Birds

Generic term that applies to all types of birds.

Birds

Birds (class Aves) are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, a beak with no teeth, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a lightweight but strong skeleton. Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) ostrich. They rank as the class of tetrapods with the most living species, at approximately ten thousand, with more than half of these being passerines. Collision with wind turbine blades can kill birds, though the impact of individual deaths on the greater population varies greatly based on species. Reserach is exploring mitigation such as operation limitations, siting location, and lighting selection. Bird collisions with offshore wind turbines present the additional challenge of being unable to count bodies to determine the scale of mortality. Marine energy poses some threat to diving birds colliding with tidal turbines, or birds colliding with floating wave devices during adverse weather conditions. Birds are classified in the following categories:

Photo Credit: "Birds in sunset over water" by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Total Results: 1450
Title Author Date Type of Contentsort descending Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Population Trends of Breeding Seabird Colonies in Scottish SPAs Malcolm, F., Lye, G., Lewis, M. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Strategic Surveys of Seabirds off the West Coast of Lewis to Determine Use of Seaspace in Areas of Potential Marine Renewable Energy Developments Simpson, M., Woodward, R. July 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals
Bat 1: Estimate of bat populations at the southern North Sea - Supporting note to ZDV report no. 2016.031 Migrating bats at the southern North Sea Lagerveld, S., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Seabirds? What seabirds? An exploratory study into the origin of seabirds visiting the SE North Sea and their survival bottlenecks Leopold, M. May 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
A first approach to deal with cumulative effects on birds and bats of offshore wind farms and other human activities in the Southern North Sea Leopold, M., et al. January 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds, Seabirds
Iteration cycle: Dealing with peaks in counts of birds following active fishing vessels when assessing cumulative effects of offshore wind farms and other human activities in the Southern North Sea Leopold, M., et al. March 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
2nd Iteration: Effect of turbine capacity on collision numbers for three large gull species, based on revised density data, when assessing cumulative effects of offshore wind farms on birds in the southern North Sea van der Wal, J., et al. May 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Measuring the Interaction Between Marine Features of Special Protection Areas with Offshore Wind Farm Development Sites Through Telemetry: Final Report Thaxter, C., et al. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Winter Marine Bird Surveys Mills, G. March 2012 Report Birds
West Coast Marine Bird Surveys - Quantitative shipboard surveys of species distribution and abundance on the continental shelf during April 2008 and July-August 2008 Zamon, J. August 2008 Report Birds
Analyzing Coastal and Marine Changes – Offshore Wind Farming as a Case Study Lange, M., et al. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Human Dimensions
Avian Monitoring and Mortality Report at the National Wind Technology Center: January 2010 - February 2011 Tetra Tech Inc. January 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Environmental Effects Monitoring Program Annual Report 2017 FORCE January 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Environmental Effects Monitoring Report 2011-2013 FORCE January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal EMF, Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
A Stochastic Collision Risk Model for Seabirds in Flight McGregor, R., et al. April 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Collision, Displacement and Barrier Effect Concept Note Humphreys, E., Cook, S., Burton, N. January 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Marine bird colony and at-sea distributions along the Oregon coast: Implications for marine spatial planning and information gap analysis Suryan, R., et al. April 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
OSPAR request to advise on the current state and knowledge of studies into the deployment and environmental impacts of wet renewable technologies and marine energy storage systems April 2019 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Noise Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts
Bird and Bat Conservation Strategy Deuel Harvest North Wind Farm Deuel County, South Dakota Simon, S., Welch-Acosta, B. March 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Assess risk of individual turbines to Golden Eagles Miller, T. March 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Evaluating Effects of Stressors - Fiscal Year 2010 Progress Report: Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Anderson, R., Copping, A., Van Cleve, F. November 2010 Report Marine Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Developing a Habitat Loss Method for Assessing Displacement Impacts from Offshore Wind Farms Busch, M., et al. March 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Effects on birds of Offshore Wind farm Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ): An overview and integration of insights obtained Hartman, J., et al. June 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
The consequences of seabird habitat loss from offshore wind turbines: a research plan for five selected species van Kooten, T., Soudijn, F., Leopold, M. September 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Pilot field study: observations from a fixed platform on occurrence and behaviour of common guillemots and other seabirds in offshore wind farm Luchterduinen Leopold, M., Verdaat, H. September 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Kentish Flats Wind Farm Fifth Ornithological Monitoring Report Gill, J., et al. July 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Meeting Europe's Renewable Energy Targets in Harmony with Nature BirdLife Europe January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general Birds
