Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Titlesort descending Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Benthic effects of offshore renewables: identification of knowledge gaps and urgently needed research Dannheim, J., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Benthic Habitat Characterization Offshore the Pacific Northwest Volume 1: Evaluation of Continental Shelf Geology Goldfinger, C., et al. November 2014 Report N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Benthic Habitat Characterization Offshore the Pacific Northwest Volume 2: Evaluation of Continental Shelf Benthic Communities Henkel, S., et al. November 2014 Report N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Benthic Monitoring and Sampling Design and Effort to Detect Spatial Changes: A Case Study using Data from Offshore Wind Farm Sites Franco, A., Quintino, V., Elliott, M. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Benthic Monitoring During Wind Turbine Installation and Operation at the Block Island Wind Farm, Rhode Island Bartley, M., et al. February 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Benthic production and energy export from man-made structures to softbottoms: does it matter? Dannheim, J., et al. September 2018 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Benthos distribution modelling and its relevance for marine ecosystem management Reiss, H., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Best available science? Are NOAA Fisheries marine mammal noise exposure guidelines up to date? Stocker, M. May 2019 Conference Paper N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Best Management Practices for Bats in New Mexico Balistreri, M. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Best Management Practices for North Atlantic Right Whales During Offshore Wind Energy Construction and Operations Along the U.S. East Coast NRDC March 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Best Management Practices for siting, developing, operating, and monitoring renewable energy in the Intermountain West: A Conservationist's Guide Jones, A. March 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Best Practice Guidance for the Use of Remote Techniques for Observing Bird Behaviour in Relation to Offshore Wind Farms Desholm, M., Fox, A., Beasley, P. January 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Beware the Boojum: Caveats and Strengths of Avian Radar Beason, R., Nohara, T., Weber, P. March 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Biases in the Literature on Direct Wildlife Mortality from Energy Development Loss, S., Dorning, M., Diffendorfer, J. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Bicknell's Thrush: An Endangered Migrant in a Recovering Landscape McIntyre, E., Riordan, J. January 2015 Report N/A N/A Birds
Big Blue Wind Energy Project Avian and Bat Protection Plan Western Ecosystems Technology Inc (WEST) January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Biglow Canyon Wind Farm: Habitat Mitigation Plan Portland General Electric Company, Oregon Department of Energy May 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Biglow Canyon Wind Farm: Wildlife Monitoring and Mitigation Plan Portland General Electric Company, Oregon Department of Energy May 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
Biodiversity & Wind Energy: A Bird's and Bat's Perspective Mascarenhas, M., et al. January 2015 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Biodiversity and wind energy in Kenya: Revealing landscape and wind turbine perceptions in the world’s wildlife capital Nordman, E., Mutinda, J. September 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Biodiversity and Wind Farms in Portugal: Current Knowledge and Insights for an Integrated Impact Assessment Process Mascarenhas, M., et al. January 2018 Book Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
Biodiversity Characterisation of Fouling Communities and Their Hydrodynamic Consequences on Marine Renewable Energy Infrastructure in the UK Want, A., Harris, R., Porter, J. December 2018 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Invertebrates
Biodiversity Issues Should Be Better Taken into Account in the Energy Transition Hallosserie, A., et al. August 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Biodiversity Offsets for Offshore Wind Farm Projects: The Current Situation in Europe Vaissière, A., et al. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Bioelectric Fields of Marine Organisms: Voltage and Frequency Contributions to Detectability by Electroreceptive Predators Bedore, C., Kajiura, S. April 2013 Journal Article N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Biogeographic Assessments: A Framework for Information Synthesis in Marine Spatial Planning Caldow, C., et al. January 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Biological Assessment for the Federally Endangered Indiana Bat (Myotis sodalis) and Virginia Big-eared Bat (Corynorhinus townsendii virginianus): NedPower Mount Storm Wind Project, Grant County, West Virginia Johnson, G., Strickland, M. October 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Biological Effects of Repowering a Portion of the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California: The Diablo Winds Energy Project Smallwood, K. July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Biological Study Plan East Ridge Wind Energy Project Gerhardt, R., et al. September 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Biological Study Report West Ridge Wind Energy Project Gerhardt, R., Gritski, R., Luginbuhl, J. November 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Biology and Conservation of the Common Murre in California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia. Volume 1: Natural History and Population Trends Manuwal, D., et al. January 2002 Report N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds
Biology and Video Surveys of North Hoyle Wind Turbines 11th-13th August 2004 Bunker, F. August 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Bird and Bat Behavior and Mortality at a Northern Iowa Windfarm Jain, A. January 2005 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Waterfowl
Bird and Bat Collision Risks & Wind Energy Facilities Willmott, J., et al. December 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Conservation Strategy Deuel Harvest North Wind Farm Deuel County, South Dakota Simon, S., Welch-Acosta, B. March 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Fatality Studies Fowler Ridge III Wind-Energy Facility Benton County, Indiana: April 2 - June 10, 2009 Johnson, G., et al. April 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Impacts and Behaviors at Old Wind Turbines at Forebay, Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Smallwood, K., Neher, L. November 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Interactions With Wind Turbines Castle River Wind Farm, Alberta, 2001-2002 Brown, W., Hamilton, B. July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Migration over Appalachian Ridges Progress Report, August 2006 Dawson, D., et al. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Monitoring at the McBride Lake Wind Farm, Alberta 2003-2004 Brown, W., Hamilton, B. September 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Bird and bat mortality at Portuguese wind farms Bernardino, J., et al. May 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Responses to Wind Energy Development in Iowa Gillespie, M. January 2013 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Species and Risks to Diurnal Migrants on the Clipper Windpower Criterion Project, Backbone Mountain, Garrett County, Maryland Gates, J., et al. June 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Species' Global Vulnerability to Collision Mortality at Wind Farms Revealed Through a Trait-Based Assessment Thaxter, C., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Bird and Bird Habitats: Guidelines for Wind Power Projects Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources December 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Bird Casualties Caused by a Wind Energy Project in an Estuary Musters, C., Noordervliet, M., terKeurs, W. March 1996 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Bird collision with power lines: estimating carcass persistence and detection associated with ground search surveys Borner, L., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Bird collisions at an offshore platform in the North Sea Hüppop, O., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Bird Collisions at Wind Turbines in a Mountainous Area Related to Bird Movement Intensities Measured by Radar Aschwanden, J., et al. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines
Bird Collisions with Power Lines: Failing to See the Way Ahead? Martin, G., Shaw, J. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Shorebirds
Bird Communities and Wind Farms: A Phylogenetic and Morphological Approach Herrera-Alsina, L., et al. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Bird Detection and Species Classification with Time-Lapse Images around a Wind Farm: Dataset Construction and Evaluation Yoshihashi, R., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Bird Disturbance: Improving the Quality and Utility of Disturbance Research Hill, D., et al. January 1997 Journal Article N/A Static Device Birds
Bird Fatality Study at Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: October 2005 to September 2007 Altamont Pass Avian Monitoring Team January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Bird Flight Characteristics Near Wind Turbines in Minnesota Osborn, R., et al. January 1998 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Passerines, Waterfowl
Bird Impact Analysis of a Composite Wind Turbine Blade Tejas, K., Prashanth, A. August 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Bird Impact Study of a Preloaded Composite Wind Turbine Blade Nanami, N., Ochoa, O. August 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Bird Killer, Industrial Intruder or Clean Energy? Perceiving Risks to Ecosystem Services Due to an Offshore Wind Farm Klain, S., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Bird Migration Flight Altitudes Studied by a Network of Operational Weather Radars Dokter, A., et al. June 2010 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Bird Migration Intensity and Number of Collision Victims at the Wind Power Plant Le Peuchapatte (Switzerland) Aschwanden, J., Liechti, F. November 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Bird migration monitoring in the AES Geo Power Wind Park territory, Kaliakra region, in autumn 2010 Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, D. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Passerines
Bird migration monitoring in the AES Geo Power Wind Park territory, Kaliakra region, in autumn 2011, and an evaluation of a potential “barrier effect” after two years of operation Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, D. January 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Passerines
Bird Migration Monitoring in the AES Geo Power Wind Park Territory, Kaliakra Region, in Autumn 2012, and Analysis of Potential Impact after Three Years' Operation Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, D. November 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Bird migration monitoring in the Kaliakra region in autumn 2013, and analysis of potential impact after four years of operation Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, D. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Bird Migration Monitoring in the Saint Nikola Wind Farm Territory, Kaliakra Region in Autumn 2014, an Analysis of Potential Impact after Five Years of Operation Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, D. January 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Bird Migration Monitoring in the Saint Nikola Wind Farm, Kaliakra Region, in Autumn 2015, and an Analysis of Potential Impact after Six Years of Operation Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, D. July 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Bird migration monitoring in the Saint Nikola Wind Farm, Kaliakra region, in autumn 2016, and an analysis of potential impact after seven years of operation Zehtindjiev, P. November 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Bird migration monitoring in the Saint Nikola Wind Farm, Kaliakra region, in autumn 2017, and an analysis of potential impact after eight years of operation Zehtindjiev, P. November 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Bird Migration Studies and Potential Collision Risk with Offshore Wind Turbines Hüppop, O., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines
Bird Monitoring at Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea - Assessing Seabird Displacement Effects Vanermen, N., et al. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Bird Monitoring at Toronto's Exhibition Place Wind Turbine James, R., Coady, G. August 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Bird Mortality Associated with Wind Turbines at the Buffalo Ridge Wind Resource Area, Minnesota Osborn, R., et al. January 2000 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Bird Mortality at a Wind-Energy Facility near a Wetland of International Importance Grodsky, S., Jennelle, C., Drake, D. November 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Bird Mortality at Rotor Swept Area Equivalents, Altamont Pass and Montezuma Hills, California Howell, J. January 1997 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Bird Mortality at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: March 1998 - September 2001 Smallwood, K., Thelander, C. August 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Bird Mortality in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California Smallwood, K., Thelander, C. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Bird Mortality in Two Dutch Wind Farms: Effects of Location, Spatial Design and Interactions with Powerlines Brenninkmeijer, A., Klop, E. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Bird Movements and Behaviors in the Gulf Coast Region: Relation to Potential Wind-Energy Developments Morrison, M. June 2006 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Bird Movements and Collision Mortality at a Large Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Byrne, S. January 1983 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Waterfowl
Bird Movements at Rotor Heights Measured Continuously with Vertical Radar at a Dutch Offshore Wind Farm Fijn, R., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Seabirds
Bird Numbers and Distributions in the Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Area Petersen, I. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Bird Radar Validation in the Field by Time-Referencing Line-Transect Surveys Dokter, A., et al. September 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Bird Risk Behaviors and Fatalities at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Period of Performance: March 1998 - December 2000 Thelander, C., Smallwood, K., Rugge, L. December 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Bird Sensitivity Map to Provide Locational Guidance for Onshore Wind Farms in Scotland Bright, J., et al. June 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Bird Sensitivity Mapping for Wind Energy Developments and Associated Infrastructure in the Republic of Ireland McGuiness, S., et al. February 2015 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Bird species of concern at wind farms in New Zealand Powlesland, R. September 2009 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Bird Strikes and Electrocutions at Power Lines, Communication Towers, and Wind Turbines: State of the Art and State of the Science - Next Steps Toward Mitigation Manville, A. June 2005 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Bird Studies at Large Runs wind farm, Jamtland Falkdalen, U., Lindahl, L., Nygård, T. January 2009 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Bird-Community Shifts in Relation to Wind Farms: A Case Study Comparing a Wind Farm, Croplands, and Secondary Forests in Southern Mexico Villegas-Patraca, R., et al. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Birds and Bats: Potential Impacts and Survey Techniques Global Energy Concepts October 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Birds and Offshore Wind Farms: A Hot Topic in Marine Ecology Exo, K., Hüppop, O., Garthe, S. April 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Birds and Offshore Wind: Studying and Assessing Effects Pereksta, D. July 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Birds and Wind Farms in Ireland: A Review of Potential Issues and Impact Assessment Percival, S. December 2003 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Birds and Wind Farms: Risk Assessment and Mitigation de Lucas, M., Janss, G., Ferrer, M. June 2007 Book Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
Birds and Wind Projects Across the Pond: A UK Perspective Rowena, H., Langston, W. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Birds and Wind-Energy Best-Practice Guidelines: Best-Practice Guidelines for Assessing and Monitoring the Impact of Wind Energy Facilities on Birds in Southern Africa Jenkins, A., et al. January 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Birds and Windfarms - Critical Analysis of 4 Reports on Bird Mortality at Windfarm Sites Durchamp, M. December 2003 Website Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Birds and Windfarms: What are the Real Issues? Percival, S. April 2005 Magazine Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds, Raptors
Birds of Prey and Wind Farms Hötker, H., Krone, O., Nehls, G. April 2017 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Birds, Wind and the Making of Wind Power Landscapes in Aude, Southern France Nadaï, A., Labussiere, O. March 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds

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