Birds

Generic term that applies to all types of birds.

Birds

Birds (class Aves) are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, a beak with no teeth, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a lightweight but strong skeleton. Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) ostrich. They rank as the class of tetrapods with the most living species, at approximately ten thousand, with more than half of these being passerines. Collision with wind turbine blades can kill birds, though the impact of individual deaths on the greater population varies greatly based on species. Reserach is exploring mitigation such as operation limitations, siting location, and lighting selection. Bird collisions with offshore wind turbines present the additional challenge of being unable to count bodies to determine the scale of mortality. Marine energy poses some threat to diving birds colliding with tidal turbines, or birds colliding with floating wave devices during adverse weather conditions. Birds are classified in the following categories:

Photo Credit: "Birds in sunset over water" by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Total Results: 1427
Title Author Date Type of Contentsort descending Technology Type Stressor Receptor
A Comparison of Nocturnal Call Counts of Migrating Birds and Reflectivity Measurements on Doppler Radar Farnsworth, A., Gauthreaux, S. Jr., Blaricom, D. January 2004 Journal Article Birds
Risk Evaluation for Federally Listed (Roseate Tern, Piping Plover) or Candidate (Red Knot) Bird Species in Offshore Waters: A First Step for Managing the Potential Impacts of Wind Facility Development on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Burger, J., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Farfield Environment
A Test for Bias Attributable to Seabird Avoidance of Ships during Surveys Conducted in the Tropical Pacific Borberg, J., et al. January 2006 Journal Article Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Adjustments of Wingbeat Frequency and Air Speed to Air Density in Free-Flying Migratory Birds Schmaljohann, H., Liechti, F. August 2009 Journal Article Birds
Aerial Survey of Seabirds: The Advent of Digital Methods Buckland, S., et al. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Assessing Impacts of Wind-Energy Development on Nocturnally Active Birds and Bats: A Guidance Document Kunz, T., et al. November 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Assessing the Sensitivity of Seabird Populations to Adverse Effects from Tidal Stream Turbines and Wave Energy Devices Furness, R., et al. June 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Static Device Birds
Assessing the Impact of Marine Wind Farms on Birds through Movement Modelling Masden, E., et al. May 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Assessing the Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds Drewitt, A., Langston, R. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Assessing Vulnerability of Marine Bird Populations to Offshore Wind Farms Furness, R., Wade, H., Masden, E. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Assessing Wave Energy Effects on Biodiversity: The Wave Hub Experience Witt, M., et al. October 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Automatic Identification of Bird Targets with Radar via Patterns Produced by Wing Flapping Zaugg, S., et al. September 2008 Journal Article Birds
Avian Issues for Offshore Wind Development Allison, T., Jedrey, E., Perkins, S. June 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
Avian Sensitivity to Mortality: Prioritising Migratory Bird Species for Assessment at Proposed Wind Farms Desholm, M. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Avian Collision Risk at an Offshore Wind Farm Desholm, M., Kahlert, J. June 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Waterfowl
Barriers to Movement: Impacts of Wind Farms on Migrating Birds Masden, E., et al. February 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
Barriers to Movement: Modelling Energetic Costs of Avoiding Marine Wind Farms Amongst Breeding Seabirds Masden, E., et al. July 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Behavioural and Environmental Correlates of Soaring-Bird Mortality at On-Shore Wind Turbines Barrios, L., Rodríguez, A. February 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Bird Disturbance: Improving the Quality and Utility of Disturbance Research Hill, D., et al. January 1997 Journal Article Static Device Birds
Bird Migration Studies and Potential Collision Risk with Offshore Wind Turbines Hüppop, O., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines
Birds and Offshore Wind Farms: A Hot Topic in Marine Ecology Exo, K., Hüppop, O., Garthe, S. April 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Birds and Wind Projects Across the Pond: A UK Perspective Rowena, H., Langston, W. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Challenges and Solutions of Remote Sensing at Offshore Wind Energy Developments Kelly, T., West, T., Davenport, J. November 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds
Characteristics of Avian Mortality at a North Florida Television Tower: A 29-Year Study Engstrom, R., Crawford, R. January 2001 Journal Article Static Device Birds, Passerines
Coastal And Offshore Wind Energy Generation: Is It Environmentally Benign? Wilson, J., et al. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general EMF, Noise, Static Device Bats, Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Collision Effects of Wind-power Generators and Other Obstacles on Birds Drewitt, A., Langston, R. June 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Combining Vessel-Based Surveys and Tracking Data to Identify Key Marine Areas for Seabirds Louzao, M., et al. September 2009 Journal Article Birds, Seabirds
Comparison of Ship and Aerial Surveys of Birds at Sea Briggs, K., Tyler, W., Lewis, D. September 1984 Journal Article Birds, Seabirds
Consequences of a Cumulative Perspective on Marine Environmental Impacts: Offshore Wind Farming and Seabirds at North Sea Scale in Context of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive Busch, M., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Farfield Environment
