Short Science Summary: Harbor Porpoises and Offshore Wind Energy

 

Harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) are a small and abundant cetacean species. Found throughout the temperate and subarctic waters of the northern hemisphere, they prefer shallow, coastal waters, and feed near the bottom on small fish, squid, and crustaceans. Most concerns about offshore wind energy and Harbor porpoises are associated with construction activities, particularly if pile driving is required to install turbine foundations. This summary represents a general overview of the research, produced by WREN under IEA Wind. The table below contains the literature relevant to harbor porpoises and the offshore wind energy industry and will continue to be updated as new literature is added to Tethys.

 

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Sources of Information on Harbor Porpoises:

Title Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Year-Round Spatiotemporal Distribution of Harbour Porpoises Within and Around the Maryland Wind Energy Area Wingfield, J., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals
Is There a State-of-the-Art to Reduce Pile-Driving Noise? Bellmann, M., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Passive Acoustic Methods for Fine-Scale Tracking of Harbour Porpoises in Tidal Rapids Macaulay, J., et al. February 2017 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals
Assessing The Benefit Of Noise Reduction Measures During Offshore Wind Farm Construction On Harbour Porpoises Verfuss, U., et al. September 2016 Report Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Assessing Auditory Evoked Potentials of Wild Harbor Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) Ruser, A., et al. July 2016 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Effects of Offshore Pile Driving on Harbour Porpoise Abundance in the German Bight: Assessment of Noise Effects Brandt, M., et al. June 2016 Report Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Trends of Harbour Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) Density in the Southern North Sea Peschko, V., et al. January 2016 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals
Determining the Infrastructure Needs to Support Offshore Floating Wind and Marine Hydrokinetic Facilities on the Pacific West Coast and Hawaii Porter, A., Phillips, S. January 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Multiple-Pulse Sounds and Seals: Results of a Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina) Telemetry Study During Wind Farm Construction Hastie, G., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Evaluating Threats in Multinational Marine Ecosystems: A Coast Salish First Nations and Tribal Perspective Gaydos, J., Thixton, S., Donatuto, J. December 2015 Journal Article N/A Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Noise Ecosystem, Navigation
NERC Knowledge Exchange: An Autonomous Device to Track Porpoise Movements in Tidal Rapids Macaulay, J., et al. November 2015 Report Tidal N/A Marine Mammals
An Interim Framework for Assessing the Population Consequences of Disturbance King, S., et al. October 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Ecosystem
Continuation Implementation Masterplan Wind at Sea Ministry of Economic Affairs (Rijksoverheid), Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment (Rijkwaterstaat) September 2015 Report Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Bats, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Towards a Numerical Model to Simulate the Observed Displacement of Harbour Porpoises Phocoena phocoena Due to Pile Driving in Belgian Waters Haelters, J., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Hearing Thresholds of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) for Playbacks of Seal Scarer Signals, and Effects of the Signals on Behavior Kastelein, R., et al. September 2015 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Hearing Thresholds of a Harbor Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) for Playbacks of Seal Scarer Signals, and Effects of the Signals on Behavior Kastelein, R., et al. September 2015 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Effect of exposure duration to pile driving sounds on temporary hearing threshold shift in harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) Kastelein, R., et al. September 2015 Report Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
MR7.1.2 The Density and Behaviour of Marine Mammals in Tidal Rapids Macaulay, J., et al. July 2015 Report N/A N/A Marine Mammals
MR6.1 Review of Methodology and Main Results of the JCP Analysis of Cetacean Densities in the Context of Marine Renewable Development Lonergan, M., Hammond, P. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
MR7.1.1 Quantifying Porpoise Depth Distributions and Underwater Behaviour in Tidal Rapids Areas Macaulay, J., et al. July 2015 Report N/A N/A Marine Mammals
