for Likely Significant Effects Dewar, R. May 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Argyll Array Offshore Windfarm Report to Inform a Shadow Appropriate Assessment - Great Northern Diver Potential SPAs NIRAS Consulting November 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Argyll Bird Report Maguire, E. October 1999 Report Birds, Seabirds
Assess risk of individual turbines to Golden Eagles Miller, T. March 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Assessing Avian-Wind Turbine Collision Risk: An Approach Angle Dependent Model Holmstrom, L., et al. June 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Assessing Bat and Bird Fatality Risk at Wind Farm Sites using Acoustic Detectors Heist, K. August 2014 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Assessing Bird and Bat Mortality at the Forward Energy Center Grodsky, S., Drake, D. August 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Assessing bird avoidance of high-contrast lights using a choice test approach: implications for reducing human-induced avian mortality Goller, B., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general Lighting Birds
Assessing Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms: Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the Future Bailey, H., Brookes, K., Thompson, P. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Birds, Ecosystem, Marine Mammals
Assessing Impacts of Wind-Energy Development on Nocturnally Active Birds and Bats: A Guidance Document Kunz, T., et al. November 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Assessing Impacts to Birds from the Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota Windplant Development Erickson, W., et al. June 1997 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Waterfowl
Assessing local population vulnerability with branching process models: an application to wind energy development Erickson, R., et al. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Assessing Northern Gannet Avoidance of Offshore Windfarms Rehfisch, M., et al. June 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Assessing Risk to Birds from Industrial Wind Energy Development via Paired Resource Selection Models Miller, T., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Assessing Seabird Displacement at Offshore Wind Farms: Power Ranges of a Monitoring and Data Handling Protocol Vanermen, N., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Assessing Significance of Impacts from Onshore Windfarms on Birds Outwith Designated Areas Scottish Natural Heritage July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Assessing space use by pre-breeding white-tailed eagles in the context of wind-energy development in Finland Balotari-Chiebao, F., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Assessing spring direct mortality to avifauna from wind energy facilities in the Dakotas Graff, B., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Assessing the Cumulative Adverse Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Development on Seabird Foraging Guilds Along the East Coast of the United States Goodale, M,, Milman, A., Griffin, C. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Assessing the Cumulative Impacts of Wind Farms on Peatland Birds: A Case Study of Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria in Scotland Pearce-Higgins, J., et al. May 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Shorebirds
Assessing the Impact of Marine Wind Farms on Birds through Movement Modelling Masden, E., et al. May 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Assessing the impact of nine established wind farms on birds of prey in Thrace, Greece Carcamo, B., et al. March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Assessing the Impact of Small-Scale Wind Energy Proposals on the Natural Heritage Scottish Natural Heritage March 2016 Report Wind Energy general Bats, Birds, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Assessing the Impact of the Tunø Knob Wind Park on Sea Ducks: The Influence of Food Resources Guillemette, M., Larsen, J., Clausager, I. February 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Assessing the Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds Drewitt, A., Langston, R. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Assessing the Influence of Wind Turbines and Land-use on Mortality Risk of Avian Species on the Llano Estacado with Emphasis on Birds of Prey Linner, K. December 2014 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Assessing the Potential Impact of Wind Turbines on the Endangered Galapagos Petrel Pterodroma phaeopygia at San Cristóbal Island, Galapagos Cruz-Delgado, F., Wiedenfeld, D., Gonzalez, J. March 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Assessing the Sensitivity of Seabird Populations to Adverse Effects from Tidal Stream Turbines and Wave Energy Devices Furness, R., et al. June 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Static Device Birds
Assessing the structure and temporal dynamics of seabird communities: the challenge of capturing marine ecosystem complexity Moreno, R., et al. October 2015 Journal Article Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem
Assessing the Vulnerability of the Marine Bird Community in the Western North Sea to Climate Change and Other Anthropogenic Impacts Burthe, S., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem
Assessing Vulnerability of Marine Bird Populations to Offshore Wind Farms Furness, R., Wade, H., Masden, E. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Assessing Wave Energy Effects on Biodiversity: The Wave Hub Experience Witt, M., et al. October 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Assessment And Prediction Of Bird And Bat Mortality At Wind Energy Facilities In The Southeastern United States Nicholson, C., et al. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Assessment of Avian Mortality from Collisions and Electrocutions Dorin, M., et al. June 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Assessment of Avian Use and Mortality Related to Wind Turbine Operations, Altamont Pass, Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California, September 1988 through August 1989, Final Report Howell, J., Didonato, J. November 1991 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Assessment of bat and avian mortality at a pilot wind turbine at Coega, Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape, South Africa Doty, A., Martin, A. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Assessment of Displacement Impacts of Offshore Windfarms and Other Human Activities on Red-Throated Divers and Alcids McGovern, S., Goddard, B., Rehfisch, M. December 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Assessment of Diurnal Wind Turbine Collision Risk for Grassland Birds on the Southern Great Plains Wulff, S., Butler, M., Ballard, W. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Assessment of Lesser Prairie-Chicken Lek Density Relative to Landscape Characteristics in Texas Timmer, J. August 2012 Report Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Assessment of Offshore Wind Farm Effects on Birds and Needs to Plan their Future Development in Spain Mateos-Rodriguez, M., Muñoz, A., Arroyo, G. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Assessment of Risk to Diving Birds from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters: Phase 1 - Desktop Review of Birds in Welsh Waters and Preliminary Risk Assessment Loughrey, J., et al. February 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Assessment of Risk to Diving Birds from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters: Phase 2 - Field Methodologies and Site Assessments Robinson, C., Cook, G. February 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Assessment of the Effects of Offshore Wind in Birds Percival, S. January 2001 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Assessment of the Environmental Impact of Offshore Wind-Farms OSPAR Commission January 2008 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Assessment of Wind‐Farm and Other Bird Casualties from Carcasses Found on a Northumbrian Beach Over an 11‐Year Period Newton, I., Little, B. May 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
At-Sea Distribution and Movements of Nesting and Non-Nesting Marbled Murrelets Brachyramphus marmoratus in Northern California Hebert, P., Golightly, R. May 2008 Journal Article Birds, Seabirds
Attraction of nocturnally migrating birds to artificial light: The influence of colour, intensity and blinking mode under different cloud cover conditions Rebke, M., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Lighting Birds
Auditory Sensitivity in Aquatic Animals Lucke, K., et al. June 2016 Journal Article Noise Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Automated bird acoustic event detection and robust species classification Zhao, Z., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Birds
Automated monitoring for birds in flight: Proof of concept with eagles at a wind power facility McClure, C., Marinson, L., Allison, T. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Automated Systems for Monitoring Avian Interactions with Utility Structures and Evaluating the Effectiveness of Mitigative Measures Carlton, R., Harness, R. February 2001 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Automatic Bird Identification for Offshore Wind Farms Niemi, J., Tanttu, J. March 2019 Book Chapter Offshore Wind Birds
Automatic Identification of Bird Targets with Radar via Patterns Produced by Wing Flapping Zaugg, S., et al. September 2008 Journal Article Birds
Avian and Bat Fatality Rates at Old-Generation and Repowered Wind Turbines in California Smallwood, K., Karas, B. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
Avian and Bat Mortality Associated with the Vansycle Wind Project, Umatilla County, Oregon 1999 Study Year Erickson, W., et al. February 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Avian and Bat Mortality During the First Year of Operation at the Klondike Phase I Wind Project, Sherman County, Oregon Johnson, G., et al. March 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds

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