The following guidance was prepared by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service). Like the Service’s voluntary guidance addressing the siting, construction, operation, and decommissioning of communication towers and the voluntary guidance developed in cooperation with the electric utility industry to minimize bird strikes and electrocutions (APLIC 1994, APLIC 1996), this guidance is intended to assist the wind energy industry in avoiding or minimizing impacts to wildlife and their habitats. This is accomplished through: (1) proper evaluation of potential Wind Resource Areas (WRAs), (2) proper location and design of turbines and associated structures within WRAs selected for development, and (3) pre- and post-construction research and monitoring to identify and/or assess impacts to wildlife. These guidelines are based on current science and will be updated as new information becomes available. They are voluntary, and interim in nature. They will be evaluated over a two-year period, and then modified as necessary based on their performance in the field, on comments from the public, and on the latest scientific and technical discoveries developed in coordination with industry, states, academic researchers, and other Federal agencies. After this period, the Service plans to develop a complete operations manual for evaluation, site selection, design, construction, operation, and monitoring of wind energy facilities in both terrestrial and aquatic environments.
Interim Guidelines to Avoid and Minimize Wildlife Impacts from Wind Turbines
Title: Interim Guidelines to Avoid and Minimize Wildlife Impacts from Wind Turbines
May 13, 2003
US Fish and Wildlife Service (2003). Interim Guidelines to Avoid and Minimize Wildlife Impacts from Wind Turbines. Report by US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). pp 55.