Birds

Generic term that applies to all types of birds.

Birds

Birds (class Aves) are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, a beak with no teeth, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a lightweight but strong skeleton. Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) ostrich. They rank as the class of tetrapods with the most living species, at approximately ten thousand, with more than half of these being passerines. Collision with wind turbine blades can kill birds, though the impact of individual deaths on the greater population varies greatly based on species. Reserach is exploring mitigation such as operation limitations, siting location, and lighting selection. Bird collisions with offshore wind turbines present the additional challenge of being unable to count bodies to determine the scale of mortality. Marine energy poses some threat to diving birds colliding with tidal turbines, or birds colliding with floating wave devices during adverse weather conditions. Birds are classified in the following categories:

Photo Credit: "Birds in sunset over water" by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Total Results: 1437
Title Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressorsort descending Receptor
Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring of Migrating Waterbirds Piper, W., et al. October 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring of Resting Waterbirds Skov, H., Piper, W., Leonhard, S. September 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Review Report 2004: The Danish Offshore Wind Farm Demonstration Project: Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farms Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring Boesen, C., Kjær, J. October 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Impact Assessment of an Off-shore Wind Park on Sea Ducks Guillemette, M., Larsen, J., Clausager, I. March 1998 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Birds, Waterfowl, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Impacts on Biodiversity of Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources: The Example of Birds and Bats Hötker, H., Thomsen, K., Jeromin, H. January 2006 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Influence of Behavior on Bird Mortality in Wind Energy Developments Smallwood, K., Rugge, L., Morrison, M. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Waterfowl
Influences of Artificial Light on Marine Birds Montevecchi, W. January 2006 Book Chapter Lighting Birds, Seabirds
Interactions with Offshore Wind Energy: Birds and Bats Island Institute January 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Static Device Bats, Birds, Seabirds
Intersectoral Assessment of Impacts on Seabirds: Baseline Report for a Comprehensive Environmental Management Plan for the Norwegian Sea Christensen-Dalsgaard, S., et al. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Socio-economics
Intertidal Ecology and Potential Power Impacts, Bay of Fundy, Canada Gordon, D. Jr. January 1994 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Shorebirds, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Investigations of Birds During Construction and Operation of Nysted Offshore Wind Farm at Rødsand Kahlert, J., et al. January 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Investigations of the Bird Collision Risk and the Responses of Harbour Porpoises in the Offshore Wind Farms Horns Rev, North Sea, and Nysted, Baltic Sea, in Denmark - Part I: Birds Blew, J., et al. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
La Rance Tidal Power Plant: 40-Year Operation Feedback - Lessons Learnt de Laleu, V. October 2009 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal, Static Device Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Large-Scale Offshore Wind Power in the United States: Assessment of Opportunities and Barriers Musial, M., Ram, B. September 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
The Effects of Light Characteristics on Avian Mortality at Lighthouses Jones, J., Francis, C. November 2003 Journal Article Lighting Birds
Light-Induced Bird Strikes on Vessels in Southwest Greenland Merkel, F., Johansen, K. November 2011 Journal Article Lighting Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Socio-economics, Navigation
List of Environmental Effects of MHK Devices Simas, T., Moura, A., Conley, D. September 2010 Presentation Marine Energy general Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles
Listening In Riddoch, L. August 2009 Magazine Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Magnetic Orientation and Magnetoreception in Birds and Other Animals Wiltschko, R., Wiltschko, W. August 2005 Journal Article EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Reptiles
Making Marine Renewable Energy Mainstream Murray, M. April 2011 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Map of Bird Sensitivities to Wind Farms in Scotland: A Tool to Aid Planning and Conservation Bright, J., et al. September 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Marine Wind Farms: Seabirds, White-Tailed Eagles, Eurasian Eagle-Owl and Waders - A Screening of Potential Conflict Areas Christensen-Dalsgaard, S., et al. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Marine Bird Distribution Along the Oregon Coast Suryan, R., et al. April 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Mid-Atlantic Marine Wildlife Surveys, Modeling, and Data: Workshop to Establish Coordination & Communication Brown-Saracino, J., Smith, C., Gilman, P. July 2013 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Migration and Habitat Use by Seabirds in the Atlantic Flyway: Evaluation of Potential Impacts of Proposed Wind Farms Berlin, A. January 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Minimizing Collision Risk Between Migrating Raptors and Marine Wind Farms: Development of a Spatial Planning Tool Baisner, A., et al. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Modeling Carcass Removal Time for Avian Mortality Assessment in Wind Farms Using Survival Analysis Bispo, R., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Modeling Wildlife Densities and Habitat Use Across Temporal and Spatial Scales on the Mid-Atlantic Continental Shelf: Annual Report for the First Budget Period Williams, K. April 2013 Report Static Device Birds, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Modelling Seabird Collision Risk with Off-Shore Wind Farms Mateos, M., Arroyo, G., Rosario, J. May 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Modelling Total Numbers and Distribution of Common Scoter Melanitta nigra at Horns Rev Petersen, I. November 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Monitoring Bird Migration with a Fixed-Beam Radar and a Thermal-Imaging Camera Gauthreaux, S. Jr., Livingston, J. May 2006 Journal Article Birds
