Offshore wind turbines and many offshore and port constructions are founded by means of pile driving. Impact pile drivers cause strong impulsive underwater noise that is potentially harmful to the marine environment, in particular to marine mammals. This paper discusses possible noise mitigation methods and presents measurements thereto.
Measurements of Construction Noise During Pile Driving of Offshore Research Platforms and Wind Farms
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Matuschek, R.; Betke, K. (2009). Measurements of Construction Noise During Pile Driving of Offshore Research Platforms and Wind Farms. pp 4.