Management Measures Tool for Marine Renewable Energy

Accessing Management Measures that support Deployment of Wave and Tidal Devices

As the MRE industry moves beyond deployment of individual wave and tidal devices towards arrays, there continue to be onerous monitoring requirements placed on device developers. Certain risks of MRE devices on the marine environment are not sufficiently well resolved to allow smooth transitions towards a commercial industry. As an example, the potential collision of marine animals with single tidal turbines continues to create concern for stakeholders and regulators in many jurisdictions.

In consultation with the research and regulatory communities, it was determined that having a set of robust management measures might act as safeguards for marine animals and habitats until such time as definitive monitoring data become available to determine the level of risk from turbines and WECs. At that point, mitigation measures could be dialed back or removed, if warranted.

With the input of the researchers, regulators, and developers at a workshop held May 9th 2017 in Glasgow UK, the following criteria were used to develop the management measures tool shown here:

  • Ensure common understanding of parameters that describe management measures proposed for collision risk, EMF, noise, and benthic disturbance;
  • Evaluate each measure for effectiveness in addressing the risk for which it is intended;
  • Determine the feasibility and practicality of each measure;
  • Facilitate the development of a toolbox of management measures that can be made broadly available, as they are needed; and
  • Consider the use of the tool to guide initial discussions between project proponents and regulators.

The tool can be explored using the following steps:

Technology Management Measure Category Phase of Project Stressor Receptor Specific Receptor Interaction Sort descending Specific Management Measures Implications of Measure
Wave Design feature Installation Loss of habitat Habitat Intertidal ecology

Direct loss of protected or sensitive intertidal communities from changes in hydrodynamics due to nearshore WECs.

Micrositing of nearshore WECs to minimise the impact on sensitive habitats and species.

n/a

Wave Design feature Operation & Maintenance Loss of habitat Habitat Intertidal ecology

Direct loss of protected or sensitive intertidal communities from changes in hydrodynamics due to nearshore WECs.

Micrositing of nearshore WECs to minimise the impact on sensitive habitats and species.

n/a

Wave Design feature Installation Loss of habitat Benthic Benthic invertebrates

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Cable protection management measures to ensure that any rock placement that is required will be kept to a minimum to reduce seabed disturbance.

This could reduce effects on sensitive habitats.

Wave Design feature Decommissioning Loss of habitat Benthic Benthic invertebrates

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Cable protection management measures to ensure that any rock placement that is required will be kept to a minimum to reduce seabed disturbance.

This could reduce effects on sensitive habitats.

Tidal Design feature Installation Loss of habitat Benthic Benthic invertebrates

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Cable protection management measures to ensure that any rock placement that is required will be kept to a minimum to reduce seabed disturbance.

This could reduce effects on sensitive habitats.

Tidal Design feature Decommissioning Loss of habitat Benthic Benthic invertebrates

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Cable protection management measures to ensure that any rock placement that is required will be kept to a minimum to reduce seabed disturbance.

This could reduce effects on sensitive habitats.

Wave Mitigation Installation Loss of habitat Benthic Benthic invertebrates

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Use of locally sourced materials, for cable protection, of the same type as the habitat to be disturbed by cable installation.

Minimize impact on biodiversity/ ecosystem.

Wave Mitigation Decommissioning Loss of habitat Benthic Benthic invertebrates

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Use of locally sourced materials, for cable protection, of the same type as the habitat to be disturbed by cable installation.

Minimize impact on biodiversity/ ecosystem.

Tidal Mitigation Installation Loss of habitat Benthic Benthic invertebrates

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Use of locally sourced materials, for cable protection, of the same type as the habitat to be disturbed by cable installation.

Minimize impact on biodiversity/ ecosystem.

Tidal Mitigation Decommissioning Loss of habitat Benthic Benthic invertebrates

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Use of locally sourced materials, for cable protection, of the same type as the habitat to be disturbed by cable installation.

Minimize impact on biodiversity/ ecosystem.

Wave Design feature Installation Loss of habitat Fish Demersal fish

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Cable protection management measures to ensure that any rock placement that is required will be kept to a minimum to reduce seabed disturbance.

This could reduce effects on sensitive habitats.

Wave Design feature Decommissioning Loss of habitat Fish Demersal fish

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Cable protection management measures to ensure that any rock placement that is required will be kept to a minimum to reduce seabed disturbance.

This could reduce effects on sensitive habitats.

Tidal Design feature Installation Loss of habitat Fish Demersal fish

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Cable protection management measures to ensure that any rock placement that is required will be kept to a minimum to reduce seabed disturbance.

This could reduce effects on sensitive habitats.

Tidal Design feature Decommissioning Loss of habitat Fish Demersal fish

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Cable protection management measures to ensure that any rock placement that is required will be kept to a minimum to reduce seabed disturbance.

This could reduce effects on sensitive habitats.

Wave Mitigation Installation Loss of seabed habitat Fish Fish

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Use of locally sourced materials, for cable protection, of the same type as the habitat to be disturbed by cable installation.

Minimise impact on biodiversity/ ecosystem.

Wave Mitigation Decommissioning Loss of seabed habitat Fish Fish

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Use of locally sourced materials, for cable protection, of the same type as the habitat to be disturbed by cable installation.

Minimise impact on biodiversity/ ecosystem.

Tidal Mitigation Installation Loss of seabed habitat Fish Fish

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Use of locally sourced materials, for cable protection, of the same type as the habitat to be disturbed by cable installation.

Minimise impact on biodiversity/ ecosystem.

Tidal Mitigation Decommissioning Loss of seabed habitat Fish Fish

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Use of locally sourced materials, for cable protection, of the same type as the habitat to be disturbed by cable installation.

Minimise impact on biodiversity/ ecosystem.

Wave Design feature Installation Loss of habitat Benthic Benthic invertebrates

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Micrositing of offshore infrastructure to avoid sensitive habitats.

This could reduce/remove effects on sensitive habitats and can often be done with little additional costs.

Wave Design feature Decommissioning Loss of habitat Benthic Benthic invertebrates

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Micrositing of offshore infrastructure to avoid sensitive habitats.

This could reduce/remove effects on sensitive habitats and can often be done with little additional costs.

Tidal Design feature Installation Loss of habitat Benthic Benthic invertebrates

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Micrositing of offshore infrastructure to avoid sensitive habitats.

This could reduce/remove effects on sensitive habitats and can often be done with little additional costs.

Tidal Design feature Decommissioning Loss of habitat Benthic Benthic invertebrates

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Micrositing of offshore infrastructure to avoid sensitive habitats.

This could reduce/remove effects on sensitive habitats and can often be done with little additional costs.

Wave Design feature Installation Loss of habitat Benthic Benthic invertebrates

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Minimize footprint of anchors / foundations.

This could reduce effects on sensitive habitats, however the size of anchors/foundations likely to be that which is suitable for the safe and optimal operation of devices.

Wave Design feature Decommissioning Loss of habitat Benthic Benthic invertebrates

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Minimize footprint of anchors / foundations.

This could reduce effects on sensitive habitats, however the size of anchors/foundations likely to be that which is suitable for the safe and optimal operation of devices.

Tidal Design feature Installation Loss of habitat Benthic Benthic invertebrates

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Minimize footprint of anchors / foundations.

This could reduce effects on sensitive habitats, however the size of anchors/foundations likely to be that which is suitable for the safe and optimal operation of devices.

Tidal Design feature Decommissioning Loss of habitat Benthic Benthic invertebrates

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Minimize footprint of anchors / foundations.

This could reduce effects on sensitive habitats, however the size of anchors/foundations likely to be that which is suitable for the safe and optimal operation of devices.

Wave Design feature Installation Loss of habitat Fish Demersal fish

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Micrositing of offshore infrastructure to avoid sensitive habitats.

This could reduce/remove effects on sensitive habitats and is a relatively low cost measure.

Wave Design feature Decommissioning Loss of habitat Fish Demersal fish

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Micrositing of offshore infrastructure to avoid sensitive habitats.

This could reduce/remove effects on sensitive habitats and is a relatively low cost measure.

Tidal Design feature Installation Loss of habitat Fish Demersal fish

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Micrositing of offshore infrastructure to avoid sensitive habitats.

This could reduce/remove effects on sensitive habitats and is a relatively low cost measure.

Tidal Design feature Decommissioning Loss of habitat Fish Demersal fish

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Micrositing of offshore infrastructure to avoid sensitive habitats.

This could reduce/remove effects on sensitive habitats and is a relatively low cost measure.

Wave Design feature Installation Loss of habitat Fish Demersal fish

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Minimise footprint of anchors / foundations.

This could reduce effects on sensitive habitats, however may impact technical considerations.

Wave Design feature Decommissioning Loss of habitat Fish Demersal fish

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Minimise footprint of anchors / foundations.

This could reduce effects on sensitive habitats, however may impact technical considerations.

Tidal Design feature Installation Loss of habitat Fish Demersal fish

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Minimise footprint of anchors / foundations.

This could reduce effects on sensitive habitats, however may impact technical considerations.

Tidal Design feature Decommissioning Loss of habitat Fish Demersal fish

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Minimise footprint of anchors / foundations.

This could reduce effects on sensitive habitats, however may impact technical considerations.

Wave Mitigation Installation Vessel disturbance Marine Mammals Seals

Disturbance at seal haul-out sites from project vessels.

Avoid transiting within 500m of known seal haul outs.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Wave Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Vessel disturbance Marine Mammals Seals

Disturbance at seal haul-out sites from project vessels.

Avoid transiting within 500m of known seal haul outs.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Wave Mitigation Decommissioning Vessel disturbance Marine Mammals Seals

Disturbance at seal haul-out sites from project vessels.

Avoid transiting within 500m of known seal haul outs.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Tidal Mitigation Installation Vessel disturbance Marine Mammals Seals

Disturbance at seal haul-out sites from project vessels.

