Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptorssort ascending
On the Potential Impact of Lake Erie Wind Farms on Water Temperatures and Mixed‐Layer Depths: Some Preliminary 1‐D Modeling Using COHERENS Afsharian, S., Taylor, P. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Water Quality
Potential Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on North Sea Stratification Carpenter, J., et al. August 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Water Quality
Simulating Environmental Changes Due to Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Installations James, S., et al. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport, Water Quality
Ormonde Project Scoping Study for Coastal and Seabed Processes Coates, T., Skipper, C., Cranmer, G. November 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Coastal Process Modelling for Offshore Windfarm Environmental Impact Assessment: Best Practice Guide Lambkin, D., et al. September 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Wave Climate and Coastline Response of the Dutch Coast: Investigating the effect of large-scale offshore wind farm developments in the North Sea Ballas, G. November 2018 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
On the Multi-Scale Interactions Between an Offshore-Wind-Turbine Wake and the Ocean-Sediment Dynamics in an Idealized Framework - A Numerical Investigation Nagel, T., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
Offshore Wind Farms: Foundations and Influence on the Littoral Processes Esteban, M., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
Sediment Transport Patterns at Trafalgar Offshore Windfarm Besio, G., Losada, M. May 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
Scroby Sands Offshore Wind Farm - Coastal Processes Monitoring Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) July 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
Sand Banks, Sand Transport and Offshore Wind Farms: Technical Report Kenyon, N., Cooper, B. May 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
Potential Effects of Offshore Wind Developments on Coastal Processes Beiboer, F., Cooper, B. January 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
Numerical study of multi-scale flow-sediment-structure interactions using a multiphase approach Nagel, T. July 2018 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
Observing Cable Laying and Particle Settlement During the Construction of the Block Island Wind Farm James, E., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
In situ observations of suspended particulate matter plumes at an offshore wind farm, southern North Sea Baeye, M., Fettweis, M. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
Land-Use Requirements of Modern Wind Power Plants in the United States Denholm, P., et al. August 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Environmental Impact Assessment
Climatic Impacts of Wind Power Miller, L., Keith, D. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Physical Environment, Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Comparison of Recent Oil and Gas, Wind Energy, and Other Anthropogenic Landscape Alteration Factors in Texas Through 2014 Pierre, J., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Physical Environment
Impact of substantial wind farms on the local and regional atmospheric boundary layer: Case study of Zhangbei wind power base in China Wang, Q., et al. September 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Seabed morphodynamics due to offshore wind farms van der Veen, H., Hulscher, S., Lapeña, B. July 2019 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
The Iowa Atmospheric Observatory: Revealing the Unique Boundary Layer Characteristics of a Wind Farm Takle, E., Rajewski, D., Purdy, S. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Modelling the Effects of Wind Farming on the Local Weather Using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model Jawaheer, B., et al. January 2019 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
The Influence of Real‐World Wind Turbine Deployments on Local to Mesoscale Climate Pryor, S., Barthelmie, R., Shepherd, T. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Meteorological and Hydrological Effect of Wind Farm in Arid Areas Yin, R., et al. January 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Exploring the wakes of large offshore wind farms Emeis, S., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Offshore Wind Farm Wake Effect on Stratification and Coastal Upwelling Paskyabi, M. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Changes in fluxes of heat, H2O, and CO2 caused by a large wind farm Rajewski, D., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Numerical Study for Wave-Induced Seabed Response around Offshore Wind Turbine Foundation in Donghai Offshore Wind Farm, Shanghai, China Chang, K., Jeng, D. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Effects of Man-Made Structures on Sedimentary Oxygenation: Extent, Seasonality and Implications for Offshore Renewables Wilding, T. June 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Large Eddy Simulation Studies of the Effects of Alignment and Wind Farm Length Stevens, R., Gayme, D., Meneveau, C. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Crop Wind Energy Experiment (CWEX): Observations of Surface-Layer, Boundary Layer, and Mesoscale Interactions with a Wind Farm Rajewski, D., et al. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Evaluation of the nearshore impact of a hybrid wave-wind energy farm Diaconu, S., Onea, F., Rusu, E. February 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Spatiotemporal Structure of Wind Farm-atmospheric Boundary Layer Interactions Cervarich, M., Roy, S., Zhou, L. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Further evidence of impacts of large-scale wind farms on land surface temperature Walsh-Thomas, J., et al. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Numerical Calculation of the Impact of Offshore Wind Farm Power Stations on Hydrodynamic Conditions Zhang, W., Xia, H., Wang, B. January 2009 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
