Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author*sort ascending Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Seismic Response of Large-Scale Prestressed Concrete Bucket Foundation for Offshore Wind Turbines Zhang, P., Ding, H., Conghuan, L. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Simulating impacts of real-world wind farms on land surface temperature using the WRF model: physical mechanisms Xia, G., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Numerical simulation of spudcan-soil interaction using an improved smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method Wu, H., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Nearfield Habitat
Cape Wind Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Diver Survey Woods Hole Group, Inc. July 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Coastal And Offshore Wind Energy Generation: Is It Environmentally Benign? Wilson, J., et al. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general EMF, Noise, Static Device Bats, Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Offshore Wind Farms: Their Impacts, and Potential Habitat Gains as Artificial Reefs, in Particular for Fish Wilson, J. September 2007 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
The Influence Of Offshore Windpower On Demersal Fish Wilhelmsson, D., Malm, T., Öhman, M. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Fouling Assemblages on Offshore Wind Power Plants and Adjacent Substrata Wilhelmsson, D., Malm, T. September 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Aspects of Offshore Renewable Energy and the Alterations of Marine Habitats Wilhelmsson, D. January 2009 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Evaluating artificial reef performance: approaches to pre- and post-deployment research Wilding, T., Sayer, M. February 2002 Journal Article N/A N/A Nearfield Habitat
The benthic impacts of the Loch Linnhe Artificial Reef Wilding, T. January 2006 Journal Article N/A N/A Nearfield Habitat
The Nature Of Scour Development And Scour Protection At Offshore Windfarm Foundations Whitehouse, R., et al. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Hermosa West Wind Energy Project: Draft Environmental Impact Statement Western Area Power Administration September 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
The Development and Use of Individuals-Based Models to Predict the Effects of Habitat Loss and Disturbance on Waders and Waterfowl West, A., Caldow, R. March 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl, Nearfield Habitat
Far-Field and Near-Field Effects of Marine Aquaculture Weitzman, J., et al. January 2019 Book Chapter N/A N/A Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Wind Power Guidelines Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife April 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Strategic Environmental Assessment Area 8 - Contamination of Water and Sediments Voisey, C., Tyrrell, D., Rowlatt, S March 2004 Report N/A Chemicals Nearfield Habitat
Expansion of Hitra Wind-Power Plant - Consequences Related to Wildlife Except Birds Veiberg, V., Pedersen, H. February 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Benthic Communities at Horns Rev Before, During and After Construction of Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm: Final Report Vattenfall May 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Turbid Wakes Associated with Offshore Wind Turbines Observed with Landsat 8 Vanhellemont, Q., Ruddick, K. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
The consequences of seabird habitat loss from offshore wind turbines, version 2 van Kooten, T., et al. July 2019 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds, Seabirds, Nearfield Habitat
Short- and Long-Term Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm on Three Species of Sandeel and their Sand Habitat van Deurs, M., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Monitoring of Hydrodynamic and Morphological Changes at the C-Power and Belwind Offshore Windfarm Sites - A Synthesis Van den Eynde, D., et al. January 2010 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Examples of State and International Guidance for Duration and Intensity of Pre-Construction and Post-Construction Monitoring US Fish and Wildlife Service January 2011 Report Wind Energy general N/A Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Review of the Reef Effects of Offshore Wind Farm Structures and their Potential for Enhancement and Mitigation UK Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Effects of the Nysted Offshore Wind Farm on Harbour Porpoises Tougaard, J., et al. July 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Porpoises North of Sprogø Before, During and After Construction of an Offshore Wind Farm Tougaard, J., Carstensen, J. February 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Sustainable Decommissioning of an Offshore Wind Farm Topham, E., McMillan, D. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Snefjord vindpark: Vurdering av konsekvenser for landskap, flora, fauna, friluftsliv, kulturminner og reindriftsnæring Tombre, I., et al. February 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Terrestrial Mammals
Design and Implementation of a New Low-Cost Subsurface Mooring System for Efficient Data Recovery Tian, C., et al. September 2013 Conference Paper N/A N/A Nearfield Habitat
Burbo Offshore Wind Farm Volume 2: ES Biological Environment The University of Liverpool Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies September 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Effect of the Horns Rev 1 Offshore Wind Farm on Fish Communities: Follow-up Seven Years after Construction Stenberg, C., et al. December 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Installation and operational effects of a HVDC submarine cable in a continental shelf setting: Bass Strait, Australia Sherwood, J., et al. December 2016 Journal Article N/A EMF Nearfield Habitat