Avoid transiting within 500m of known seal haul outs.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Tidal Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Vessel disturbance Marine Mammals Seals

Disturbance at seal haul-out sites from project vessels.

Avoid transiting within 500m of known seal haul outs.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Tidal Mitigation Decommissioning Vessel disturbance Marine Mammals Seals

Disturbance at seal haul-out sites from project vessels.

Avoid transiting within 500m of known seal haul outs.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Wave Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Benthic Benthic invertebrates

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species

Install cable protection/armor

n/a

Tidal Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Benthic Benthic invertebrates

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species

Install cable protection/armor

n/a

Wave Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Benthic Benthic invertebrates

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species

Limit cable voltage

n/a

Tidal Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Benthic Benthic invertebrates

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species

Limit cable voltage

n/a

Wave Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Benthic Benthic invertebrates

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species

Use of 3-phase cables instead of DC cables

n/a

Tidal Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Benthic Benthic invertebrates

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species

Use of 3-phase cables instead of DC cables

n/a

Wave Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Benthic Benthic invertebrates

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species

Lay cables in natural crevices

n/a

Tidal Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Benthic Benthic invertebrates

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species

Lay cables in natural crevices

n/a

Wave Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Benthic Benthic invertebrates

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species

Maximize length of any drilled boreholes

n/a

Tidal Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Benthic Benthic invertebrates

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species

Maximize length of any drilled boreholes

n/a

Wave Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Benthic Benthic invertebrates

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species

Strategic use of rock placement/other cable protection

n/a

Tidal Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Benthic Benthic invertebrates

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species

Strategic use of rock placement/other cable protection

n/a

Wave Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Benthic Benthic invertebrates

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species

Bundle cables together to reduce field vectors

n/a

Tidal Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Benthic Benthic invertebrates

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species

Bundle cables together to reduce field vectors

n/a

Wave Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Benthic Benthic invertebrates

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species

Bury cables where possible and viable

n/a

Tidal Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Benthic Benthic invertebrates

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species

Bury cables where possible and viable

n/a

Wave Design feature Installation EMF and thermal pressure Benthic Benthic invertebrates

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species.

Micrositing of offshore infrastructure to avoid sensitive habitats and minimize footprint.

This could reduce/remove effects on sensitive habitats and can often be done with little additional cost.

Tidal Design feature Installation EMF and thermal pressure Benthic Benthic invertebrates

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species.

Micrositing of offshore infrastructure to avoid sensitive habitats and minimize footprint.

This could reduce/remove effects on sensitive habitats and can often be done with little additional cost.

Wave Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Fish Demersal fish

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species.

Install cable protection/armour.

n/a

Tidal Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Fish Demersal fish

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species.

Install cable protection/armour.

n/a

Wave Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Fish Demersal fish

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species.

Limit cable voltage.

n/a

Tidal Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Fish Demersal fish

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species.

Limit cable voltage.

n/a

Wave Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Fish Demersal fish

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species.

Use of 3-phase cables instead of DC cables.

n/a

Tidal Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Fish Demersal fish

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species.

Use of 3-phase cables instead of DC cables.

n/a

Wave Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Fish Demersal fish

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species.

Lay cables in natural crevices.

n/a

Tidal Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Fish Demersal fish

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species.

Lay cables in natural crevices.

n/a

Wave Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Fish Demersal fish

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species.

Maximise length of any drilled boreholes.

n/a

Tidal Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Fish Demersal fish

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species.

Maximise length of any drilled boreholes.

n/a

Wave Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Fish Demersal fish

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species.

Strategic use of rock placement/other cable protection.

n/a

Tidal Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Fish Demersal fish

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species.

Strategic use of rock placement/other cable protection.

n/a

Wave Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Fish Demersal fish

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species.

Bundle cables together to reduce field vectors.

n/a

Tidal Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Fish Demersal fish

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species.

Bundle cables together to reduce field vectors.

n/a

Wave Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Fish Demersal fish

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species.

Bury cables where possible and viable.

n/a

Tidal Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Fish Demersal fish

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species.

Bury cables where possible and viable.

n/a

Wave Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Benthic Benthic invertebrates

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from subsea cables on sensitive species.

Install cable protection/ armor/ rock placement/ other cable protection.

Reduces the level of EMF to surrounding water column and therefore any potential effects.

Reduces 'snagging risk' for vessels and may create habitat for species.

May have Habitat Creation implications

Potential for adverse impacts on surrounding benthic habitats and sensitive species, e.g. from smothering.

This measure forms part of normal project design.

Tidal Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Benthic Benthic invertebrates

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from subsea cables on sensitive species.

Install cable protection/ armor/ rock placement/ other cable protection.

Reduces the level of EMF to surrounding water column and therefore any potential effects.

Reduces 'snagging risk' for vessels and may create habitat for species.

May have Habitat Creation implications

Potential for adverse impacts on surrounding benthic habitats and sensitive species, e.g. from smothering.

This measure forms part of normal project design.

Wave Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Benthic Benthic invertebrates

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from subsea cables on sensitive species.

Use of 3-phase cables instead of DC cables.

Reduces the level of EMF to surrounding water column and therefore any potential effects, however there are potential commercial and technical feasibility issues surrounding the specific project requirements as well as some disagreement as to the efficacy of this measure.

Tidal Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Benthic Benthic invertebrates

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from subsea cables on sensitive species.

Use of 3-phase cables instead of DC cables.

Reduces the level of EMF to surrounding water column and therefore any potential effects, however there are potential commercial and technical feasibility issues surrounding the specific project requirements as well as some disagreement as to the efficacy of this measure.

Wave Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Benthic Benthic invertebrates

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from subsea cables on sensitive species.

Bundle cables together to reduce field vectors.

Reduces the level of EMF to surrounding water column and therefore any potential effects, however there is potential for less redundancy in the system together with potential commercial and technical feasibility issues.

Tidal Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Benthic Benthic invertebrates

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from subsea cables on sensitive species.

Bundle cables together to reduce field vectors.

Reduces the level of EMF to surrounding water column and therefore any potential effects, however there is potential for less redundancy in the system together with potential commercial and technical feasibility issues.

Wave Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Benthic Benthic invertebrates

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from subsea cables on sensitive species.

Bury or HDD cables where possible and viable.

Reduces the level of EMF to surrounding water column and therefore any potential effects, however the implementation of this measure may have an impact on surrounding benthic habitats and sensitive species. Also reduces 'snagging risk' for vessels.

This measure forms part of normal project design.

Tidal Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Benthic Benthic invertebrates

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from subsea cables on sensitive species.

Bury or HDD cables where possible and viable.

Reduces the level of EMF to surrounding water column and therefore any potential effects, however the implementation of this measure may have an impact on surrounding benthic habitats and sensitive species. Also reduces 'snagging risk' for vessels.

This measure forms part of normal project design.

Wave Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Fish Migratory fish; Elasmobranchs

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from subsea cables on sensitive species.

Install cable protection/ armour/ rock placement/ other cable protection.

Reduces the level of EMF to surrounding water column and therefore any potential effects.

Reduces 'snagging risk' for vessels and may create habitat for species.

Potential for adverse impacts on surrounding benthic habitats and sensitive species, e.g. from smothering.

This measure forms part of normal project design.

Tidal Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Fish Migratory fish; Elasmobranchs

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from subsea cables on sensitive species.

Install cable protection/ armour/ rock placement/ other cable protection.

Reduces the level of EMF to surrounding water column and therefore any potential effects.

Reduces 'snagging risk' for vessels and may create habitat for species.

Potential for adverse impacts on surrounding benthic habitats and sensitive species, e.g. from smothering.

This measure forms part of normal project design.

Wave Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Fish Migratory fish

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from subsea cables on sensitive species.

Use of 3-phase cables instead of DC cables.

Reduce the level of EMF to surrounding water column and therefore any potential effects.

Potential commercial and technical feasibility issues some disagreement as to efficacy of this measure. Additionally, the cables used will largely depend upon the project requirements.

Tidal Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Fish Migratory fish

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from subsea cables on sensitive species.

Use of 3-phase cables instead of DC cables.

Reduce the level of EMF to surrounding water column and therefore any potential effects.

Potential commercial and technical feasibility issues some disagreement as to efficacy of this measure. Additionally, the cables used will largely depend upon the project requirements.

Wave Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Fish Elasmobranchs

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from subsea cables on sensitive species.

Use of 3-phase cables instead of DC cables.

Reduce the level of EMF to surrounding water column and therefore any potential effects.

Potential commercial and technical feasibility issues some disagreement as to efficacy of this measure.

Tidal Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Fish Elasmobranchs

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from subsea cables on sensitive species.

Use of 3-phase cables instead of DC cables.

Reduce the level of EMF to surrounding water column and therefore any potential effects.

Potential commercial and technical feasibility issues some disagreement as to efficacy of this measure.

Wave Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Fish Migratory fish

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from subsea cables on sensitive species.

Bundle cables together to reduce field vectors.

Reduce the level of EMF to surrounding water column and therefore any potential effects.

Could result in there being less redundancy in the system and potential commercial and technical feasibility issues.

Tidal Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Fish Migratory fish

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from subsea cables on sensitive species.

Bundle cables together to reduce field vectors.

Reduce the level of EMF to surrounding water column and therefore any potential effects.

Could result in there being less redundancy in the system and potential commercial and technical feasibility issues.

Wave Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Fish Elasmobranchs

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from subsea cables on sensitive species.

Bundle cables together to reduce field vectors.

Reduce the level of EMF to surrounding water column and therefore any potential effects.

Could result in there being less redundancy in the system and potential commercial and technical feasibility issues.

Tidal Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Fish Elasmobranchs

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from subsea cables on sensitive species.

Bundle cables together to reduce field vectors.

Reduce the level of EMF to surrounding water column and therefore any potential effects.