Nature Conservation Guidance on Offshore Windfarm Development - A Guidance Note on the Implications of the EC Wild Birds and Habitats Directives for Developers Undertaking Offshore Windfarm Developments UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs March 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
New Insights and New Tools Regarding Risk to Roseate Terns, Piping Plovers, and Red Knots from Wind Facility Operations on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Gordon, C. October 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds
New York Department of State Offshore Atlantic Ocean Study New York Department of State July 2013 Report Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Socio-economics
Night Migrant Fatalities And Obstruction Lighting At Wind Turbines In North America Kerlinger, P., et al. December 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Lighting Birds
Guide to the OCS Alternative Energy Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) US Deparment of the Interior, Minerals Management Service October 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Strategic Joint Industry Project No.1: Bird avoidance behavior and collision impact monitoring at Offshore Windfarms Marine Scotland, et al. December 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Offshore Wind Farms and Birds: Round 3 Zones, Extensions to Round 1 & Round 2 Sites & Scottish Territorial Waters Langston, R. February 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Offshore Wind Farms and the Environment: Danish Experiences from Horns Rev and Nysted Danish Energy Authority November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: Early Environmental Impact Assessment and Spatio-Temporal Variability Degraer, S., Brabant, R., Rumes, B. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: Heading for an Understanding of Environmental Impacts Degraer, S., Brabant, R., Rumes, B. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Socio-economics
Oil Pollution and Climate have Wide-Scale Impacts on Seabird Demographics Votier, S., et al. November 2005 Journal Article Chemicals Birds, Seabirds
Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary: Seabirds List National Marine Sanctuaries July 2004 Website Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Oregon State University and Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center Wave Energy Test Project US Department of Energy August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Oyster 2 Wave Energy Project Environmental Statement Aquamarine Power June 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Pathways of Effects for Offshore Renewable Energy in Canada Isaacman, L., Daborn, G. December 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Lighting, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles, Socio-economics
Pilot Installation of Tidal Current Turbine in Kvalsundet, Tromsø County, Norway - Status and Possible Consequences for the Environment Systad, G., et al. December 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Poor Evidence-Base For Assessment Of Windfarm Impacts On Birds Steward, G., Pullin, A., Coles, C. February 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Population Sizes of Seabirds Breeding in Scottish SPAs Lewis, M., et al. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Postdevelopment Experiments to Detect Anthropogenic Disturbances: The Case of Sea Ducks and Wind Parks Guillemette, M., Larsen, J. June 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
Potential Impacts of Wave-Powered Marine Renewable Energy Installations on Marine Birds Grecian, W., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Preliminary Investigations of Bird-Turbine Collisions at Nysted Offshore Wind Farm and Final Quality Control of Thermal Animal Detection System (TADS) Desholm, M. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Proceedings of the Effects of Oil on Wildlife: Research, Rehabilitation, and General Concerns Massey, J. January 2007 Conference Paper Chemicals Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Proceedings of the Oregon Marine Renewable Energy Environmental Sciences Conference Boehlert, G., et al. April 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Socio-economics
Radar Monitoring of Bird and Bat Movement Patterns on Block Island and its Coastal Waters Mizrahi, D., et al. September 2010 Report Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Radar Monitoring of Migrating Pink-Footed Geese: Behavioural Responses to Offshore Wind Farm Development Plonczkier, P., Simms, I. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Radio Telemetry as a Tool for Impact Assessment of Wind Farms: The Case of Little Terns Sterna albifrons at Scroby Sands, Norfolk, UK Perrow, M., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Ramsey Sound Tidal Energy Limited Non-Technical Summary of the Environmental Statement Tidal Energy October 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Ramsey Sound Tidal Energy Limited Scoping Report Tidal Energy November 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Recording Foraging Seabirds at Sea: Standardised Recording and Coding of Foraging Behaviour and Multi-Species Foraging Associations Camphuysen, K., Garthe, S. January 2004 Journal Article Birds, Seabirds
Reedsport OPT Environmental Assessment Ocean Power Technologies December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Socio-economics
Remote Sensing Image Data and Automated Analysis to Describe Marine Bird Distributions and Abundances Groom, G., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Birds
Remote Techniques for Counting and Estimating the Number of Bird-Wind Turbine Collisions at Sea: A Review Desholm, M., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Research Priorities for Wind Energy and Migratory Wildlife Piorkowski, M., et al. April 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Response of Night-Migrating Songbirds in Cloud to Colored and Flashing Light Kaiser, M., et al. January 2007 Journal Article Lighting Birds, Passerines