On The Influence Of Large Wind Farms On The Upper Ocean Circulation Broström, G. November 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Effects of Wind Farm Foundations on the Water Exchange between North Sea and Baltic Sea - A First Careful Assessment Derived from the QuantAS-Off Project Burchard, H., et al. January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Dynamics of Scour Pits and Scour Protection - Synthesis Report and Recommendations Whitehouse, R., Harris, J., Rees, J. January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Seabed Morphology Off Southern Long Island: Studies of Artificial Reefs and Implications for Wind Farms Flood, R. January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Physical Environment
Wake Effects on Middelgrund Windfarm Jørgensen, H., Frandsen, S., Vølund, P. July 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Offshore Wind Turbine Wakes Measured by Sodar Barthelmie, J., et al. April 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Wind turbine impact on near-ground air temperature Moravec, D., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
The Expected Shoreline Effect of a Marine Energy Farm Operating Close to Sardinia Island Onea, F., Rusu, E. November 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Current and Wave Effects around Windfarm Monopile Foundations Miles, J., Martin, T, Goddard, L March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Foundation Damping and the Dynamics of Offshore Wind Turbine Monopiles Carswell, W., et al. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Preliminary Assessment of Offshore Wind Development Impacts on Marine Ecosystems Huang, H., Hall, A. March 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
The Added Value of 'Small-Scale' Monitoring of the Soft-Sediment Endobenthos around Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Coates, D., Vanaverbeke, M., Magda, V. September 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Physical Environment
Sandeels in the Wind Farm Area at Horns Reef Jensen, H., Kristensen, P., Hoffmann, E. August 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Physical Environment
A New Model for Environmental and Economic Evaluation of Renewable Energy Systems: The Case of Wind Turbines Savino, M., et al. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Farfield Environment, Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
The Influence Of Large-Scale Wind Power On Global Climate Keith, D., et al. November 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Socio-economics, Climate Change
The Environmental Case for Wind Power in New Jersey Ridlington, E., Rusch, E. March 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment, Socio-economics, Climate Change
Long-term implications of sustained wind power growth in the United States: Potential benefits and secondary impacts Wiser, R., et al. October 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Farfield Environment, Socio-economics, Climate Change
The Need for Integrated Assessment of Large-Scale Offshore Wind Farm Development Kannen, A., et al. January 2005 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
Ocean Energies: Environmental, Economic and Technological Aspects of Alternative Power Sources Charlier, R., Justus, J. September 1993 Book Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
Estimating the Political, Economic and Environmental Factors' Impact on the Installed Wind Capacity Development: A System GMM Approach Biresselioglu, M., et al. October 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
Wind Energy Scenarios for the Simulation of the German Power System Until 2050: The Effect of Social and Ecological Factors Christ, M., et al. January 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
Hermosa West Wind Energy Project: Draft Environmental Impact Statement Western Area Power Administration September 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Examples of State and International Guidance for Duration and Intensity of Pre-Construction and Post-Construction Monitoring US Fish and Wildlife Service January 2011 Report Wind Energy general N/A Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Measurement and Interpretation of Underwater Noise During Construction and Operation of Offshore Windfarms in UK Waters Nedwell, J., et al. December 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Wind Energy Development and its Environmental Impact: A Review Leung, D., Yang, Y. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Assessing the Impact of Windfarms in Subtidal, Exposed Marine Areas Dahlgren, T., et al. February 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Noise Measurements for Single and Multiple Operation of 50-kW Wind Turbine Generators Hubbard, H., Shepherd, K. February 1982 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Kármán vortex and turbulent wake generation by wind park piles Grashorn, S., Stanev, E. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Northeast Ocean Plan Northeast Regional Planning Body October 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Simulating impacts of real-world wind farms on land surface temperature using the WRF model: physical mechanisms Xia, G., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Assessing the Environmental Impact of Underwater Noise During Offshore Windfarm Construction and Operation Nedwell, J., et al. November 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Pelagic effects of offshore wind farm foundations in the stratified North Sea Floeter, J., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment, Fish
Impacts Of Wind Farms On Surface Air Temperatures Traiteur, J., Roy, S. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Farfield Environment