Could result in there being less redundancy in the system and potential commercial and technical feasibility issues.

Wave Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Fish Migratory fish

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from subsea cables on sensitive species.

Bury or HDD cables where possible and viable.

Reduces the level of EMF to surrounding water column and therefore any potential effects.

Reduces 'snagging risk' for vessels.

Potential for adverse impacts on surrounding benthic habitats and sensitive species, e.g. from smothering.

This measure forms part of normal project design.

Tidal Design feature Operation & Maintenance EMF and thermal pressure Fish Migratory fish

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from subsea cables on sensitive species.

Bury or HDD cables where possible and viable.

Reduces the level of EMF to surrounding water column and therefore any potential effects.

Reduces 'snagging risk' for vessels.

Potential for adverse impacts on surrounding benthic habitats and sensitive species, e.g. from smothering.

This measure forms part of normal project design.

Wave Design feature Installation EMF and thermal pressure Fish Migratory fish

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from subsea cables on sensitive species.

Micrositing to avoid sensitive habitats & minimise footprint.

This could reduce/remove effects on sensitive habitats and is a relatively low cost measure.

Tidal Design feature Installation EMF and thermal pressure Fish Migratory fish

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from subsea cables on sensitive species.

Micrositing to avoid sensitive habitats & minimise footprint.

This could reduce/remove effects on sensitive habitats and is a relatively low cost measure.

Wave Design feature Installation Loss of habitat Habitat Intertidal ecology

Loss of intertidal habitat from trenching for cable landfall.

Pre-construction cable route surveys to avoid sensitive habitats.

n/a

Tidal Design feature Installation Loss of habitat Habitat Intertidal ecology

Loss of intertidal habitat from trenching for cable landfall.

Pre-construction cable route surveys to avoid sensitive habitats.

n/a

Tidal Monitoring Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow Marine Mammals Marine Mammals

Modifications to prey distribution and abundance (to include for other receptors) resulting in changes to foraging behaviour.

Observational surveys (including remote sensing) of bird and marine mammals (prey availability linked to benthic community).

Would result in a reduction of scientific uncertainty around the interaction, however determining impacts against natural variability may be difficult and monitoring expensive.

Tidal Monitoring Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow Birds Diving birds

Modifications to tidal flows affect prey distribution and abundance resulting in changes to foraging behaviour.

Observational surveys (including remote sensing) of species (prey availability linked to benthic community).

Reduces scientific uncertainty.

Wave None identified Operation & Maintenance Barrier to movement Birds Birds

Potential barrier to movement due to the physical presence of devices and associated moorings / support structures, cables and electrical equipment.

None identified.

n/a

Tidal None identified Operation & Maintenance Barrier to movement Birds Birds

Potential barrier to movement due to the physical presence of devices and associated moorings / support structures, cables and electrical equipment.

None identified.

n/a

Wave None identified Operation & Maintenance Barrier to movement Fish Basking shark; Whale shark; Fish

Potential barrier to movement due to the physical presence of devices and associated moorings / support structures, cables and electrical equipment.

None identified.

n/a

Tidal None identified Operation & Maintenance Barrier to movement Fish Basking shark; Whale shark; Fish

Potential barrier to movement due to the physical presence of devices and associated moorings / support structures, cables and electrical equipment.

None identified.

n/a

Wave None identified Operation & Maintenance Barrier to movement Marine Mammals Seals; Cetaceans

Potential barrier to movement due to the physical presence of devices and associated moorings / support structures, cables and electrical equipment.

None identified.

n/a

Tidal None identified Operation & Maintenance Barrier to movement Marine Mammals Seals; Cetaceans

Potential barrier to movement due to the physical presence of devices and associated moorings / support structures, cables and electrical equipment.

None identified.

n/a

Wave None identified Operation & Maintenance Barrier to movement Marine Mammals All receptors

Potential barrier to movement due to the physical presence of devices and associated moorings / support structures, cables and electrical equipment.

None identified.

n/a

Tidal None identified Operation & Maintenance Barrier to movement Marine Mammals All receptors

Potential barrier to movement due to the physical presence of devices and associated moorings / support structures, cables and electrical equipment.

None identified.

n/a

Wave None identified Operation & Maintenance Barrier to movement Reptiles All receptors

Potential barrier to movement due to the physical presence of devices and associated moorings / support structures, cables and electrical equipment.

None identified.

n/a

Tidal None identified Operation & Maintenance Barrier to movement Reptiles All receptors

Potential barrier to movement due to the physical presence of devices and associated moorings / support structures, cables and electrical equipment.

None identified.

n/a

Wave None identified Operation & Maintenance Barrier to movement Habitat All receptors

Potential barrier to movement due to the physical presence of devices and associated moorings / support structures, cables and electrical equipment.

None identified.

n/a

Tidal None identified Operation & Maintenance Barrier to movement Habitat All receptors

Potential barrier to movement due to the physical presence of devices and associated moorings / support structures, cables and electrical equipment.

None identified.

n/a

Wave None identified Operation & Maintenance Displacement Fish Basking shark

Potential displacement of essential activities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings / support structures

None identified.

n/a

Tidal None identified Operation & Maintenance Displacement Fish Basking shark

Potential displacement of essential activities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings / support structures

None identified.

n/a

Wave None identified Operation & Maintenance Displacement Birds Seabirds

Potential displacement of essential activities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings / support structures.

None identified.

n/a

Tidal None identified Operation & Maintenance Displacement Birds Seabirds

Potential displacement of essential activities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings / support structures.

None identified.

n/a

Wave None identified Operation & Maintenance Displacement Marine Mammals Marine Mammals

Potential displacement of essential activities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings / support structures.

None identified.

n/a

Tidal None identified Operation & Maintenance Displacement Marine Mammals Marine Mammals

Potential displacement of essential activities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings / support structures.

None identified.

n/a

Wave Design feature Installation Contamination Benthic All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Physical Containment systems including bulk heads, closed circuit systems, pressure relief systems.

Reduces risk of contamination escaping from structure.

Wave Design feature Operation & Maintenance Contamination Benthic All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Physical Containment systems including bulk heads, closed circuit systems, pressure relief systems.

Reduces risk of contamination escaping from structure.

Wave Design feature Decommissioning Contamination Benthic All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Physical Containment systems including bulk heads, closed circuit systems, pressure relief systems.

Reduces risk of contamination escaping from structure.

Tidal Design feature Installation Contamination Benthic All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Physical Containment systems including bulk heads, closed circuit systems, pressure relief systems.

Reduces risk of contamination escaping from structure.

Tidal Design feature Operation & Maintenance Contamination Benthic All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Physical Containment systems including bulk heads, closed circuit systems, pressure relief systems.

Reduces risk of contamination escaping from structure.

Tidal Design feature Decommissioning Contamination Benthic All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Physical Containment systems including bulk heads, closed circuit systems, pressure relief systems.

Reduces risk of contamination escaping from structure.

Wave Mitigation Installation Contamination Benthic All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Material selection - lubricants, coolants, hydraulic fluids etc. selected with low ecotoxicity levels and biodegradable.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials which may have escaped structure. However, use of lower toxicity may compromise performance, or impact other technical issues (e.g. fluid changes).

Wave Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Contamination Benthic All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Material selection - lubricants, coolants, hydraulic fluids etc. selected with low ecotoxicity levels and biodegradable.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials which may have escaped structure. However, use of lower toxicity may compromise performance, or impact other technical issues (e.g. fluid changes).

Wave Mitigation Decommissioning Contamination Benthic All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Material selection - lubricants, coolants, hydraulic fluids etc. selected with low ecotoxicity levels and biodegradable.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials which may have escaped structure. However, use of lower toxicity may compromise performance, or impact other technical issues (e.g. fluid changes).

Tidal Mitigation Installation Contamination Benthic All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Material selection - lubricants, coolants, hydraulic fluids etc. selected with low ecotoxicity levels and biodegradable.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials which may have escaped structure. However, use of lower toxicity may compromise performance, or impact other technical issues (e.g. fluid changes).

Tidal Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Contamination Benthic All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Material selection - lubricants, coolants, hydraulic fluids etc. selected with low ecotoxicity levels and biodegradable.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials which may have escaped structure. However, use of lower toxicity may compromise performance, or impact other technical issues (e.g. fluid changes).

Tidal Mitigation Decommissioning Contamination Benthic All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Material selection - lubricants, coolants, hydraulic fluids etc. selected with low ecotoxicity levels and biodegradable.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials which may have escaped structure. However, use of lower toxicity may compromise performance, or impact other technical issues (e.g. fluid changes).

Wave Mitigation Installation Contamination Benthic All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Where rock placement is used, ensure clean rock is used.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials.

Wave Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Contamination Benthic All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Where rock placement is used, ensure clean rock is used.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials.

Wave Mitigation Decommissioning Contamination Benthic All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Where rock placement is used, ensure clean rock is used.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials.

Tidal Mitigation Installation Contamination Benthic All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Where rock placement is used, ensure clean rock is used.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials.

Tidal Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Contamination Benthic All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Where rock placement is used, ensure clean rock is used.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials.

Tidal Mitigation Decommissioning Contamination Benthic All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Where rock placement is used, ensure clean rock is used.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials.

Wave Compliance Installation Contamination Benthic All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organization (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Wave Compliance Operation & Maintenance Contamination Benthic All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organization (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Wave Compliance Decommissioning Contamination Benthic All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organization (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Tidal Compliance Installation Contamination Benthic All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organization (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Tidal Compliance Operation & Maintenance Contamination Benthic All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organization (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Tidal Compliance Decommissioning Contamination Benthic All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organization (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Wave Design feature Installation Contamination Birds All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Physical Containment systems including bulk heads, closed circuit systems, pressure relief systems.