Framework for Assessing Ecological and Cumulative Effects of Offshore Wind Farms - Part A: Methods Ministry of Economic Affairs (Rijksoverheid) July 2015 Report Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment
Framework for Assessing Ecological and Cumulative Effects of Offshore Wind Farms - Part B: Description and Assessment of the Cumulative Effects of Implementing the Roadmap for Offshore Wind Power Ministry of Economic Affairs (Rijksoverheid) July 2015 Report Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment
Hearing thresholds of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) for narrow-band sweeps (0.125-150 kHz) Kastelein, R., et al. July 2015 Report Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
SORIANT VUM - final report von Benda-Beckmann, A., et al. June 2015 Report Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Framework for Assessing Ecological and Cumulative Effects of Offshore Wind Farms: Cumulative Effects of Impulsive Underwater Sound on Marine Mammals Heinis, F., de Jong, C. April 2015 Report Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Cetacean Noise Criteria Revisited in the Light of Proposed Exposure Limits for Harbour Porpoises Tougaard, J., Wright, A., Madsen, P. January 2015 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Assessing Marine Mammal Presence in and Near the FORCE Lease Area During Winter and Early Spring - Addressing Baseline Data Gaps and Sensor Performance Redden, A., Porskamp, P. January 2015 Report Tidal N/A Marine Mammals
Hearing frequencies of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) temporarily affected by played back offshore pile driving sounds Kastelein, R., et al. September 2014 Report Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
200 kHz Commercial Sonar Systems Generate Lower Frequency Side Lobes Audible to Some Marine Mammals Deng, Z., et al. April 2014 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Field Testing of Multiple Sensors in an Underwater Environment Monitoring System Chan, H., et al. April 2014 Conference Paper Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Status of Marine Mammals in Korea Song, K. April 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals
Pacific Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment (PaCSEA): Aerial Seabird and Marine Mammal Surveys off Northern California, Oregon, and Washington, 2011-2012 Adams, J., et al. March 2014 Report N/A N/A Birds, Marine Mammals
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 14: Marine Mammals Mackey, B., Keenan, G. March 2014 Report Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
Assessing the Impact of Windfarms in Subtidal, Exposed Marine Areas Dahlgren, T., et al. February 2014 Book Chapter Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Effects of Noise and By-Catch on a Danish Harbour Porpoise Population Nabe-Nielsen, J., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Behavioral Responses of a Harbor Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) to Playbacks of Broadband Pile Driving Sounds Kastelein, R., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Harbor Seals & Harbor Porpoises-Pile Driving: Detection, Behavioral Response and TTS Kastelein, R. November 2013 Presentation Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Marine Renewable Energy: A Global Review of the Extent of Marine Renewable Energy Developments, the Developing Technologies and Possible Conservation Implications for Cetaceans James, V. November 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals
Short-Term Disturbance by a Commercial Two-Dimensional Seismic Survey does Not Lead to Long-Term Displacement of Harbour Porpoises Thompson, P., et al. November 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Influence of Wind Turbines on Presence of Willet, Marbled Godwit, Wilson's Phalarope and Black Tern on Wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota and South Dakota Niemuth, N., et al. September 2013 Journal Article Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Predictions from Harbor Porpoise Habitat Association Models are Confirmed by Long-Term Passive Acoustic Monitoring Brookes, K., Bailey, H., Thompson, P. September 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals
Hearing thresholds of two harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) for playbacks of multiple pile driving strike sounds Kastelein, R., et al. August 2013 Report Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Hearing thresholds of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) for playbacks of multiple pile driving strike sounds Kastelein, R., et al. August 2013 Report Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Modelling of Noise Effects of Operational Offshore Wind Turbines Including Noise Transmission Through Various Foundation Types Marmo, B., et al. August 2013 Report Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Environmental Impact of Wind Energy Mann, J., Teilmann, J. July 2013 Journal Article Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Marine Mammals, Life Cycle Assessment
