Effect of Level, Duration, and Inter-Pulse Interval of 1-2 kHz Sonar Signal Exposures on Harbor Porpoise Hearing

Journal Article

Title: Effect of Level, Duration, and Inter-Pulse Interval of 1-2 kHz Sonar Signal Exposures on Harbor Porpoise Hearing
Publication Date:
May 20, 2014
Journal: The Jounal of the Acoustical Society of America
Volume: 136
Pages: 412-422
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Citation

Kastelein, R.; Hoek, L.; Gransier, R.; Rambags, M.; Claeys, N. (2014). Effect of Level, Duration, and Inter-Pulse Interval of 1-2 kHz Sonar Signal Exposures on Harbor Porpoise Hearing. The Jounal of the Acoustical Society of America, 136, 412-422.
Abstract: 

Safety criteria for underwater low-frequency active sonar sounds produced during naval exercises are needed to protect harbor porpoise hearing. As a first step toward defining criteria, a porpoise was exposed to sequences consisting of series of 1-s, 1–2 kHz sonar down-sweeps without harmonics (as fatiguing noise) at various combinations of average received sound pressure levels (SPLs; 144–179 dB re 1 μPa), exposure durations (1.9–240 min), and duty cycles (5%–100%). Hearing thresholds were determined for a narrow-band frequency-swept sine wave centered at 1.5 kHz before exposure to the fatiguing noise, and at 1–4, 4–8, 8–12, 48, 96, 144, and 1400 min after exposure, to quantify temporary threshold shifts (TTSs) and recovery of hearing. Results show that the inter-pulse interval of the fatiguing noise is an important parameter in determining the magnitude of noise-induced TTS. For the reported range of exposure combinations (duration and SPL), the energy of the exposure (i.e., cumulative sound exposure level; SELcum) can be used to predict the induced TTS, if the inter-pulse interval is known. Exposures with equal SELcum but with different inter-pulse intervals do not result in the same induced TTS.

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