Reduces risk of contamination escaping from structure.

Wave Design feature Operation & Maintenance Contamination Birds All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Physical Containment systems including bulk heads, closed circuit systems, pressure relief systems.

Reduces risk of contamination escaping from structure.

Wave Design feature Decommissioning Contamination Birds All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Physical Containment systems including bulk heads, closed circuit systems, pressure relief systems.

Reduces risk of contamination escaping from structure.

Tidal Design feature Installation Contamination Birds All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Physical Containment systems including bulk heads, closed circuit systems, pressure relief systems.

Reduces risk of contamination escaping from structure.

Tidal Design feature Operation & Maintenance Contamination Birds All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Physical Containment systems including bulk heads, closed circuit systems, pressure relief systems.

Reduces risk of contamination escaping from structure.

Tidal Design feature Decommissioning Contamination Birds All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Physical Containment systems including bulk heads, closed circuit systems, pressure relief systems.

Reduces risk of contamination escaping from structure.

Wave Mitigation Installation Contamination Birds All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Material selection - lubricants, coolants, hydraulic fluids etc. selected with low ecotoxicity levels and biodegradable.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials which may have escaped structure. However, use of lower toxicity may compromise performance, or impact other technical issues (e.g. fluid changes).

Wave Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Contamination Birds All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Material selection - lubricants, coolants, hydraulic fluids etc. selected with low ecotoxicity levels and biodegradable.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials which may have escaped structure. However, use of lower toxicity may compromise performance, or impact other technical issues (e.g. fluid changes).

Wave Mitigation Decommissioning Contamination Birds All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Material selection - lubricants, coolants, hydraulic fluids etc. selected with low ecotoxicity levels and biodegradable.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials which may have escaped structure. However, use of lower toxicity may compromise performance, or impact other technical issues (e.g. fluid changes).

Tidal Mitigation Installation Contamination Birds All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Material selection - lubricants, coolants, hydraulic fluids etc. selected with low ecotoxicity levels and biodegradable.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials which may have escaped structure. However, use of lower toxicity may compromise performance, or impact other technical issues (e.g. fluid changes).

Tidal Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Contamination Birds All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Material selection - lubricants, coolants, hydraulic fluids etc. selected with low ecotoxicity levels and biodegradable.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials which may have escaped structure. However, use of lower toxicity may compromise performance, or impact other technical issues (e.g. fluid changes).

Tidal Mitigation Decommissioning Contamination Birds All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Material selection - lubricants, coolants, hydraulic fluids etc. selected with low ecotoxicity levels and biodegradable.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials which may have escaped structure. However, use of lower toxicity may compromise performance, or impact other technical issues (e.g. fluid changes).

Wave Mitigation Installation Contamination Birds All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Where rock placement is used, ensure clean rock is used.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials.

Wave Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Contamination Birds All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Where rock placement is used, ensure clean rock is used.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials.

Wave Mitigation Decommissioning Contamination Birds All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Where rock placement is used, ensure clean rock is used.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials.

Tidal Mitigation Installation Contamination Birds All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Where rock placement is used, ensure clean rock is used.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials.

Tidal Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Contamination Birds All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Where rock placement is used, ensure clean rock is used.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials.

Tidal Mitigation Decommissioning Contamination Birds All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Where rock placement is used, ensure clean rock is used.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials.

Wave Mitigation Installation Contamination Birds All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Wave Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Contamination Birds All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Wave Mitigation Decommissioning Contamination Birds All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Tidal Mitigation Installation Contamination Birds All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Tidal Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Contamination Birds All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Tidal Mitigation Decommissioning Contamination Birds All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Wave Compliance Installation Contamination Birds All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Wave Compliance Operation & Maintenance Contamination Birds All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Wave Compliance Decommissioning Contamination Birds All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Tidal Compliance Installation Contamination Birds All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Tidal Compliance Operation & Maintenance Contamination Birds All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Tidal Compliance Decommissioning Contamination Birds All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Wave Design feature Installation Contamination Fish All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Physical Containment systems including bulk heads, closed circuit systems, pressure relief systems.

Reduces risk of contamination escaping from structure.

Wave Design feature Operation & Maintenance Contamination Fish All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Physical Containment systems including bulk heads, closed circuit systems, pressure relief systems.

Reduces risk of contamination escaping from structure.

Wave Design feature Decommissioning Contamination Fish All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Physical Containment systems including bulk heads, closed circuit systems, pressure relief systems.

Reduces risk of contamination escaping from structure.

Tidal Design feature Installation Contamination Fish All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Physical Containment systems including bulk heads, closed circuit systems, pressure relief systems.

Reduces risk of contamination escaping from structure.

Tidal Design feature Operation & Maintenance Contamination Fish All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Physical Containment systems including bulk heads, closed circuit systems, pressure relief systems.

Reduces risk of contamination escaping from structure.

Tidal Design feature Decommissioning Contamination Fish All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Physical Containment systems including bulk heads, closed circuit systems, pressure relief systems.

Reduces risk of contamination escaping from structure.

Wave Mitigation Installation Contamination Fish All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Material selection - lubricants, coolants, hydraulic fluids etc. selected with low ecotoxicity levels and biodegradable.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials which may have escaped structure. Alrhough, use of lower toxicity materials may compromise performance, or impact other technical issues (e.g. fluid changes).

Wave Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Contamination Fish All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Material selection - lubricants, coolants, hydraulic fluids etc. selected with low ecotoxicity levels and biodegradable.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials which may have escaped structure. Alrhough, use of lower toxicity materials may compromise performance, or impact other technical issues (e.g. fluid changes).

Wave Mitigation Decommissioning Contamination Fish All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Material selection - lubricants, coolants, hydraulic fluids etc. selected with low ecotoxicity levels and biodegradable.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials which may have escaped structure. Alrhough, use of lower toxicity materials may compromise performance, or impact other technical issues (e.g. fluid changes).

Tidal Mitigation Installation Contamination Fish All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Material selection - lubricants, coolants, hydraulic fluids etc. selected with low ecotoxicity levels and biodegradable.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials which may have escaped structure. Alrhough, use of lower toxicity materials may compromise performance, or impact other technical issues (e.g. fluid changes).

Tidal Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Contamination Fish All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Material selection - lubricants, coolants, hydraulic fluids etc. selected with low ecotoxicity levels and biodegradable.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials which may have escaped structure. Alrhough, use of lower toxicity materials may compromise performance, or impact other technical issues (e.g. fluid changes).

Tidal Mitigation Decommissioning Contamination Fish All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Material selection - lubricants, coolants, hydraulic fluids etc. selected with low ecotoxicity levels and biodegradable.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials which may have escaped structure. Alrhough, use of lower toxicity materials may compromise performance, or impact other technical issues (e.g. fluid changes).

Wave Mitigation Installation Contamination Fish All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Where rock placement is used, ensure clean rock is used.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials.

Wave Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Contamination Fish All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Where rock placement is used, ensure clean rock is used.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials.

Wave Mitigation Decommissioning Contamination Fish All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Where rock placement is used, ensure clean rock is used.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials.

Tidal Mitigation Installation Contamination Fish All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Where rock placement is used, ensure clean rock is used.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials.

Tidal Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Contamination Fish All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Where rock placement is used, ensure clean rock is used.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials.

Tidal Mitigation Decommissioning Contamination Fish All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Where rock placement is used, ensure clean rock is used.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials.

Wave Compliance Installation Contamination Fish All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Wave Compliance Operation & Maintenance Contamination Fish All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Wave Compliance Decommissioning Contamination Fish All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Tidal Compliance Installation Contamination Fish All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Tidal Compliance Operation & Maintenance Contamination Fish All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Tidal Compliance Decommissioning Contamination Fish All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Wave Design feature Installation Contamination Marine Mammals All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Physical Containment systems including bulk heads, closed circuit systems, pressure relief systems.

Reduces risk of contamination escaping from structure.

Wave Design feature Operation & Maintenance Contamination Marine Mammals All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Physical Containment systems including bulk heads, closed circuit systems, pressure relief systems.

Reduces risk of contamination escaping from structure.

Wave Design feature Decommissioning Contamination Marine Mammals All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Physical Containment systems including bulk heads, closed circuit systems, pressure relief systems.

Reduces risk of contamination escaping from structure.

Tidal Design feature Installation Contamination Marine Mammals All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Physical Containment systems including bulk heads, closed circuit systems, pressure relief systems.

Reduces risk of contamination escaping from structure.

Tidal Design feature Operation & Maintenance Contamination Marine Mammals All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Physical Containment systems including bulk heads, closed circuit systems, pressure relief systems.

Reduces risk of contamination escaping from structure.

Tidal Design feature Decommissioning Contamination Marine Mammals All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Physical Containment systems including bulk heads, closed circuit systems, pressure relief systems.

Reduces risk of contamination escaping from structure.

Wave Mitigation Installation Contamination Marine Mammals All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Material selection - lubricants, coolants, hydraulic fluids etc. selected with low ecotoxicity levels and biodegradable.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials which may have escaped structure. However, use of lower toxicity may compromise performance, or impact other technical issues (e.g. fluid changes).

Wave Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Contamination Marine Mammals All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Material selection - lubricants, coolants, hydraulic fluids etc. selected with low ecotoxicity levels and biodegradable.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials which may have escaped structure. However, use of lower toxicity may compromise performance, or impact other technical issues (e.g. fluid changes).

Wave Mitigation Decommissioning Contamination Marine Mammals All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Material selection - lubricants, coolants, hydraulic fluids etc. selected with low ecotoxicity levels and biodegradable.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials which may have escaped structure. However, use of lower toxicity may compromise performance, or impact other technical issues (e.g. fluid changes).