On the Prediction of Pile Driving Induced Underwater Sound Pressure Levels Over Long Ranges Lippert, T., et al. July 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Farfield Environment
Potential Climatic Impacts And Reliability Of Very Large-scale Wind Farms Wang, C., Prinn, G. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Taming Hurricanes with Arrays of Offshore Wind Turbines Jacobson, M., Archer, C., Kempton, W. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Modeling Large Offshore Wind Farms Under Different Atmospheric Stability Regimes with the Park Wake Model Peña, A., Réthoré, P., Rathmann, O. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment
Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm: Offshore ES Description of the Physical Baseline Environment Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Farfield Environment
Wake Effects of Large Offshore Wind Farms Identified from Satellite SAR Christiansen, M., Hasager, C. October 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Cumulative Adverse Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Development on Wildlife Goodale, W., Milman, A. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment
Prediction of Far Field Noise from Wind Energy Farms Shepherd, K., Hubbard, H. April 1986 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Farfield Environment
The Effect of a Giant Wind Farm on Precipitation in a Regional Climate Model Fiedler, B., Bukovsky, M. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Farfield Environment
Precipitation reduction during Hurricane Harvey with simulated offshore wind farms Pan, Y., Yan, C., Archer, C. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Nonlocal Inadvertent Weather Modification Associated with Wind Farms in the Central United States Lauridsen, M., Ancell, B. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Framework for Assessing Ecological and Cumulative Effects of Offshore Wind Farms - Part A: Methods Ministry of Economic Affairs (Rijksoverheid) July 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment
Framework for Assessing Ecological and Cumulative Effects of Offshore Wind Farms - Part B: Description and Assessment of the Cumulative Effects of Implementing the Roadmap for Offshore Wind Power Ministry of Economic Affairs (Rijksoverheid) July 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment
On the Effect of Offshore Wind Farms on the Atmosphere and Ocean Dynamics Ludewig, E. January 2015 Book Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Assessing the Cumulative Impact of Onshore Wind Energy Developments Scottish Natural Heritage March 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Farfield Environment
How Green is 'Green' Energy? Gibson, L., Wilman, E., Laurance, W. December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine, Wind Energy general N/A Farfield Environment
Obligations and Aspirations: A Critical Evaluation of Offshore Wind Farm Cumulative Impact Assessments Willsteed, E., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment
Analysis of Effects of Wind Turbine Generator Array for the Alternative Site of the Cape Wind Energy Project Swanson, C., Subbayya, S. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment
Simulation of Sediment Transport and Deposition from Cable Burial Operations for the Alternative Site of the Cape Wind Energy Project Swanson, C., Isaji, T. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment
Impacts of wind farms on land surface temperature Zhou, L., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Farfield Environment
First in situ evidence of wakes in the far field behind offshore wind farms Platis, A., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Farfield Environment
Environmental Report: High Prairie II Wind Project Minnesota Department of Commerce February 2001 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Farfield Environment
Experimental study of the impact of large-scale wind farms on land–atmosphere exchanges Zhang, W., Markfort, C., Porte-Agel, F. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Farfield Environment
Cumulative impacts of offshore windfarms Damian, H., Merck, T. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment
Micrometeorological impacts of offshore wind farms as seen in observations and simulations Siedersleben, S., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment
Uncertainty analysis of soil-pile interactions of monopile offshore wind turbine support structures Yeter, B., Garbatov, Y., Soares, C. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment
The Influence of Large Offshore Wind Farms on the North Sea and Baltic Sea - A Comprehensive Literature Review Clark, S., Schroeder, F., Baschek, B. December 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Ecosystem Processes, Physical Environment, Water Quality
Zooplankton Community Responses and the Relation to Environmental Factors from Established Offshore Wind Farms within the Rudong Coastal Area of China Wang, T., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem Processes, Physical Environment, Water Quality
Modelling Potential Changes in Marine Biogeochemistry due to Large-Scale Offshore Wind Farms van der Molen, J., Rees, J., Limpenny, S. April 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Ecosystem Processes, Physical Environment
Predicting the Large-Scale Consequences of Offshore Wind Turbine Array Development on a North Sea Ecosystem van der Molen, J., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Physical Environment
Similar Diversity-Disturbance Responses to Different Physical Impacts: Three Cases of Small-Scale Biodiversity Increase in the Belgian Part of the North Sea De Backer, A., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Physical Environment
Habitat Engineering by Decadal-Scale Bioturbation around Shipwrecks on the Great Barrier Reef Mid-Shelf Stieglitz, T. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Physical Environment

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