Offshore wind farm (OWF) is an emerging technology in the wind energy conversion system. These wind resources are abundant, stronger, and are more consistent in terms of their availability than land-based wind resources. As a matter of fact significantly higher energy production is achieved due to larger wind turbine ratings and stronger wind profiles.
This paper highlights the present scenario and challenges in development of offshore wind power. The challenges and opportunities that exist in the development stages of an offshore wind farm project, from exploration to erection and installation of wind turbines, construction of platforms and laying of sea cables, up to maintenance and de-commissioning, involving important technical aspects are addressed. An application of high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission for integration of large scale offshore wind farm with onshore grid is attractive as compared to high voltage alternating current (HVAC) transmission system. To make the offshore wind farm feasible, reliable and secure, the different aspects in its planning, design and operation are also reviewed in this paper.