Tidal Mitigation Installation Contamination Marine Mammals All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Material selection - lubricants, coolants, hydraulic fluids etc. selected with low ecotoxicity levels and biodegradable.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials which may have escaped structure. However, use of lower toxicity may compromise performance, or impact other technical issues (e.g. fluid changes).

Tidal Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Contamination Marine Mammals All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Material selection - lubricants, coolants, hydraulic fluids etc. selected with low ecotoxicity levels and biodegradable.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials which may have escaped structure. However, use of lower toxicity may compromise performance, or impact other technical issues (e.g. fluid changes).

Tidal Mitigation Decommissioning Contamination Marine Mammals All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Material selection - lubricants, coolants, hydraulic fluids etc. selected with low ecotoxicity levels and biodegradable.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials which may have escaped structure. However, use of lower toxicity may compromise performance, or impact other technical issues (e.g. fluid changes).

Wave Mitigation Installation Contamination Marine Mammals All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Where rock placement is used, ensure clean rock is used.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials.

Wave Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Contamination Marine Mammals All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Where rock placement is used, ensure clean rock is used.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials.

Wave Mitigation Decommissioning Contamination Marine Mammals All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Where rock placement is used, ensure clean rock is used.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials.

Tidal Mitigation Installation Contamination Marine Mammals All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Where rock placement is used, ensure clean rock is used.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials.

Tidal Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Contamination Marine Mammals All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Where rock placement is used, ensure clean rock is used.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials.

Tidal Mitigation Decommissioning Contamination Marine Mammals All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Where rock placement is used, ensure clean rock is used.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials.

Wave Mitigation Installation Contamination Marine Mammals All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event, ensures that contingency plans are in place and demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Wave Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Contamination Marine Mammals All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event, ensures that contingency plans are in place and demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Wave Mitigation Decommissioning Contamination Marine Mammals All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event, ensures that contingency plans are in place and demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Tidal Mitigation Installation Contamination Marine Mammals All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event, ensures that contingency plans are in place and demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Tidal Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Contamination Marine Mammals All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event, ensures that contingency plans are in place and demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Tidal Mitigation Decommissioning Contamination Marine Mammals All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event, ensures that contingency plans are in place and demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Wave Compliance Installation Contamination Marine Mammals All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event, ensures that contingency plans are in place and demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Wave Compliance Operation & Maintenance Contamination Marine Mammals All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event, ensures that contingency plans are in place and demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Wave Compliance Decommissioning Contamination Marine Mammals All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event, ensures that contingency plans are in place and demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Tidal Compliance Installation Contamination Marine Mammals All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event, ensures that contingency plans are in place and demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Tidal Compliance Operation & Maintenance Contamination Marine Mammals All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event, ensures that contingency plans are in place and demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Tidal Compliance Decommissioning Contamination Marine Mammals All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event, ensures that contingency plans are in place and demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Wave Design feature Installation Contamination Reptiles All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Physical Containment systems including bulk heads, closed circuit systems, pressure relief systems.

Reduces risk of contamination escaping from structure.

Wave Design feature Operation & Maintenance Contamination Reptiles All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Physical Containment systems including bulk heads, closed circuit systems, pressure relief systems.

Reduces risk of contamination escaping from structure.

Wave Design feature Decommissioning Contamination Reptiles All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Physical Containment systems including bulk heads, closed circuit systems, pressure relief systems.

Reduces risk of contamination escaping from structure.

Tidal Design feature Installation Contamination Reptiles All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Physical Containment systems including bulk heads, closed circuit systems, pressure relief systems.

Reduces risk of contamination escaping from structure.

Tidal Design feature Operation & Maintenance Contamination Reptiles All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Physical Containment systems including bulk heads, closed circuit systems, pressure relief systems.

Reduces risk of contamination escaping from structure.

Tidal Design feature Decommissioning Contamination Reptiles All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Physical Containment systems including bulk heads, closed circuit systems, pressure relief systems.

Reduces risk of contamination escaping from structure.

Wave Mitigation Installation Contamination Reptiles All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Material selection - lubricants, coolants, hydraulic fluids etc. selected with low ecotoxicity levels and biodegradable.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials which may have escaped structure. Although, use of lower toxicity materials may compromise performance, or impact other technical issues (e.g. fluid changes).

Wave Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Contamination Reptiles All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Material selection - lubricants, coolants, hydraulic fluids etc. selected with low ecotoxicity levels and biodegradable.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials which may have escaped structure. Although, use of lower toxicity materials may compromise performance, or impact other technical issues (e.g. fluid changes).

Wave Mitigation Decommissioning Contamination Reptiles All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Material selection - lubricants, coolants, hydraulic fluids etc. selected with low ecotoxicity levels and biodegradable.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials which may have escaped structure. Although, use of lower toxicity materials may compromise performance, or impact other technical issues (e.g. fluid changes).

Tidal Mitigation Installation Contamination Reptiles All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Material selection - lubricants, coolants, hydraulic fluids etc. selected with low ecotoxicity levels and biodegradable.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials which may have escaped structure. Although, use of lower toxicity materials may compromise performance, or impact other technical issues (e.g. fluid changes).

Tidal Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Contamination Reptiles All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Material selection - lubricants, coolants, hydraulic fluids etc. selected with low ecotoxicity levels and biodegradable.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials which may have escaped structure. Although, use of lower toxicity materials may compromise performance, or impact other technical issues (e.g. fluid changes).

Tidal Mitigation Decommissioning Contamination Reptiles All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Material selection - lubricants, coolants, hydraulic fluids etc. selected with low ecotoxicity levels and biodegradable.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials which may have escaped structure. Although, use of lower toxicity materials may compromise performance, or impact other technical issues (e.g. fluid changes).

Wave Mitigation Installation Contamination Reptiles All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Where rock placement is used, ensure clean rock is used.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials.

Wave Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Contamination Reptiles All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Where rock placement is used, ensure clean rock is used.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials.

Wave Mitigation Decommissioning Contamination Reptiles All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Where rock placement is used, ensure clean rock is used.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials.

Tidal Mitigation Installation Contamination Reptiles All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Where rock placement is used, ensure clean rock is used.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials.

Tidal Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Contamination Reptiles All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Where rock placement is used, ensure clean rock is used.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials.

Tidal Mitigation Decommissioning Contamination Reptiles All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Where rock placement is used, ensure clean rock is used.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials.

Wave Mitigation Installation Contamination Reptiles All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Wave Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Contamination Reptiles All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Wave Mitigation Decommissioning Contamination Reptiles All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Tidal Mitigation Installation Contamination Reptiles All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Tidal Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Contamination Reptiles All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Tidal Mitigation Decommissioning Contamination Reptiles All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Wave Compliance Installation Contamination Reptiles All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Wave Compliance Operation & Maintenance Contamination Reptiles All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Wave Compliance Decommissioning Contamination Reptiles All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Tidal Compliance Installation Contamination Reptiles All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Tidal Compliance Operation & Maintenance Contamination Reptiles All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Tidal Compliance Decommissioning Contamination Reptiles All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Wave Design feature Installation Contamination Habitat All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Physical Containment systems including bulk heads, closed circuit systems, pressure relief systems.

Reduces risk of contamination escaping from structure.

Wave Design feature Operation & Maintenance Contamination Habitat All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Physical Containment systems including bulk heads, closed circuit systems, pressure relief systems.

Reduces risk of contamination escaping from structure.

Wave Design feature Decommissioning Contamination Habitat All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Physical Containment systems including bulk heads, closed circuit systems, pressure relief systems.

Reduces risk of contamination escaping from structure.

Tidal Design feature Installation Contamination Habitat All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Physical Containment systems including bulk heads, closed circuit systems, pressure relief systems.

Reduces risk of contamination escaping from structure.

Tidal Design feature Operation & Maintenance Contamination Habitat All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Physical Containment systems including bulk heads, closed circuit systems, pressure relief systems.

Reduces risk of contamination escaping from structure.

Tidal Design feature Decommissioning Contamination Habitat All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Physical Containment systems including bulk heads, closed circuit systems, pressure relief systems.

Reduces risk of contamination escaping from structure.

Wave Mitigation Installation Contamination Habitat All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Material selection - lubricants, coolants, hydraulic fluids etc. selected with low ecotoxicity levels and biodegradable.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials which may have escaped structure. However, the use of lower toxicity materials may compromise performance, or impact other technical issue (e.g. fluuid changes).

Wave Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Contamination Habitat All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Material selection - lubricants, coolants, hydraulic fluids etc. selected with low ecotoxicity levels and biodegradable.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials which may have escaped structure. However, the use of lower toxicity materials may compromise performance, or impact other technical issue (e.g. fluuid changes).

Wave Mitigation Decommissioning Contamination Habitat All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Material selection - lubricants, coolants, hydraulic fluids etc. selected with low ecotoxicity levels and biodegradable.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials which may have escaped structure. However, the use of lower toxicity materials may compromise performance, or impact other technical issue (e.g. fluuid changes).

Tidal Mitigation Installation Contamination Habitat All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Material selection - lubricants, coolants, hydraulic fluids etc. selected with low ecotoxicity levels and biodegradable.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials which may have escaped structure. However, the use of lower toxicity materials may compromise performance, or impact other technical issue (e.g. fluuid changes).

Tidal Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Contamination Habitat All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Material selection - lubricants, coolants, hydraulic fluids etc. selected with low ecotoxicity levels and biodegradable.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials which may have escaped structure. However, the use of lower toxicity materials may compromise performance, or impact other technical issue (e.g. fluuid changes).

Tidal Mitigation Decommissioning Contamination Habitat All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Material selection - lubricants, coolants, hydraulic fluids etc. selected with low ecotoxicity levels and biodegradable.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials which may have escaped structure. However, the use of lower toxicity materials may compromise performance, or impact other technical issue (e.g. fluuid changes).

