Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers.


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Title Author*sort ascending Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Life-cycle green-house gas emissions of onshore and offshore wind turbines Wang, S., Wang, S., Jinxiang, L. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Impacts of Wind Energy on Environment: A Review Wang, S., Wang, S. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Impact of substantial wind farms on the local and regional atmospheric boundary layer: Case study of Zhangbei wind power base in China Wang, Q., et al. September 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Effects of Beipiao Wind Power Development Planning on Local Birds Ecosystem Wang, L., Jinghai, Z., Zhongqiang, M. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Effects of established offshore wind farms on energy flow of coastal ecosystems: A case study of the Rudong offshore wind farms in China Wang, J., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Research on Chinese Life Cycle-Based Wind Power Plant Environmental Influence Prevention Measures Wang, H., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Potential Climatic Impacts And Reliability Of Very Large-scale Wind Farms Wang, C., Prinn, G. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Can the effect of tall structures on birds be isolated from other aspects of development? Walters, K., Kosciuch, K., Jones, J. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Response of Rocky Mountain Elk (Cervus elaphus) to Wind-power Development Walter, W., Leslie, D., Jenks, J. October 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device N/A
Determining the local acceptance of wind energy projects in Switzerland: The importance of general attitudes and project characteristics Walter, G. December 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Human Dimensions
Further evidence of impacts of large-scale wind farms on land surface temperature Walsh-Thomas, J., et al. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
The auditory attributes of Golden Eagles: Do Golden (Aquila chrysaetos) and Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) share the same auditory space? Walsh, E., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Analysis of Marine Environmental Monitoring Plan Data from the Robin Rigg Offshore Wind Farm, Scotland (Operational Year 1) Walls, R., et al. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Revised Best Practice Guidance for the Use of Remote Techniques for Ornithological Monitoring at Offshore Windfarms Walls, R., et al. June 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Black Bear Corridor Crossings in the Vicinity of the Searsburg Wind Turbines as Investigated in 1995 Wallin, J. January 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Terrestrial Mammals
Results of Wildlife Movement Monitoring Using an Infrared Sensing Remote Camera Located Under Wind Turbine 7, Searsburg Wind Project April-November 2006 Wallin, J. November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Passerines, Terrestrial Mammals
Results of Wildlife Movement Monitoring Using an Infrared Sensing Remote Camera Located Under Wind Turbine 7, Searsburg Wind Project During October 2005 Wallin, J. October 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
Overview of Issues Faced by Wind Energy Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Wind and Wildlife: Siting Issues and Challenges Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Fish, Terrestrial Mammals
Environmental and Ecological Impacts of Wind Energy on Humans: Public and Workforce Safety Issues Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Other Environmental Issues of Wind Energy Development: Aesthetics, Cultural Resources, Land Use Compatibility, Water Resources, and Site Restoration Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Wind Energy's Impact on Aviation, Radar, and Telecommunications Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind EMF Socio-economics, Navigation
Impact of Wind Energy on the Electric Grid Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Environmental Impacts and Economics of Offshore Wind Energy Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Global Wind Energy Policy and Development Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Wind Energy Essentials: Societal, Economic, and Environmental Impacts Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Environmental and Ecological Impacts of Wind Energy on Humans: Public Health Issues Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Collision, EMF, Lighting, Noise Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Economic Impacts and Benefits of Wind Energy Projects and Other Sources of Electric Generation Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Fish Walker, R., et al. July 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Benthic Ecology Walker, R., et al. August 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Resident Golden Eagle Ranging Behaviour Before and After Construction of a Windfarm in Argyll Walker, D., et al. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Procedural justice in Canadian wind energy development: A comparison of community-based and technocratic siting processes Walker, C., Baxter, J. July 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-Economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Community Benefits, Framing and the Social Acceptance of Offshore Wind Farms: An Experimental Study in England Walker, B., Wiersma, B., Bailey, E. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Breeding density, fine-scale tracking, and large-scale modeling reveal the regional distribution of four seabird species Wakefield, E., et al. October 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Hearing in Fish and their Reactions to Sounds from Offshore Wind Farms Wahlberg, M., Westerberg, H. March 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Life Cycle Assessment of the Offshore Wind Farm Alpha Ventus Wagner, H., et al. May 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Great Skua (Stercorarius skua) Movements at Sea in Relation to Marine Renewable Energy Developments Wade, H., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Property Value Impacts of Wind Turbines and the Influence of Attitudes toward Wind Energy Vyn, R. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Genetic Approaches to Understanding the Population-Level Impact of Wind Energy Development on Migratory Bats Vonhof, M., Russell, A. September 2013 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats
SORIANT VUM - final report von Benda-Beckmann, A., et al. June 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Bats probe the aerosphere during landscape-guided altitudinal flights Voigt, C., Roeleke, M., Bumrungsri, S. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Bats in the Anthropocene: Conservation of Bats in a Changing World Voigt, C., Kingston, T. January 2016 Book Wind Energy general N/A Bats
The Catchment Area of Wind Farms for European Bats: A Plea for International Regulations Voigt, C., et al. September 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Wildlife and Renewable Energy: German Politics Cross Migratory Bats Voigt, C., et al. April 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Habitat use of migratory bats killed during autumn at wind turbines Voigt, C., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Migratory bats are attracted by red light but not by warm-white light: Implications for the protection of nocturnal migrants Voigt, C., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Potential Impact of the Massachusetts Maritime Academy Wind Turbine on Common (Sterna hirundo) and Roseate (S. dougallii) Terns Vlietstra, L. June 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Potential Impact of the Massachusetts Maritime Academy Wind Turbine on Common and Roseate Terns Vlietstra, L. June 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Method for Predicting Impulsive Noise Generated by Wind Turbine Rotors Viterna, L. May 1982 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
Anthropogenic disturbance facilitates a non-native species on offshore oil platforms Viola, S., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Invertebrates
Migration of Franklin's Gull (Leucophaeus pipixcan) and its Variable Annual Risk from Wind Power Facilities Across the Tehuantepec Isthmus Villegas-Patraca, R., Herrera-Alsina, L. May 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Scavenger removal: Bird and bat carcass persistence in a tropical wind farm Villegas-Patraca, R., et al. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Bird-Community Shifts in Relation to Wind Farms: A Case Study Comparing a Wind Farm, Croplands, and Secondary Forests in Southern Mexico Villegas-Patraca, R., et al. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Ecosystem Processes
Soaring Migratory Birds Avoid Wind Farm in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Southern Mexico Villegas-Patraca, R., Cabrera-Cruz, S., Herrera-Alsina, L. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds
Spatially-Explicit Bat Impact Screening Tool for Wind Turbine Siting Versar, Exponent October 2013 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats
WT-Bird: A Low Cost Solution for Detecting Bird Collisions Verhoef, J., et al. April 2004 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Appendix O Summary of Current Information Related to Electromagnetic Field Impacts on Fish and LEEDCo Proposed Transmission Cable Verhamme, E., Daley, J., Peterson, G. June 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Fish
Towards an Environmentally Sound Offshore Wind Energy Deployment Verfuß, U. January 2012 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Noise Mitigation Measures and Low-noise Foundation Concepts - State of the Art Verfuß, T. January 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Noise mitigation systems and low-noise installation technologies Verfuß, T. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
A review of noise abatement systems for offshore wind farm construction noise, and the potential for their application in Scottish waters Verfuss, U., Sinclair, R., Sparling, C. January 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Review of Offshore Wind Farm Impact Monitoring and Mitigation with Regard to Marine Mammals Verfuss, U., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
Assessing The Benefit Of Noise Reduction Measures During Offshore Wind Farm Construction On Harbour Porpoises Verfuss, U., et al. September 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
A review of unmanned vehicles for the detection and monitoring of marine fauna Verfuss, U., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Assessment Of The Effects Of Noise And Vibration From Offshore Wind Farms On Marine Wildlife Vella, G., et al. January 2001 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Expansion of Hitra Wind-Power Plant - Consequences Related to Wildlife Except Birds Veiberg, V., Pedersen, H. February 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Terrestrial Mammals
Benthic Communities at Horns Rev Before, During and After Construction of Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm: Final Report Vattenfall May 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