Re-Established Stony Reef Attracts Harbour Porpoises Phocoena phocoena Mikkelsen, L., et al. May 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals
Effects of Pile-Driving on Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) at the First Offshore Wind Farm in Germany Dähne, M., et al. April 2013 Journal Article Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Far-Reaching Effects of a Seal Scarer on Harbour Porpoises, Phocoena phocoena Brandt, M., et al. April 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals
Habitat Preferences and Distribution of the Harbour Porpoise Phocoena phocoena West of Scotland Booth, C., et al. March 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals
A Review and Inventory of Fixed Autonomous Recorders for Passive Acoustic Monitoring of Marine Mammals Sousa-Lima, R., et al. March 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals
Seal Scarers as a Tool to Deter Harbour Porpoises from Offshore Construction Sites Brandt, M., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
Differentiating Between Underwater Construction Noise of Monopile and Jacket Foundations for Offshore Windmills: A Case Study from the Belgian Part of the North Sea Norro, A., Rumes, B., Degraer, S. February 2013 Journal Article Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Responses of Harbour Porpoises to Pile Driving on a Temporal and Spatial Scale Braasch, A., Joost, M., Ketzer, C. February 2013 Conference Paper Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Danish Offshore Wind Key Environmental Issues - A Follow-up Danish Energy Agency, et al. February 2013 Report Offshore Wind N/A Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Determining the Detection Thresholds for Harbor Porpoise Clicks of Autonomous Data Loggers, the Timing Porpoise Detectors Verfuss, U., et al. February 2013 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Harbour Porpoises in the Southern North Sea - Analysis of Potential Influences of Alpha Ventus in the Context of General Distribution Trends Gilles, A., et al. January 2013 Presentation Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: Learning from the Past to Optimise Future Monitoring Programmes Degraer, S., Brabant, R., Rumes, B. January 2013 Report Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Is a German Harbour Porpoise Much More Sensitive than a British One? Comparative Analyses of Mandatory Measures for the Protection of Harbour Porposes (Phocoena phocoena) During Offshore Wind Farm Ramming in Germany, Denmark and the UK Luedeke, J. December 2012 Conference Paper Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Potential Impacts of Ocean Energy Development on Marine Mammals in Oregon Davis, A. December 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
Negative Long Term Effects on Harbour Porpoises from a Large Scale Offshore Wind Farm in the Baltic - Evidence of Slow Recovery Teilmann, J., Carstensen, J. December 2012 Journal Article Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals
Marine Megavertebrates of Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly: Relative Abundance and Distribution Leeney, R., et al. December 2012 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals
Effects on Harbour Porpoises from Rødsand 2 Offshore Wind Farm Teilmann, J., Tougaard, J., Carstensen, J. November 2012 Report Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
Porpoises and Offshore Windfarms - Conflict, Co-Existence or Refuge Scheidat, M. October 2012 Presentation Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
Hearing Threshold Shifts and Recovery in Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) after Octave-Band Noise Exposure at 4 kHz Kastelein, R., et al. July 2012 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Development of a New Underwater Piling Noise Mitigation System - Using Hydro Sound Dampers (HSD) Kuhn, C., et al. July 2012 Conference Paper Offshore Wind Noise N/A
From Echolocation Clicks to Animal Density - Acoustic Sampling of Harbor Porpoises with Static Dataloggers Kyhn, L., et al. January 2012 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals
Effects of Offshore Pile Driving on Harbor Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) Brandt, M., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Behavioral Responses and Habituation of Pinnipeds and Small Cetaceans to Novel Objects and Simulated Fishing Gear With and Without a Pinger Bowles, A., Anderson, C. January 2012 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals
Behavioral Reactions of Harbor Porpoise to Pile-Driving Noise Tougaard, J., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Effects of Pile Driving on the Behavior of Cod and Sole Thomsen, F., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Shortlist Masterplan Wind Aerial Surveys of Harbour Porpoises on the Dutch Continental Shelf Geelhoed, S., et al. December 2011 Report Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
Robin Rigg Offshore Wind Farm Marine Environmental Monitoring Plan (MEMP): Ecological Analysis Data Wells, R., Shenton, S. November 2011 Presentation Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Fish, Marine Mammals