Wave Mitigation Installation Contamination Habitat All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Where rock placement is used, ensure clean rock is used.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials.

Wave Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Contamination Habitat All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Where rock placement is used, ensure clean rock is used.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials.

Wave Mitigation Decommissioning Contamination Habitat All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Where rock placement is used, ensure clean rock is used.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials.

Tidal Mitigation Installation Contamination Habitat All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Where rock placement is used, ensure clean rock is used.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials.

Tidal Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Contamination Habitat All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Where rock placement is used, ensure clean rock is used.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials.

Tidal Mitigation Decommissioning Contamination Habitat All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Where rock placement is used, ensure clean rock is used.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination from materials.

Wave Mitigation Installation Contamination Habitat All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Wave Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Contamination Habitat All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Wave Mitigation Decommissioning Contamination Habitat All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Tidal Mitigation Installation Contamination Habitat All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Tidal Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Contamination Habitat All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Tidal Mitigation Decommissioning Contamination Habitat All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Wave Compliance Installation Contamination Habitat All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Wave Compliance Operation & Maintenance Contamination Habitat All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Wave Compliance Decommissioning Contamination Habitat All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Tidal Compliance Installation Contamination Habitat All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Tidal Compliance Operation & Maintenance Contamination Habitat All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Tidal Compliance Decommissioning Contamination Habitat All receptors

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination event and ensures that contingency plans are in place. Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Wave Mitigation Installation Vessel collision Marine Mammals Cetaceans

Potential for collision with project vessels.

Adhere to minimum approach distances for vessels on approach.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Wave Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Vessel collision Marine Mammals Cetaceans

Potential for collision with project vessels.

Adhere to minimum approach distances for vessels on approach.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Wave Mitigation Decommissioning Vessel collision Marine Mammals Cetaceans

Potential for collision with project vessels.

Adhere to minimum approach distances for vessels on approach.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Tidal Mitigation Installation Vessel collision Marine Mammals Cetaceans

Potential for collision with project vessels.

Adhere to minimum approach distances for vessels on approach.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Tidal Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Vessel collision Marine Mammals Cetaceans

Potential for collision with project vessels.

Adhere to minimum approach distances for vessels on approach.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Tidal Mitigation Decommissioning Vessel collision Marine Mammals Cetaceans

Potential for collision with project vessels.

Adhere to minimum approach distances for vessels on approach.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Tidal Monitoring Operation & Maintenance Collision risk Birds Diving birds

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Environmental monitoring to detect collision events.

Helps to develop an understanding of avoidance behaviour, nature of interactions and outcome of collision events. However, there are cost implications assocaited with this level of monitoring.

Tidal Monitoring Operation & Maintenance Collision risk Birds Diving birds

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Environmental monitoring to better understand near-field behaviour and avoidance.

Would reduce scientific uncertainty around the issue, however can be costly to implement.

Tidal Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Collision risk Birds Diving birds

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Selective structural and blade coatings i.e. colours to aide detection.

Unknown - it is possible that this will aid detection of subsea structures and help reduce risk at a low cost. Lack of understanding and further research needed, it may be that certain colours could result in attraction resulting in an increase in collision risk.

Tidal Monitoring Operation & Maintenance Collision risk Fish Fish

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Environmental monitoring to detect collision events.

Helps to develop an understanding of avoidance behaviour, nature of interactions and outcome of collision events. However, there are cost implications assocaited with this level of monitoring.

Tidal Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Collision risk Fish Fish

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Implement a 'soft start'/cut in speed management approach at sensitive sites, i.e. those where the potential for collisions is high.

Soft start - this could reduce risk by allowing marine mammals time to move away from the turbine and could be done at a relatively low cost.

Cut in speed management - this could be used to reduce risk during periods of known higher activity in sensitive sites.

It is still unclear whether these offer additional mitigation and to an extent a soft start happens naturally. Implementation of this measure could result in a loss of revenue for the developer.

Tidal Monitoring Operation & Maintenance Collision risk Fish Fish

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Environmental monitoring to better understand near-field behaviour and avoidance.

This will help reduce scientific uncertainty, however this type of monitoring can be expensive and there are difficulties associated with storing and analysing the data produced.

Tidal Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Collision risk Fish Fish

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Selective structural and blade coatings i.e. colours to aide detection.

Unknown - it is possible that this will aid detection of subsea structures and help reduce risk although further research is needed - certain colours may serve to attract fish and lead to an increase in collision risk.

A small one off cost that can be easily planned for at the design stage.

Tidal Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Collision risk Marine Mammals Marine Mammals

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Install a 'detect and shut-down' system using active sonar and other appropriate monitoring equipment.

This could reduce/remove risk of collision with moving blades and enable a route through the consenting process, particulalrly at high sensitivity locations. However, this could affect power production, is expensive to implement and does not help to reduce scientific uncertainty regarding the risk. The reductions in power production, although small, would bring about uncertainty in the investment process and there are questions around impacts of sonar on sensitive species.

Tidal Monitoring Operation & Maintenance Collision risk Marine Mammals Marine Mammals

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Install a 'detect and shut-down' system using active sonar and other appropriate monitoring equipment.

This could reduce/remove risk of collision with moving blades and enable a route through the consenting process, particulalrly at high sensitivity locations. However, this could affect power production, is expensive to implement and does not help to reduce scientific uncertainty regarding the risk. The reductions in power production, although small, would bring about uncertainty in the investment process and there are questions around impacts of sonar on sensitive species.

Tidal Design feature Operation & Maintenance Collision risk Marine Mammals Marine Mammals

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Install a 'detect and shut-down' system using active sonar and other appropriate monitoring equipment.

This could reduce/remove risk of collision with moving blades and enable a route through the consenting process, particulalrly at high sensitivity locations. However, this could affect power production, is expensive to implement and does not help to reduce scientific uncertainty regarding the risk. The reductions in power production, although small, would bring about uncertainty in the investment process and there are questions around impacts of sonar on sensitive species.

Tidal Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Collision risk Marine Mammals Marine Mammals

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Install a 'detect and deter' system using a combination of active sonar and acoustic deterrent device (ADD).

This could reduce likelihood of collision with moving blades although the efficacy of ADDs in these environments is unknown and habituation to ADDs is known to occur in other industries. Could enable a route through the consenting process.

This measure is expensive to implement and it is still unknown if deterrent systems will help reduce risk. There are also questions around the effects of ADDs on sensitive species. Their addition adds another noise impact which must also be considered in any project assessments. Would rely on well proven and reliable 'detect and deter' systems. Also, mitigation against collision may prevent discovering whether or not it is a real issue.

Further research around ADDs which deter specific groups or species, is underway. This could be useful in deterring specific sensitive species or species groups, at a particular site. For example, University of St Andrews is seveloping an ADD which deter seals, but which don't effect cetaceans.

Tidal Design feature Operation & Maintenance Collision risk Marine Mammals Marine Mammals

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Install a 'detect and deter' system using a combination of active sonar and acoustic deterrent device (ADD).

This could reduce likelihood of collision with moving blades although the efficacy of ADDs in these environments is unknown and habituation to ADDs is known to occur in other industries. Could enable a route through the consenting process.

This measure is expensive to implement and it is still unknown if deterrent systems will help reduce risk. There are also questions around the effects of ADDs on sensitive species. Their addition adds another noise impact which must also be considered in any project assessments. Would rely on well proven and reliable 'detect and deter' systems. Also, mitigation against collision may prevent discovering whether or not it is a real issue.

Further research around ADDs which deter specific groups or species, is underway. This could be useful in deterring specific sensitive species or species groups, at a particular site. For example, University of St Andrews is seveloping an ADD which deter seals, but which don't effect cetaceans.

Tidal Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Collision risk Marine Mammals Marine Mammals

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Install acoustic deterrent devices (ADDs).

This could potentially reduce likelihood of collision with moving blades although the efficacy of ADDs in these environments is unknown. Constant deterring means habituation is likely. This is a simpler system than detect (efficiently) and deter, however would still be expensive to implement. It would also come with an additional noise impact which must also be considered in project assessments.

Tidal Design feature Operation & Maintenance Collision risk Marine Mammals Marine Mammals

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Install acoustic deterrent devices (ADDs).

This could potentially reduce likelihood of collision with moving blades although the efficacy of ADDs in these environments is unknown. Constant deterring means habituation is likely. This is a simpler system than detect (efficiently) and deter, however would still be expensive to implement. It would also come with an additional noise impact which must also be considered in project assessments.

Tidal Monitoring Operation & Maintenance Collision risk Marine Mammals Marine Mammals

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Environmental monitoring to detect collision events.

Understand avoidance behaviour, nature of interactions and outcome of collision events, however effective monitoring is expensive and requires a lot of data analysis.

Tidal Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Collision risk Marine Mammals Marine Mammals

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Implement a 'soft start'/cut in speed management approach during cut-in at sensitive sites, i.e. those where the potential for collisions is high.

Soft start - this could reduce risk by allowing marine mammals time to move away from the turbine and could be done at a relatively low cost.

Cut in speed management - this could be used to reduce risk during periods of known higher activity in sensitive sites.

It is still unclear whether these offer additional mitigation and to an extent a soft start happens naturally. Implementation of this measure could result in a loss of revenue for the developer.

Tidal Monitoring Operation & Maintenance Collision risk Marine Mammals Marine Mammals

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Environmental monitoring to better understand near-field behaviour and avoidance.

This will help reduce scientific uncertainty, however monitoring can be costly.

Tidal Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Collision risk Marine Mammals Marine Mammals

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Selective structural and blade coatings i.e. colours to aide detection.

Unknown - it is possible that this will aid detection of subsea structures and help reduce risk. It can be captured in early project design for a small one-off cost, however further research is needed as there is potential for an increased collision risk through 'attraction'.