Epibenthic Assessment of a Renewable Tidal Energy Site Sheehan, E., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Predicting the trends of vertebrate species richness as a response to wind farms installation in mountain ecosystems of northwest Portugal Santos, M., et al. March 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Environmental Impact of Wind Energy Saidur, R., et al. June 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Gwynt y Môr Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement RWE Group November 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Hornsea Offshore Wind Farm Project One: Reports - Habitat Regulations Assessment Report: Information to Support the Appropriate Assessment for Project One RPS Group July 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Bryozoan Distribution and Diversity in the Scottish Sea Regions Rouse, S., Jones, M., Porter, J. August 2010 Journal Article N/A Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Concerted Action for Offshore Wind Energy Deployment (COD): Overview of Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Energy Roth, E., Verhoef, L., Dingenouts, M. September 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Experimental Study on Influence of Pitch Motion on the Wake of a Floating Wind Turbine Model Rockel, S., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Aggregation at Windmill Artificial Reefs: CPUE of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) and Pouting (Trisopterus luscus) at Different Habitats in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Reubens, J., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Nearfield Habitat
On the Effect of Structure-Induced Resistance and Mixing on Inflows into the Baltic Sea: A Numerical Model Study Rennau, H., Schimmels, S., Burchard, H. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Reindeer and Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) Response Towards Human Activities Reimers, E., Colman, J. January 2006 Journal Article N/A Avoidance, Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
Fish and Benthos at Alpha Ventus Reichert, K., et al. May 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Nearfield Habitat
It's Not Easy Being Green: Wind Energy and a Declining Grassland Bird Pruett, C., Patten, M., Wolfe, D. March 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Nearfield Habitat
The Influence of Wind Energy Development on Columbian Sharp-tailed Grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus) Breeding Season Ecology in Eastern Idaho Proett, M. May 2017 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Artificial Reefs as a Tool to Aid Rehabilitation of Coastal Ecosystems: Investigating the Potential Pickering, H., Whitmarsh, D., Jensen, A. December 1999 Journal Article N/A Static Device Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Towards an Ecosystem Approach to Assess the Impacts of Marine Renewable Energy Pezy, J., et al. March 2019 Book Chapter Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Offshore Windmill Farms: Threats to or Possibilities for the Marine Environment Petersen, J., Malm, T. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Final Results of Bird Studies at the Offshore Wind Farms at Nysted and Horns Rev, Denmark Petersen, I., et al. January 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Nearfield Habitat
Evaluating anthropogenic landscape alterations as wildlife hazards, with wind farms as an example Peter R. Law, Mark Fuller July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Nearfield Habitat
Repeated Mapping of Reefs Constructed by Sabellaria spinulosa Leuckart 1849 at an Offshore Wind Farm Site Pearce, B., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Artificial reefs facilitate tropical fish at their range edge Paxton, A., et al. May 2019 Journal Article N/A Attraction Nearfield Habitat
Upper Ocean Response to Large Wind Farm Effect in the Presence of Surface Gravity Waves Paskyabi, M., Fer, I. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 10: Marine Water and Sediment Quality Page, C. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
The expected efficiency and coastal impact of a hybrid energy farm operating in the Portuguese nearshore Onea, F., Rusu, E. February 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Nearfield Habitat
Northeast Ocean Plan Northeast Regional Planning Body October 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Benthic Cover Data NOAA Coastal Services Center January 2010 Website N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Marine ALSF Science Review: Aggregate Research in UK Waters Newell, R., Reeds, K. June 2005 Presentation N/A N/A Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Assessing the Environmental Impact of Underwater Noise During Offshore Windfarm Construction and Operation Nedwell, J., et al. November 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Measurement and Interpretation of Underwater Noise During Construction and Operation of Offshore Windfarms in UK Waters Nedwell, J., et al. December 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Wind Turbine Interactions with Birds, Bats, and their Habitats: A Summary of Research Results and Priority Questions National Wind Coordinating Collaborative March 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Ecological Effects of Wind-Energy Development National Resource Council August 2007 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
The Effects of Landscape Modifications on the Long-Term Persistence of Animal Populations Nabe-Nielsen, J., et al. January 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
An Assessment of the Conservation Importance of Species and Habitats Identified During a Series of Recent Research Cruises around Scotland Moore, C., Roberts, J. January 2011 Report N/A N/A Nearfield Habitat
Changing Coasts: Marine Aliens and Artificial Structures Mineur, F., et al. January 2012 Book Chapter N/A Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Mussel and Seaweed Cultivation in Offshore Wind Farms: An Opinion Survey Michler-Cieluch, T., Kodeih, S. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Averaging Underwater Noise Levels for Environmental Assessment of Shipping Merchant, N., et al. September 2012 Journal Article N/A Noise Nearfield Habitat