A balanced solution to the cumulative threat of industrialized wind farm development on cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus) in south-eastern Europe Vasilakis, D., Whitfield, D., Kati, V. February 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Reconciling endangered species conservation with wind farm development: Cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus) in south-eastern Europe Vasilakis, D., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Life cycle assessment: A case study of two wind turbines used in Mexico Vargas, A., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Turbid Wakes Associated with Offshore Wind Turbines Observed with Landsat 8 Vanhellemont, Q., Ruddick, K. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Assessing Seabird Displacement at Offshore Wind Farms: Power Ranges of a Monitoring and Data Handling Protocol Vanermen, N., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement Birds, Seabirds
Seabird Avoidance and Attraction at an Offshore Wind Farm in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Vanermen, N., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Displacement Birds, Seabirds
Bird Monitoring at Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea - Assessing Seabird Displacement Effects Vanermen, N., et al. January 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Collision, Displacement Birds, Seabirds
Seabirds & Offshore Wind Farms Monitoring Results 2011 Vanermen, N., et al. June 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Application of Isoscapes to Determine Geographic Origin of Terrestrial Wildlife for Conservation and Management Vander Zanden, H., et al. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Equivocal Effects of Offshore Wind Farms in Belgium on Soft Substrate Epibenthos and Fish Assemblages Vandendriessche, S., Derweduwen, J., Hostens, K. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Marine Biodiversity and the Development of a North Sea Offshore Powerhouse van Steen, H., Buseman, M. May 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Airborne Sound Propagation Over Sea During Offshore Wind Farm Piling Van Renterghem, T., Botteldooren, D., Dekoninck, L. February 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Survey of Beached Birds and Mammals: Sao Jãcinto - Torreira (Portugal) - March 2014 to March 2015 van Nus, T., Moreira, P. May 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Marine Mammals
Current situation of offshore development in Germany and environmentally sound expansion of offshore wind energy van Leusen, S. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
The consequences of seabird habitat loss from offshore wind turbines: a research plan for five selected species van Kooten, T., Soudijn, F., Leopold, M. September 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement Birds, Seabirds
The consequences of seabird habitat loss from offshore wind turbines, version 2 van Kooten, T., et al. July 2019 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds, Seabirds, Nearfield Habitat
Evaluation of the Environmental Impact of the 20 MW Wind Power Project in Tejona, Costa Rica Report of Phase 2 of the Tejona Wind Power Project (TWPP) van Hulle, F., et al. February 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
The Local Fish Community, Indifferent to the Wind Farm? van Hal, R., Griffioen, B. October 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Changes in Fish Communities on a Small Spatial Scale, an Effect of Increased Habitat Complexity by an Offshore Wind Farm van Hal, R., Griffioen, A., van Keeken, O. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish
GIS-based wind farm site selection using spatial multi-criteria analysis (SMCA): Evaluating the case for New York State van Haaren, R., Fthenakis, V. September 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Wind Turbines and Landscape van Grieken, M., Dower, B. May 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Using Deuterium and GARP To Estimate Geographic Extents of Source Populations of Hoary (Lasiurus cinereus) and Eastern Red (Lasiurus borealis) Bats Killed at a Central Illinois Wind Facility Van Essen, R. April 2014 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Short- and Long-Term Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm on Three Species of Sandeel and their Sand Habitat van Deurs, M., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Renewable Energy Technologies and Migratory Species: Guidelines for sustainable deployment van der Winden, J., et al. February 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A N/A
2nd Iteration: Effect of turbine capacity on collision numbers for three large gull species, based on revised density data, when assessing cumulative effects of offshore wind farms on birds in the southern North Sea van der Wal, J., et al. May 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Seabed morphodynamics due to offshore wind farms van der Veen, H., Hulscher, S., Lapeña, B. July 2019 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Modelling Potential Changes in Marine Biogeochemistry due to Large-Scale Offshore Wind Farms van der Molen, J., Rees, J., Limpenny, S. April 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Ecosystem Processes, Physical Environment
Connectivity of larval stages of sedentary marine communities between hard substrates and offshore structures in the North Sea van der Molen, J., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes
Predicting the Large-Scale Consequences of Offshore Wind Turbine Array Development on a North Sea Ecosystem van der Molen, J., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Physical Environment
Monitoring of Hydrodynamic and Morphological Changes at the C-Power and Belwind Offshore Windfarm Sites - A Synthesis Van den Eynde, D., et al. January 2010 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Another Blown in the Wind: Bats and the Licensing of Wind Farms in Brazil Valença, R., Bernard, E. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Insect Prey Eaten by Hoary Bats (Lasiurus cinereus) Prior to Fatal Collisions with Wind Turbines Valdez, E., Cryan, P. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Biodiversity Offsets for Offshore Wind Farm Projects: The Current Situation in Europe Vaissière, A., et al. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem

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