Wave Mitigation Installation Vessel disturbance Birds Birds on water

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Do not break up or 'flush' rafts of birds.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure, however effectiveness of mitigation is unclear.

Also pertinent to note that the measure is selectively applied to project vessels in context of other vessel operations.

Wave Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Vessel disturbance Birds Birds on water

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Do not break up or 'flush' rafts of birds.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure, however effectiveness of mitigation is unclear.

Also pertinent to note that the measure is selectively applied to project vessels in context of other vessel operations.

Wave Mitigation Decommissioning Vessel disturbance Birds Birds on water

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Do not break up or 'flush' rafts of birds.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure, however effectiveness of mitigation is unclear.

Also pertinent to note that the measure is selectively applied to project vessels in context of other vessel operations.

Tidal Mitigation Installation Vessel disturbance Birds Birds on water

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Do not break up or 'flush' rafts of birds.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure, however effectiveness of mitigation is unclear.

Also pertinent to note that the measure is selectively applied to project vessels in context of other vessel operations.

Tidal Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Vessel disturbance Birds Birds on water

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Do not break up or 'flush' rafts of birds.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure, however effectiveness of mitigation is unclear.

Also pertinent to note that the measure is selectively applied to project vessels in context of other vessel operations.

Tidal Mitigation Decommissioning Vessel disturbance Birds Birds on water

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Do not break up or 'flush' rafts of birds.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure, however effectiveness of mitigation is unclear.

Also pertinent to note that the measure is selectively applied to project vessels in context of other vessel operations.

Wave Mitigation Installation Vessel disturbance Birds Birds on water

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Adhere to minimum approach distances for vessels on approach to marine mammals and birds.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure, however effectiveness of mitigation is unclear. Can increase the time of operational procedures and thus increase cost.

Further monitoring, e.g. defining of approach distances and then comparing these to see which are most effective would validate the efficacy of the measure.

Wave Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Vessel disturbance Birds Birds on water

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Adhere to minimum approach distances for vessels on approach to marine mammals and birds.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure, however effectiveness of mitigation is unclear. Can increase the time of operational procedures and thus increase cost.

Further monitoring, e.g. defining of approach distances and then comparing these to see which are most effective would validate the efficacy of the measure.

Wave Mitigation Decommissioning Vessel disturbance Birds Birds on water

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Adhere to minimum approach distances for vessels on approach to marine mammals and birds.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure, however effectiveness of mitigation is unclear. Can increase the time of operational procedures and thus increase cost.

Further monitoring, e.g. defining of approach distances and then comparing these to see which are most effective would validate the efficacy of the measure.

Tidal Mitigation Installation Vessel disturbance Birds Birds on water

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Adhere to minimum approach distances for vessels on approach to marine mammals and birds.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure, however effectiveness of mitigation is unclear. Can increase the time of operational procedures and thus increase cost.

Further monitoring, e.g. defining of approach distances and then comparing these to see which are most effective would validate the efficacy of the measure.

Tidal Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Vessel disturbance Birds Birds on water

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Adhere to minimum approach distances for vessels on approach to marine mammals and birds.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure, however effectiveness of mitigation is unclear. Can increase the time of operational procedures and thus increase cost.

Further monitoring, e.g. defining of approach distances and then comparing these to see which are most effective would validate the efficacy of the measure.

Tidal Mitigation Decommissioning Vessel disturbance Birds Birds on water

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Adhere to minimum approach distances for vessels on approach to marine mammals and birds.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure, however effectiveness of mitigation is unclear. Can increase the time of operational procedures and thus increase cost.

Further monitoring, e.g. defining of approach distances and then comparing these to see which are most effective would validate the efficacy of the measure.

Wave Mitigation Installation Vessel disturbance Birds Shore-nesting birds

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Avoidance of sensitive shore nesting areas during sensitive periods with appropriate clearance distance.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Wave Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Vessel disturbance Birds Shore-nesting birds

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Avoidance of sensitive shore nesting areas during sensitive periods with appropriate clearance distance.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Wave Mitigation Decommissioning Vessel disturbance Birds Shore-nesting birds

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Avoidance of sensitive shore nesting areas during sensitive periods with appropriate clearance distance.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Tidal Mitigation Installation Vessel disturbance Birds Shore-nesting birds

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Avoidance of sensitive shore nesting areas during sensitive periods with appropriate clearance distance.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Tidal Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Vessel disturbance Birds Shore-nesting birds

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Avoidance of sensitive shore nesting areas during sensitive periods with appropriate clearance distance.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Tidal Mitigation Decommissioning Vessel disturbance Birds Shore-nesting birds

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Avoidance of sensitive shore nesting areas during sensitive periods with appropriate clearance distance.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Wave Mitigation Installation Vessel disturbance Birds Birds on water

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Vessel transit route: defining routes to avoid sensitive sites and to only disturb one route.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Wave Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Vessel disturbance Birds Birds on water

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Vessel transit route: defining routes to avoid sensitive sites and to only disturb one route.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Wave Mitigation Decommissioning Vessel disturbance Birds Birds on water

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Vessel transit route: defining routes to avoid sensitive sites and to only disturb one route.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Tidal Mitigation Installation Vessel disturbance Birds Birds on water

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Vessel transit route: defining routes to avoid sensitive sites and to only disturb one route.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Tidal Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Vessel disturbance Birds Birds on water

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Vessel transit route: defining routes to avoid sensitive sites and to only disturb one route.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Tidal Mitigation Decommissioning Vessel disturbance Birds Birds on water

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Vessel transit route: defining routes to avoid sensitive sites and to only disturb one route.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Wave Mitigation Installation Vessel disturbance Fish Large fish

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Reduce speed and maintain steady course when animal is sighted.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Wave Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Vessel disturbance Fish Large fish

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Reduce speed and maintain steady course when animal is sighted.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Wave Mitigation Decommissioning Vessel disturbance Fish Large fish

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Reduce speed and maintain steady course when animal is sighted.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Tidal Mitigation Installation Vessel disturbance Fish Large fish

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Reduce speed and maintain steady course when animal is sighted.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Tidal Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Vessel disturbance Fish Large fish

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Reduce speed and maintain steady course when animal is sighted.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Tidal Mitigation Decommissioning Vessel disturbance Fish Large fish

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Reduce speed and maintain steady course when animal is sighted.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Wave Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Vessel disturbance Fish Large fish

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Use smaller vessels for maintenance purposes.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Tidal Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Vessel disturbance Fish Large fish

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Use smaller vessels for maintenance purposes.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Wave Mitigation Installation Vessel disturbance Marine Mammals Marine Mammals

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Reduce speed and maintain steady course when animal is sighted.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Wave Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Vessel disturbance Marine Mammals Marine Mammals

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Reduce speed and maintain steady course when animal is sighted.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Wave Mitigation Decommissioning Vessel disturbance Marine Mammals Marine Mammals

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Reduce speed and maintain steady course when animal is sighted.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Tidal Mitigation Installation Vessel disturbance Marine Mammals Marine Mammals

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Reduce speed and maintain steady course when animal is sighted.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Tidal Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Vessel disturbance Marine Mammals Marine Mammals

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Reduce speed and maintain steady course when animal is sighted.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Tidal Mitigation Decommissioning Vessel disturbance Marine Mammals Marine Mammals

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Reduce speed and maintain steady course when animal is sighted.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Wave Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Vessel disturbance Marine Mammals Marine Mammals

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Use smaller vessels for maintenance purposes.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Tidal Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Vessel disturbance Marine Mammals Marine Mammals

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Use smaller vessels for maintenance purposes.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Wave Mitigation Installation Vessel disturbance Marine Mammals Marine Mammals

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Care will be taken to avoid splitting up groups and mothers and young.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Wave Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Vessel disturbance Marine Mammals Marine Mammals

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Care will be taken to avoid splitting up groups and mothers and young.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Wave Mitigation Decommissioning Vessel disturbance Marine Mammals Marine Mammals

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Care will be taken to avoid splitting up groups and mothers and young.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Tidal Mitigation Installation Vessel disturbance Marine Mammals Marine Mammals

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Care will be taken to avoid splitting up groups and mothers and young.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Tidal Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Vessel disturbance Marine Mammals Marine Mammals

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Care will be taken to avoid splitting up groups and mothers and young.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Tidal Mitigation Decommissioning Vessel disturbance Marine Mammals Marine Mammals

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Care will be taken to avoid splitting up groups and mothers and young.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Wave Mitigation Installation Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Benthic All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Establish and implement a Biofouling Management Plan.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Benthic All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Establish and implement a Biofouling Management Plan.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Mitigation Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Benthic All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Establish and implement a Biofouling Management Plan.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Mitigation Installation Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Benthic All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Establish and implement a Biofouling Management Plan.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Benthic All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Establish and implement a Biofouling Management Plan.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Mitigation Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Benthic All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Establish and implement a Biofouling Management Plan.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Compliance Installation Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Benthic All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Adhere to appropriate measures when jettisoning ballast water.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Compliance Operation & Maintenance Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Benthic All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Adhere to appropriate measures when jettisoning ballast water.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Compliance Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Benthic All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Adhere to appropriate measures when jettisoning ballast water.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Compliance Installation Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Benthic All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Adhere to appropriate measures when jettisoning ballast water.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Compliance Operation & Maintenance Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Benthic All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Adhere to appropriate measures when jettisoning ballast water.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Compliance Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Benthic All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Adhere to appropriate measures when jettisoning ballast water.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Mitigation Installation Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Benthic All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Source vessels locally.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Benthic All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Source vessels locally.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Mitigation Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Benthic All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Source vessels locally.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Mitigation Installation Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Benthic All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Source vessels locally.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Benthic All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Source vessels locally.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Mitigation Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Benthic All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Source vessels locally.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Compliance Installation Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Benthic All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Compliance with all relevant guidance (including IMO guidelines) regarding ballast water management and transfer of non-native species.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer and settlement of non-native species.

