Energy from wave and tidal power is a key component of current policies for renewable sources of energy. This book provides the first comprehensive exploration of legal, economic, and social issues related to the emerging ocean energy industry, in particular wave and tidal energy technologies.
This industry is rapidly developing, and considerable technical literature has developed around the technology. However, it is shown that challenges relating to regulation and policy are major impediments to industry development, and these aspects have not previously been sufficiently highlighted and studied. The book informs policymakers, industry participants, and researchers of the key issues in this developing field. Ocean energy is considered in the context of the blue economy and an industrialising ocean, and the topics covered include: development of policy (policy instruments, risk and delay in technology development); legal aspects (consenting processes, resource management, impact assessment); human interactions (conflicts, consultation, community benefits); and spatial planning of the marine environment.
While offshore wind energy, sited in the oceans but not strictly derived from the ocean, is not the primary focus of the book, there is also discussion of the similarities and differences between offshore wind and wave and tidal power policy dimensions.
1. Introduction G. Wright, S. Kerr and K. Johnson
Part I: Risk and economics
2. Risk and ocean energy S. Jude, Simon, A. Gill, C. Mauelshagen and E. Willsteed
3. Government policy, risk and investment timing S. MacDougall
Part II: Marine governance
4. Building governance at sea K. Johnson
5. Marine planning: an ocean energy perspective K. Johnson and G. Wright
6. Mare reservarum: enclosure of the commons and the evolution of marine rights in an era of ocean industrialisation S. Kerr, K. Johnson, J. Colton, G. Wright and S. Weir
Part III: Project consenting and regulation
7. Consenting ocean energy projects: issues, challenges and opportunities A. O’Hagan and G. Wright
8. Consenting ocean energy projects: an overview of procedures in selected jurisdictions A. O’Hagan and G. Wright
9. Ensuring the sustainable development of ocean energy technologies through environmental assessment laws and policies G. Wright, E. Willsteed and A. O’Hagan
Part IV: Community and conflicts
10. A sea of troubles? Evaluating user conflicts in the development of ocean energy J. de Groot, M. Campbell, K. Reilly, J. Colton and F. Conway
11. Community benefits schemes S. Kerr and S. Weir
12. Consultation in ocean energy development J. Colton, F. Conway, B. Wiersma, J. Carlson and P. Devine-Wright
13. Ocean energy at the edge L. Watts and B. R. Winthereik