Review of Recent Literature Relevant to the Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Devices 2011 Kropp, R. September 2011 Report Marine Energy general Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Review of Cabling Techniques and Environmental Effects Applicable to the Offshore Wind Farm Industry UK Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Revised Best Practice Guidance for the Use of Remote Techniques for Ornithological Monitoring at Offshore Windfarms Walls, R., et al. June 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Risks to Birds and Wildlife from Offshore Wind Farms: BOEMRE NC Task Force Peterson, C. May 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Bats, Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Robin Rigg Offshore Wind Farm Marine Environmental Monitoring Plan (MEMP): Ecological Analysis Data Wells, R., Shenton, S. November 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Fish, Marine Mammals
Scaling Possible Adverse Effects of Marine Wind Farms on Seabirds: Developing and Applying a Vulnerability Index Garthe, S., Hüppop, O. July 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Scottish Marine Renewables Strategic Environmental Assessment Environmental Report Faber Maunsell, Metoc PLC March 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Screening Analysis for the Environmental Risk Evaluation System - Environmental Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Copping, A., Hanna, L. September 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles
SeaGen Tidal Turbine - An Exercise in Adaptive Management Ainsworth, D. April 2011 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Marine Mammals
Seabird Aggregative Patterns: A New Tool for Offshore Wind Energy Risk Assessment Christel, I., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Seabird Conservation and Tidal Stream and Wave Power Generation: Information Needs for Predicting and Managing Potential Impacts Langton, R., Davies, I., Scott, B. September 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Static Device Birds, Seabirds
SeaGen Environmental Monitoring Programme: Final Report Keenan, G., et al. January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Short-Term Ecological Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm in the Dutch Coastal Zone: A Compilation Lindeboom, H., et al. August 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
Intersectoral Assessment of Impacts on Seabirds - Baseline Report for an Integrated Management Plan for the North Sea and Skagerrak Gasbjerg, G., et al. August 2011 Report Marine Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Spatial Distribution, Abundance and Flight Ecology of Birds in Nearshore and Offshore Waters in Rhode Island Paton, P., et al. June 2010 Report Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Spatial Factors Affecting Statistical Power in Testing Marine Fauna Displacement Lapeña, B., et al. October 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Spectral Density of Polarimetric Variables Separating Biological Scatters in the VAD Display Bachmann, S., Zrnić, D. July 2007 Journal Article Birds, Passerines
Speeds and Wingbeat Frequencies of Migrating Birds Compared with Calculated Benchmarks Pennycuick, C. July 2001 Journal Article Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Standard Investigation of the Impacts of Offshore Wind Turbines on the Marine Environment (StUK3) Bellebaum, J., et al. February 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Strategic Priorities for Assessing Ecological Impacts of Marine Renewable Energy Devices in the Pentland Firth (Scotland, UK) Shields, M., et al. July 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Strategic Tidal Stream Assessment for Alderney Craig, J. January 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Summary Report on Environmental Monitoring Related to the Pearson College - ENCANA - Clean Current Tidal Power Demonstration Project at Race Rocks Ecological Reserve Thuringer, P., Reidy, R. December 2006 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal EMF, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
TADS Investigations of Avian Collision Risk at Nysted Offshore Wind Farm Desholm, M. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Waterfowl
The Effect of Local Weather Conditions on Bird-Aircraft Collisions at British Airports Manktelow, S. April 2000 Conference Paper Dynamic Device Birds
The Flight Behaviour of Individual Passerine Nocturnal Migrants: A Tracking Radar Study Able, K. November 1977 Journal Article Birds, Passerines
The Impact of Offshore Wind Farms on Bird Life in Southern Kalmar Sound, Sweden Pettersson, J. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
The Physics Of Geomagnetic-Field Transduction In Animals Winklhofer, M. November 2009 Journal Article EMF Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
The Relation Between Birds and Wind Turbines and Other Aerial Obstacles - A Literature Survey Nygård, T., Bevanger, K., Reitan, O. November 2008 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
The State of the UK's Birds 2011 Eaton M., et al. November 2011 Report Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Shorebirds
The Effect of Avoidance Rates on Bird Mortality Predictions Made by Wind Turbine Collision Risk Models Chamberlain, D., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Thermal Animal Detection System (TADS): Development of a Method for Estimating Collision Frequency of Migrating Birds at Offshore Wind Turbines Desholm, M. January 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Tidal Barrages and Birds Clark, N. March 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal, Static Device Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Tidal Power and the Aquatic Environment of La Rance Retiere, C. January 1994 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Birds, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Towards an Environmentally Sound Offshore Wind Energy Deployment Verfuß, U. January 2012 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Turbine Height as a Management Tool for Collision Risk to Birds at Offshore Wind Farms Davies, I., Band, B. September 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds

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