Seabird Surveys at Ireland’s Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS) Hunt, J., Beaubier, J., McLoughlin, D. January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Seabirds
Review of Raptor Sections of the Bluestone Wind Avian Risk Assessment Miller, T. March 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
The Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Volume II: Environmental Statement Royal Haskoning, Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts, Fisheries, Recreation & Tourism, Stakeholder Engagement
The consequences of seabird habitat loss from offshore wind turbines, version 2 van Kooten, T., et al. July 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Nearfield Habitat
Impacts to Wildlife of Wind Energy Siting and Operation in the United States Allison, T., et al. September 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
The Scientific Validity of Criticisms made by the RSPB of Metrics used to Assess Population Level Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on Seabirds Cook, A., Robinson, R. November 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Assessing the risk of offshore wind farm development to migratory birds designated as features of UK Special Protection Areas (and other Annex 1 species) Wright, L., et al. October 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Identifying a Range of Options to Prevent or Reduce Avian Collision with Offshore Wind Farms using a UK-Based Case Study Cook, A., et al. May 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
The Potential Effects on Birds arising from the Onshore Infrastructure of the Proposed Greater Gabbard Offshore Wind Farm Burton, N., et al. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
The possible impact of wind power generators on flying birds Mead, C. January 1982 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Developing a science-based approach to defining key species of birds and bats of concern for wind farm developments in Victoria Lumsden, L., Moloney, P., Smales, I. September 2019 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Investigation of existing post-construction mortality monitoring at Victorian wind farms to assess its utility in estimating mortality rates Moloney, P., Lumsden, L., Smales, I. September 2019 Report Wind Energy general Bats, Birds
Assessment of the Environmental Impact of Offshore Wind-Farms OSPAR Commission January 2008 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Cumulative Effects of Wind Farms in the Dutch North Sea on Bird Populations Poot, M., et al. June 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Does the Wind Power Industry Threaten Marbled Murrelets or Do Marbled Murrelets Threaten the Wind Power Industry? Cooper, J., Beauchesne, S. March 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Review of the Current State of Knowledge on the Environmental Impacts of the Location, Operation and Removal/Disposal of Offshore Wind-Farms OSPAR Commission April 2006 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Human Dimensions
Environmental Monitoring at the Maren Wave Power Test Site Andersen, K., et al. September 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Proceedings of the Effects of Oil on Wildlife: Research, Rehabilitation, and General Concerns Massey, J. January 2007 Conference Paper Chemicals Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
Proceedings of the Oregon Marine Renewable Energy Environmental Sciences Conference Boehlert, G., et al. April 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Static Device Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Human Dimensions
The Effect of Local Weather Conditions on Bird-Aircraft Collisions at British Airports Manktelow, S. April 2000 Conference Paper Dynamic Device Birds
Turbine Height as a Management Tool for Collision Risk to Birds at Offshore Wind Farms Davies, I., Band, B. September 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
WT-Bird: Bird Collision Recording for Offshore Wind Farms Wiggelinkhuizen, E., et al. November 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Whooper Swan Cygnus cygnus Migration in Relation to Offshore Wind Farms Griffin, L., Rees, E., Hughes, B. October 2010 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
Long-Term Multibeam Measurements Around a Tidal Turbine Test Site in Orkney, Scotland Blondel, P., Williamson, B. August 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Post-Construction Results from The North Hoyle Offshore Wind Farm May, J. September 2005 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Birds, Marine Mammals
Design and Initial Component Tests of an Integrated Avian and Bat Collision Detection System for Offshore Wind Turbines Flowers, J., et al. April 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Renewable Energy Resources and Wildlife: Impacts and Opportunities Arnett, E., Strickland, M., Morrison, M. February 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Climate Change
A crane movement model parameterized using portable radar for evaluating response to wind energy development Kirsch, E., Diehl, R., Suarez, M. July 2010 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Shorebirds
Towers, Turbines, Power Lines, and Buildings-Steps Being Taken by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to Avoid or Minimize Take of Migratory Birds at these Structures Manville, A. October 2009 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Avian detection & tracking algorithm using infrared imaging Mirzaei, G., et al. May 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats, Birds
Acoustic Monitoring Techniques for Avian Detection and Classification Mirzaei, G., et al. November 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Birds
Quantification of Bird Migration Using Doppler Weather Surveillance Radars (NEXRAD) Mirzaei, G., et al. April 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Fuzzy Clustering in Avian Infrared Imagery Application Mirzaei, G., et al. June 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Overview of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Avian Research Program Sinclair, K., Morrison, M. June 1997 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Wind Power and the Local Environment - No Free Lunches Plowden, B. March 1992 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Evaluations of Wind Potential in Dobrogea Plateau Sabafu, A., Tudor, D. January 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Birds