Galloper Wind Farm Project: Environmental Statement - Chapter 14: Marine Mammals Galloper Wind Farm Limited October 2011 Report Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
Mitigation of Underwater Piling Noise Using New Hydro Sound Dampers (HSD) Elmer, K., et al. September 2011 Conference Paper Offshore Wind Noise Nearfield Habitat
Effects of Wind Farms on Harbour Porpoise Behavior and Population Dynamics Nabe-Nielsen, J., et al. September 2011 Report Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
Foraging Behaviour and Reproductive Season Habitat Selection of Northeast Pacific Porpoises Hall, A. September 2011 Thesis N/A N/A Marine Mammals
Modelling Harbour Porpoise Seasonal Density as a Function of the German Bight Environment: Implications for Management Gilles, A., et al. August 2011 Journal Article Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
Short-Term Ecological Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm in the Dutch Coastal Zone: A Compilation Lindeboom, H., et al. August 2011 Journal Article Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and Wind Farms: A Case Study in the Dutch North Sea Scheidat, M., et al. June 2011 Journal Article Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals
Porpoises North of Sprogø Before, During and After Construction of an Offshore Wind Farm Tougaard, J., Carstensen, J. February 2011 Report Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Responses of Harbour Porpoises to Pile Driving at the Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm in the Danish North Sea Brandt, M., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Abundance and Behaviour of Cetaceans and Basking Sharks in the Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Evans, P., Baines, M., Coppock, J. January 2011 Report N/A N/A Fish, Marine Mammals
Magnetic Intensity Study: Long Island Replacement Cables Ocean Surveys Inc November 2010 Report N/A EMF N/A
Assessing the Responses of Coastal Cetaceans to the Construction of Offshore Wind Turbines Thompson, P., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
The Effect of a Large Danish Offshore Wind Farm on Harbor and Gray Seal Haul-Out Behavior Edrén, S., et al. July 2010 Journal Article Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Updated Summary of Knowledge: Selected Areas of the Pacific Coast Kaplan, B., et al. July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Ocean Wind Power Ecological Baseline Studies Final Report - Volume 3: Marine Mammal and Sea Turtle Studies Geo-Marine Inc July 2010 Report Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Assessing Underwater Noise Levels during Pile-Driving at an Offshore Windfarm and its Potential Effects on Marine Mammals Bailey, H., et al. June 2010 Journal Article Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Report of the Working Group on Marine Mammal Ecology (WGMME) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea April 2010 Report Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
Effects of Pile-Driving Noise on the Behaviour of Marine Fish Mueller-Blenkle, C., et al. March 2010 Report Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Using Habitat Models to Identify Suitable Sites for Marine Protected Areas for Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) Embling, C., et al. February 2010 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals
General Models of the Spatial Distribution of Porpoises Require Representative Data and Parsimony: Comment on Skov & Thomsen (2008) Tougaard, J., Wisz, M. January 2010 Journal Article Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
Click Communication in Harbour Porpoises Phocoena phocoena Clausen, K., et al. January 2010 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals
Underwater Noise Produced by the Piling Activities During the Construction of the Belwind Offshore Wind Farm (Bligh Bank, Belgian Marine Waters) Norro, A., et al. January 2010 Book Chapter Offshore Wind Noise N/A
The Effect of Signal Duration on the Underwater Hearing Thresholds of Two Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) for Single Tonal Signals Between 0.2 and 40 kHz Kastelein, R., et al. December 2009 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Assessment of the Effects of the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ) for Harbour Porpoise (comparison T0 and T1) Scheidat, M., et al. September 2009 Report Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals
Spatial and Seasonal Relationships Between Pacific Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina richardii) and their Prey, at Multiple Scales Grigg, E., et al. July 2009 Journal Article N/A N/A Ecosystem, Marine Mammals
Temporary Shift in Masked Hearing Thresholds in a Harbor Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) after Exposure to Seismic Airgun Stimuli Lucke, K., et al. June 2009 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
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