Cumulative Impact Assessments and Bird/Wind Farm Interactions: Developing a Conceptual Framework Masden, E., et al. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Farfield Environment
Information Needs to Support Environmental Impact Assessments of the Effects of European Marine Offshore Wind Farms on Birds Fox, A., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Effects of the Construction of Scroby Sands Offshore Wind Farm on the Prey Base of Little Tern Sternula albifons at its Most Important UK Colony Perrow, M., et al. August 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Fish
Effects of Wind Turbines on Flight Behaviour of Wintering Common Eiders: Implications for Habitat Use and Collision Risk Larsen, J., Guillemette, M. April 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
Environmental Impact Assessment of Offshore Wind Farms: A Simulation-Based Approach Lapeña, B., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Evaluating the Statistical Power of Detecting Changes in the Abundance of Seabirds at Sea Maclean, I., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Examination of the Effects of Disturbance of Birds with Reference to its Importance in Ecological Assessments Hockin, D., et al. December 1992 Journal Article Static Device Birds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Flight-Call and their Value for Future Ornithological Studies and Conservation Research Farnsworth, A. July 2005 Journal Article Birds, Passerines
Green Light For Nocturnally Migrating Birds Poot, H., et al. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Lighting Birds
Influence of Behavior on Bird Mortality in Wind Energy Developments Smallwood, K., Rugge, L., Morrison, M. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Waterfowl
Intertidal Ecology and Potential Power Impacts, Bay of Fundy, Canada Gordon, D. Jr. January 1994 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Shorebirds, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
The Effects of Light Characteristics on Avian Mortality at Lighthouses Jones, J., Francis, C. November 2003 Journal Article Lighting Birds
Light-Induced Bird Strikes on Vessels in Southwest Greenland Merkel, F., Johansen, K. November 2011 Journal Article Lighting Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Socio-economics, Navigation
Magnetic Orientation and Magnetoreception in Birds and Other Animals Wiltschko, R., Wiltschko, W. August 2005 Journal Article EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Reptiles
Map of Bird Sensitivities to Wind Farms in Scotland: A Tool to Aid Planning and Conservation Bright, J., et al. September 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Minimizing Collision Risk Between Migrating Raptors and Marine Wind Farms: Development of a Spatial Planning Tool Baisner, A., et al. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Modeling Carcass Removal Time for Avian Mortality Assessment in Wind Farms Using Survival Analysis Bispo, R., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Monitoring Bird Migration with a Fixed-Beam Radar and a Thermal-Imaging Camera Gauthreaux, S. Jr., Livingston, J. May 2006 Journal Article Birds
Night Migrant Fatalities And Obstruction Lighting At Wind Turbines In North America Kerlinger, P., et al. December 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Lighting Birds
Oil Pollution and Climate have Wide-Scale Impacts on Seabird Demographics Votier, S., et al. November 2005 Journal Article Chemicals Birds, Seabirds
Poor Evidence-Base For Assessment Of Windfarm Impacts On Birds Steward, G., Pullin, A., Coles, C. February 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Postdevelopment Experiments to Detect Anthropogenic Disturbances: The Case of Sea Ducks and Wind Parks Guillemette, M., Larsen, J. June 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
Potential Impacts of Wave-Powered Marine Renewable Energy Installations on Marine Birds Grecian, W., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Radar Monitoring of Migrating Pink-Footed Geese: Behavioural Responses to Offshore Wind Farm Development Plonczkier, P., Simms, I. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Radio Telemetry as a Tool for Impact Assessment of Wind Farms: The Case of Little Terns Sterna albifrons at Scroby Sands, Norfolk, UK Perrow, M., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Recording Foraging Seabirds at Sea: Standardised Recording and Coding of Foraging Behaviour and Multi-Species Foraging Associations Camphuysen, K., Garthe, S. January 2004 Journal Article Birds, Seabirds
Remote Sensing Image Data and Automated Analysis to Describe Marine Bird Distributions and Abundances Groom, G., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Birds
Remote Techniques for Counting and Estimating the Number of Bird-Wind Turbine Collisions at Sea: A Review Desholm, M., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Research Priorities for Wind Energy and Migratory Wildlife Piorkowski, M., et al. April 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Response of Night-Migrating Songbirds in Cloud to Colored and Flashing Light Kaiser, M., et al. January 2007 Journal Article Lighting Birds, Passerines
Scaling Possible Adverse Effects of Marine Wind Farms on Seabirds: Developing and Applying a Vulnerability Index Garthe, S., Hüppop, O. July 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Seabird Aggregative Patterns: A New Tool for Offshore Wind Energy Risk Assessment Christel, I., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Seabird Conservation and Tidal Stream and Wave Power Generation: Information Needs for Predicting and Managing Potential Impacts Langton, R., Davies, I., Scott, B. September 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Short-Term Ecological Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm in the Dutch Coastal Zone: A Compilation Lindeboom, H., et al. August 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
Spatial Factors Affecting Statistical Power in Testing Marine Fauna Displacement Lapeña, B., et al. October 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Spectral Density of Polarimetric Variables Separating Biological Scatters in the VAD Display Bachmann, S., Zrnić, D. July 2007 Journal Article Birds, Passerines