A framework to evaluate the environmental impact of OCEAN energy devices Mendoza, E., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Ocean Current, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Noise Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, Nearfield Habitat, Physical Environment, Environmental Impact Assessment
How Deep does an Anchor Penetrate the Seafloor? Maushake, C. November 2013 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Wind Energy Systems: Environmental Aspects and Impacts Manwell, J., McGowan, J., Rogers, A. January 2009 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Local Effects of Blue Mussels Around Turbine Foundations in an Ecosystem Model of Nysted Off-Shore Wind Farm, Denmark Maar, M., et al. August 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Electromagnetic Simulation of the Near-Field Distribution around a Wind Farm Ling, H., Yang, S. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Nearfield Habitat
Offshore Wind Park Monitoring Programmes, Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the Future Lindeboom, H., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Overview and trends of ecological and socioeconomic research on artificial reefs Lima, J., Zalmon, I., Love, M. March 2019 Journal Article N/A Attraction Nearfield Habitat
Experimental Analysis of the Wake of a Horizontal-Axis Wind-Turbine Model Lignarolo, L., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 12: Marine and Intertidal Ecology Lewis, J. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Wind Energy Development and its Environmental Impact: A Review Leung, D., Yang, Y. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Ecological Survey and Impact Assessment for the Proposed Cable Route Corridor and Substation, Walpole, Lincolnshire, & Norfolk Lapwings Consultants September 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Terrestrial Mammals
Impacts of wind turbines on redheads in the Laguna Madre Lange, C., Ballard, B., Collins, D. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance Birds, Waterfowl, Nearfield Habitat
Fate of Unproductive and Unattractive Habitats: Recent Changes in Iberian Steppes and their Effects on Endangered Avifauna Laiolo, P., Tella, J. October 2006 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Passerines, Nearfield Habitat
A Comparison of Top-Down and Bottom-Up Approaches to Benthic Habitat Mapping to Inform Offshore Wind Energy Development LaFrance, M., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Process-Driven Characterization and Mapping of Seabed Habitats Kostylev, V., Hannah, C. January 2007 Book Chapter N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
ATOC/Pioneer Seamount Cable after 8 Years on the Seafloor: Observations, Environmental Impact Kogan, I., et al. April 2006 Journal Article N/A Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Environmental Impact of the ATOC/Pioneer Seamount Submarine Cable Kogan, I., et al. November 2003 Report N/A Static Device Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Effects of EMF emissions from undersea electric cables on coral reef fish Kilfoyle, A., et al. November 2017 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Adverse Impacts of Wind Power Generation on Collision Behaviour of Birds and Anti-Predator Behaviour of Squirrels Kikuchi, R. March 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change, Noise Birds, Raptors, Nearfield Habitat, Terrestrial Mammals
Early Development of the Subtidal Marine Biofouling on a Concrete Offshore Windmill Foundation on the Thornton Bank (Southern North Sea): First Monitoring Results Kerckhof, F., et al. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Population-Level Effects of Wind Farms on a Desert Lizard Keehn, J., Shoemaker, K., Feldman, C. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Residence of Fish in the Vicinity of a Decommissioned Oil Platform in the North Sea Jørgensen, T., Løkkeborg, S., Soldal, A. January 2002 Journal Article N/A Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Impacts to Marine Fisheries Habitat from Nonfishing Activities in the Northeastern United States Johnson, M., et al. February 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Fishing
Dønnesfjord Windpark, Hasvik Municipality: Impact Assessment, Evaluation of Natural Environment Jacobsen, K., Borg, L., Johnsen, T. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment, Terrestrial Mammals
Sørfjord Windpark, Tysfjord Municipality: Impact Assessment, Evaluation of Natural Environment Jacobsen, K., Arnesen, G., Johnsen, T. April 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Pathways of Effects for Offshore Renewable Energy in Canada Isaacman, L., Daborn, G. December 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Changes in Flow, Chemicals, Collision, Displacement, EMF, Habitat Change, Lighting, Noise Birds, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Physical Environment, Reptiles, Human Dimensions
Interim Report of the Working Group on Marine Benthal and Renewable Energy Developments (WGMBRED) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
ICES WGMBRED Report 2018: Report of the Working Group on Marine Benthal and Renewable Energy Developments (WGMBRED) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Inch Cape Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement Inch Cape Offshore June 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Wave and Tidal Energy: Environmental Effects Iglesias, G., et al. July 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave N/A Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Hydro-Acoustic Monitoring of Fish Communities at Offshore Wind Farms Hvidt, C., et al. May 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat

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