Wave Compliance Operation & Maintenance Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Benthic All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Compliance with all relevant guidance (including IMO guidelines) regarding ballast water management and transfer of non-native species.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer and settlement of non-native species.

Wave Compliance Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Benthic All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Compliance with all relevant guidance (including IMO guidelines) regarding ballast water management and transfer of non-native species.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer and settlement of non-native species.

Tidal Compliance Installation Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Benthic All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Compliance with all relevant guidance (including IMO guidelines) regarding ballast water management and transfer of non-native species.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer and settlement of non-native species.

Tidal Compliance Operation & Maintenance Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Benthic All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Compliance with all relevant guidance (including IMO guidelines) regarding ballast water management and transfer of non-native species.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer and settlement of non-native species.

Tidal Compliance Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Benthic All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Compliance with all relevant guidance (including IMO guidelines) regarding ballast water management and transfer of non-native species.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer and settlement of non-native species.

Wave Design feature Installation Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Benthic All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Avoid the introduction of hard bottom substrate into a soft bottom habitat.

Ensures the efficient recovery of species native to the surrounding habitat.

May have technical implications.

Tidal Design feature Installation Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Benthic All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Avoid the introduction of hard bottom substrate into a soft bottom habitat.

Ensures the efficient recovery of species native to the surrounding habitat.

May have technical implications.

Wave Monitoring Installation Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Benthic All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Monitoring and reporting of MNNS.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Monitoring Operation & Maintenance Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Benthic All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Monitoring and reporting of MNNS.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Monitoring Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Benthic All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Monitoring and reporting of MNNS.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Monitoring Installation Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Benthic All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Monitoring and reporting of MNNS.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Monitoring Operation & Maintenance Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Benthic All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Monitoring and reporting of MNNS.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Monitoring Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Benthic All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Monitoring and reporting of MNNS.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Compliance Installation Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Benthic All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Monitoring and reporting of MNNS.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Compliance Operation & Maintenance Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Benthic All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Monitoring and reporting of MNNS.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Compliance Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Benthic All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Monitoring and reporting of MNNS.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Compliance Installation Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Benthic All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Monitoring and reporting of MNNS.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Compliance Operation & Maintenance Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Benthic All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Monitoring and reporting of MNNS.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Compliance Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Benthic All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Monitoring and reporting of MNNS.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Compliance Installation Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Birds All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Compliance with all relevant guidance (including IMO guidelines) regarding ballast water management and transfer of non-native species.

Would remove/reduce risk of transfer and settlement of non-native species.

Wave Compliance Operation & Maintenance Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Birds All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Compliance with all relevant guidance (including IMO guidelines) regarding ballast water management and transfer of non-native species.

Would remove/reduce risk of transfer and settlement of non-native species.

Wave Compliance Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Birds All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Compliance with all relevant guidance (including IMO guidelines) regarding ballast water management and transfer of non-native species.

Would remove/reduce risk of transfer and settlement of non-native species.

Tidal Compliance Installation Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Birds All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Compliance with all relevant guidance (including IMO guidelines) regarding ballast water management and transfer of non-native species.

Would remove/reduce risk of transfer and settlement of non-native species.

Tidal Compliance Operation & Maintenance Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Birds All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Compliance with all relevant guidance (including IMO guidelines) regarding ballast water management and transfer of non-native species.

Would remove/reduce risk of transfer and settlement of non-native species.

Tidal Compliance Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Birds All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Compliance with all relevant guidance (including IMO guidelines) regarding ballast water management and transfer of non-native species.

Would remove/reduce risk of transfer and settlement of non-native species.

Wave Mitigation Installation Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Birds All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Establish and implement a Biofouling Management Plan.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Birds All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Establish and implement a Biofouling Management Plan.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Mitigation Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Birds All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Establish and implement a Biofouling Management Plan.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Mitigation Installation Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Birds All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Establish and implement a Biofouling Management Plan.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Birds All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Establish and implement a Biofouling Management Plan.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Mitigation Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Birds All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Establish and implement a Biofouling Management Plan.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Mitigation Installation Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Birds All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Adhere to appropriate measures when jettisoning ballast water.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Birds All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Adhere to appropriate measures when jettisoning ballast water.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Mitigation Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Birds All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Adhere to appropriate measures when jettisoning ballast water.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Mitigation Installation Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Birds All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Adhere to appropriate measures when jettisoning ballast water.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Birds All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Adhere to appropriate measures when jettisoning ballast water.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Mitigation Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Birds All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Adhere to appropriate measures when jettisoning ballast water.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Compliance Installation Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Birds All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Adhere to appropriate measures when jettisoning ballast water.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Compliance Operation & Maintenance Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Birds All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Adhere to appropriate measures when jettisoning ballast water.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Compliance Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Birds All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Adhere to appropriate measures when jettisoning ballast water.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Compliance Installation Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Birds All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Adhere to appropriate measures when jettisoning ballast water.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Compliance Operation & Maintenance Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Birds All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Adhere to appropriate measures when jettisoning ballast water.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Compliance Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Birds All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Adhere to appropriate measures when jettisoning ballast water.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Mitigation Installation Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Birds All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Source vessels locally.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Birds All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Source vessels locally.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Mitigation Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Birds All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Source vessels locally.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Mitigation Installation Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Birds All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Source vessels locally.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Birds All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Source vessels locally.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Mitigation Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Birds All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Source vessels locally.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Design feature Installation Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Birds All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Avoid the introduction of hard bottom substrate into a soft bottom habitat.

Ensures the efficient recovery of species native to the surrounding habitat.

May have technical implications.

Tidal Design feature Installation Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Birds All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Avoid the introduction of hard bottom substrate into a soft bottom habitat.

Ensures the efficient recovery of species native to the surrounding habitat.

May have technical implications.

Wave Monitoring Installation Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Birds All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Monitoring and reporting of MNNS.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Monitoring Operation & Maintenance Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Birds All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Monitoring and reporting of MNNS.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Monitoring Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Birds All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Monitoring and reporting of MNNS.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Monitoring Installation Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Birds All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Monitoring and reporting of MNNS.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Monitoring Operation & Maintenance Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Birds All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Monitoring and reporting of MNNS.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Monitoring Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Birds All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Monitoring and reporting of MNNS.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Compliance Installation Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Fish All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Compliance with all relevant guidance (including IMO guidelines) regarding ballast water management and transfer of non-native species.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer and settlement of non-native species.

Wave Compliance Operation & Maintenance Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Fish All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Compliance with all relevant guidance (including IMO guidelines) regarding ballast water management and transfer of non-native species.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer and settlement of non-native species.

Wave Compliance Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Fish All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Compliance with all relevant guidance (including IMO guidelines) regarding ballast water management and transfer of non-native species.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer and settlement of non-native species.

Tidal Compliance Installation Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Fish All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Compliance with all relevant guidance (including IMO guidelines) regarding ballast water management and transfer of non-native species.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer and settlement of non-native species.

Tidal Compliance Operation & Maintenance Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Fish All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Compliance with all relevant guidance (including IMO guidelines) regarding ballast water management and transfer of non-native species.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer and settlement of non-native species.

Tidal Compliance Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Fish All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Compliance with all relevant guidance (including IMO guidelines) regarding ballast water management and transfer of non-native species.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer and settlement of non-native species.

Wave Mitigation Installation Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Fish All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Establish and implement a Biofouling Management Plan.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Fish All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Establish and implement a Biofouling Management Plan.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Mitigation Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Fish All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Establish and implement a Biofouling Management Plan.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Mitigation Installation Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Fish All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Establish and implement a Biofouling Management Plan.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Fish All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Establish and implement a Biofouling Management Plan.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Mitigation Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Fish All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Establish and implement a Biofouling Management Plan.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Mitigation Installation Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Fish All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Adhere to appropriate measures when jettisoning ballast water.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Fish All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Adhere to appropriate measures when jettisoning ballast water.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Mitigation Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Fish All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Adhere to appropriate measures when jettisoning ballast water.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Mitigation Installation Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Fish All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Adhere to appropriate measures when jettisoning ballast water.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Fish All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Adhere to appropriate measures when jettisoning ballast water.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Mitigation Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Fish All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Adhere to appropriate measures when jettisoning ballast water.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Compliance Installation Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Fish All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Adhere to appropriate measures when jettisoning ballast water.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Compliance Operation & Maintenance Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Fish All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Adhere to appropriate measures when jettisoning ballast water.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Compliance Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Fish All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Adhere to appropriate measures when jettisoning ballast water.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Compliance Installation Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Fish All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Adhere to appropriate measures when jettisoning ballast water.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Compliance Operation & Maintenance Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Fish All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Adhere to appropriate measures when jettisoning ballast water.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Compliance Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Fish All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Adhere to appropriate measures when jettisoning ballast water.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Mitigation Installation Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Fish All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Source vessels locally.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Fish All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Source vessels locally.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Mitigation Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Fish All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Source vessels locally.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Mitigation Installation Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Fish All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Source vessels locally.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Fish All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Source vessels locally.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Mitigation Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Fish All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Source vessels locally.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Monitoring Installation Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Fish All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Monitoring and reporting of MNNS.

Reduces/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Monitoring Operation & Maintenance Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Fish All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Monitoring and reporting of MNNS.

Reduces/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Monitoring Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Fish All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Monitoring and reporting of MNNS.

Reduces/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Monitoring Installation Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Fish All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Monitoring and reporting of MNNS.

Reduces/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Monitoring Operation & Maintenance Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Fish All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Monitoring and reporting of MNNS.

Reduces/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Tidal Monitoring Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Fish All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Monitoring and reporting of MNNS.

Reduces/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Mitigation Installation Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Marine Mammals All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Establish and implement a Biofouling Management Plan.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave Mitigation Operation & Maintenance Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS) Marine Mammals All receptors

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.