Speeds and Wingbeat Frequencies of Migrating Birds Compared with Calculated Benchmarks Pennycuick, C. July 2001 Journal Article Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Strategic Priorities for Assessing Ecological Impacts of Marine Renewable Energy Devices in the Pentland Firth (Scotland, UK) Shields, M., et al. July 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
The Flight Behaviour of Individual Passerine Nocturnal Migrants: A Tracking Radar Study Able, K. November 1977 Journal Article Birds, Passerines
The Physics Of Geomagnetic-Field Transduction In Animals Winklhofer, M. November 2009 Journal Article EMF Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
The Effect of Avoidance Rates on Bird Mortality Predictions Made by Wind Turbine Collision Risk Models Chamberlain, D., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Tidal Barrages and Birds Clark, N. March 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal, Static Device Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Tidal Power and the Aquatic Environment of La Rance Retiere, C. January 1994 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Birds, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Understanding Bird Collisions With Man-made Objects: A Sensory Ecology Approach Martin, G. March 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Using a Shore Bird (Red Knot) Fitted with Geolocators to Evaluate a Conceptual Risk Model Focusing on Offshore Wind Burger, J., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Variation in Bat and Bird Fatalities at Wind Energy Facilities: Assessing the Effects of Rotor Size and Tower Height Barclay, R., Baerwald, E., Gruver, J. March 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Visual Tracking From a Rigid-Hulled Inflatable Boat to Determine Foraging Movements of Breeding Terns Perrow, M., Gilroy, J., Skeate, E. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Weak Relationship Between Risk Assessment Studies and Recorded Mortality in Wind Farms Ferrer, M., et al. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Wind Energy Development and Wildlife Conservation: Challenges and Opportunities Kuvlesky, W. Jr., et al. July 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Birds, Farfield Environment
Wing-Beat Characteristics of Birds Recorded with Tracking Radar and Cine Camera Bruderer, B., et al. April 2010 Journal Article Birds, Passerines
Wingbeat Frequency of Birds in Steady Cruising Flight: New Data and Improved Predictions Pennycuick, C. March 1996 Journal Article Birds
Individual Consistency in the Foraging Behaviour of Northern Gannets: Implications for Interactions with Offshore Renewable Energy Developments Soanes, L., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Using a Spatial Overlap Approach to Estimate the Risk of Collisions between Deep Diving Seabirds and Tidal Stream Turbines: A Review of Potential Methods and Approaches Waggitt, J., Scott, B. February 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Birds
Offshore Wave Energy Generation Devices: Impacts on Ocean Bio-Environment Lin, L., Yu, H. June 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Chemicals, EMF, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Magnetic Maps in Animals: Nature's GPS Lohmann, K., Lohmann, C., Putman, N. July 2007 Journal Article EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Reptiles
Soaring Migratory Birds Avoid Wind Farm in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Southern Mexico Villegas-Patraca, R., Cabrera-Cruz, S., Herrera-Alsina, L. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Environmental Risk Evaluation System - An Approach to Ranking Risk of Ocean Energy Development on Coastal and Estuarine Environments Copping, A., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Flight Height Distribution and Collision Risk of the Marbled Murrelet Brachyramphus Marmoratus: Methodology and Preliminary Results Stumpf, J., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Bird Migration Flight Altitudes Studied by a Network of Operational Weather Radars Dokter, A., et al. June 2010 Journal Article Birds
Bird Radar Validation in the Field by Time-Referencing Line-Transect Surveys Dokter, A., et al. September 2013 Journal Article Birds
Comparing Transect Survey and WSR-88D Radar Methods for Monitoring Daily Changes in Stopover Migrant Communities Fischer, R., et al. February 2012 Journal Article Birds
Migratory Routes of Short-Tailed Albatrosses: Use of Exclusive Economic Zones of North Pacific Rim Countries and Spatial Overlap with Commercial Fisheries in Alaska Suryan, R., et al. May 2007 Journal Article Birds, Seabirds
Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects Alerstam, T., et al. August 2007 Journal Article Birds, Passerines, Waterfowl
Impact of Wind Turbines on Birds in Zeebrugge (Belgium): Significant Effect on Breeding Tern Colony Due to Collisions Everaert, J., Stienen, E. January 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
At-Sea Distribution and Movements of Nesting and Non-Nesting Marbled Murrelets Brachyramphus marmoratus in Northern California Hebert, P., Golightly, R. May 2008 Journal Article Birds, Seabirds
A Spatial Conservation Prioritization Approach for Protecting Marine Birds Given Proposed Offshore Wind Energy Development Winiarski, K., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Environmental Impact of Wind Energy Mann, J., Teilmann, J. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Distance Sampling to Estimate the Abundance of Birds with Sector and Radial Radar Detection Methods Ma, X. January 2011 Journal Article Birds, Seabirds
Modelling the Spatial Concentrations of Bird Migration to Assess Conflicts with Wind Turbines Liechti, F., Guélat, J., Komenda-Zehnder, S. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Renewable Energy Developments in an Uncertain World: The Case of Offshore Wind and Birds in the UK Masden, E., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Mapping Seabird Sensitivity to Offshore Wind Farms Bradbury, G., et al. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds

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