Proceedings of the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats Workshop: Understanding and Resolving Bird and Bat Impacts Schwartz, S. May 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the Onshore Wildlife Interactions with Wind Developments: Research Meeting V Schwartz, S. March 2005 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the NWCC Wildlife Workgroup Research Planning Meeting VI Schwartz, S. March 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the Wind Wildlife Research Meeting VII Schwartz, S. June 2009 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the Wind Wildlife Research Meeting VIII Schwartz, S. April 2011 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Status of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Avian Research Program Sinclair, K. June 1999 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Status of Avian Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sinclair, K. June 2001 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
The Birds of Blyth Harbour Still, D., et al. June 1994 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Shorebirds
Proceedings of the Wind-Wildlife Research Meeting IX American Wind Wildlife Institute November 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Avian Interactions with Wind Power Structures Electric Power Research Institute March 2003 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Proceedings of the National Avian - Wind Power Planning Meeting LGL April 1995 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Proceedings of the National Avian - Wind Power Planning Meeting II LGL January 1996 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Proceedings of the National Avian - Wind Power Planning Meeting III LGL June 2000 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Wind Energy Development, Prescribed Fire and Migratory Land Birds in the Southeastern United States: Breeding, Stopover, and Wintering Habitat Relationships Brennan, L., Ballard, B., Kuvlesky, W. October 2009 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Nearfield Habitat
First Specific Biodiversity Assessment in the Portuguese Pilot Zone for Marine Renewables Coelho, H., et al. June 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Marine Mammals
Applying Ecological Risk Assessment Methodology for Outlining Ecosystem Effects of Ocean Energy Technologies Hammar, L., Gullström, M. January 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Static Device Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Assessing Impacts to Birds from the Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota Windplant Development Erickson, W., et al. June 1997 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Waterfowl
Automated Systems for Monitoring Avian Interactions with Utility Structures and Evaluating the Effectiveness of Mitigative Measures Carlton, R., Harness, R. February 2001 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Bird Impact Study of a Preloaded Composite Wind Turbine Blade Nanami, N., Ochoa, O. August 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Birds
Impacts of Energy Development on Prairie Grouse Ecology: A Research Synthesis Hagen, C. March 2010 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Predicting the Response of Bird Populations to Wind Energy-Related Deaths Morrison, M., et al. January 1998 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Ecosystem Processes
Proceedings of the National Avian - Wind Power Planning Meeting IV RESOLVE May 2001 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
Proceedings of the Wind-Wildlife Research Meeting X Schwartz, S. April 2015 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Proceedings of Wind Energy and Wildlife: The Good, the Bad... the Possible Kathy, B., MacGregor, G., Grodner, S. May 2005 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Birds, Ecosystem Processes
A Summary and Comparison of Bird Mortality from Anthropogenic Causes with an Emphasis on Collisions Erickson, W., Johnson, G., Young, D. June 2005 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Warning Sounds and Color for Reducing Bird and Bat Mortality at Wind Turbines Khan, S. October 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Wind and Wildlife Fauna Collisions with Wind Turbines: Effects and Impacts, Individuals and Populations. What Are We Trying to Assess? Smales, I. October 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Windfarm Design in the Light of Previous Experience Lloyd, A. January 1997 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Windfarm Impacts on Blanket Peat Habitats in Scotland Dargie, T. May 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Potential Impact of the Massachusetts Maritime Academy Wind Turbine on Common (Sterna hirundo) and Roseate (S. dougallii) Terns Vlietstra, L. June 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Seabirds
Potential Impact of the Massachusetts Maritime Academy Wind Turbine on Common and Roseate Terns Vlietstra, L. June 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Seabirds
Integrating a Multibeam and a Multifrequency Echosounder on the Flowbec Seabed Platform to Track Fish and Seabird Behavior around Tidal Turbine Structures Williamson, B., et al. April 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Seabirds, Fish
Avian interactions with wind energy facilities: A summary Colson, E. December 1995 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Birds
Predictable Hydrodynamic Conditions Explain Temporal Variations in the Density of Benthic Foraging Seabirds in a Tidal Stream Environment Waggitt, J., et al. July 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Seabirds
Bird and bat mortality at Portuguese wind farms Bernardino, J., et al. May 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Proceedings AWEA / Audubon Workshop on Understanding and Resolving Bird and Bat Impacts American Wind Energy Association January 2006 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Book of Abstracts of the Xth International Symposium on Wild Fauna (ISoWiF 2017) Monzón, A., et al. September 2017 Conference Paper Birds

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