Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressorssort descending Receptors
Ormonde Offshore Wind Farm 2010 Construction Environmental Monitoring Report Saunders, S. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Noise Birds, Waterfowl, Marine Mammals
Wind Energy: Increasing Deployment, Rising Environmental Concerns Tabassum-Abbasi, et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general Energy Removal, Noise Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
Ecological Research at the Offshore Windfarm Alpha Ventus: Challenges, Results and Perspectives Beiersdorf, A., Radecke, A. January 2014 Book Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
OSPAR request to advise on the current state and knowledge of studies into the deployment and environmental impacts of wet renewable technologies and marine energy storage systems N/A April 2019 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Noise Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm II: EIA Report Fish Jensen, B., Klaustrup, M., Skov, H. July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Environmental Consequences of Offshore Wind Power Generation Parkinson, K. April 2001 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Man-Made Structures on Marine Sediments: Effects on Adjacent Benthic Communities Davis, N., VanBlaricom, G., Dayton, P. January 1982 Journal Article N/A Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Nature Conservation Guidance on Offshore Windfarm Development - A Guidance Note on the Implications of the EC Wild Birds and Habitats Directives for Developers Undertaking Offshore Windfarm Developments UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs March 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Potential Scour for Marine Current Turbines Based on Experience of Offshore Wind Turbine Chen, L., Lam, W., Shamsuddin, A. June 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Review of Cabling Techniques and Environmental Effects Applicable to the Offshore Wind Farm Industry UK Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm: Offshore ES Description of the Physical Baseline Environment Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Farfield Environment
Ormonde Project Scoping Study for Coastal and Seabed Processes Coates, T., Skipper, C., Cranmer, G. November 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Upper Ocean Response to Large Wind Farm Effect in the Presence of Surface Gravity Waves Paskyabi, M., Fer, I. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Numerical study of multi-scale flow-sediment-structure interactions using a multiphase approach Nagel, T. July 2018 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Analyzing Coastal and Marine Changes – Offshore Wind Farming as a Case Study Lange, M., et al. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Socio-economics
Human pressures on UK seabed habitats: a cumulative impact assessment Foden, J., Rogers, S., Jones, A. May 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
Public estimates of support for offshore wind energy: False consensus, pluralistic ignorance, and partisan effects Sokoloski, R., Markowitz, E., Bidwell, D. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Potential impacts of energy development on shrublands in western North America Pocewicz, A., Copeland, H., Kiesecker, J. December 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Land-Use Requirements of Modern Wind Power Plants in the United States Denholm, P., et al. August 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Environmental Impact Assessment
Corridors for aliens but not for natives: effects of marine urban sprawl at a regional scale Airoldi, L., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates
The large-scale impact of offshore wind farm structures on pelagic primary productivity in the southern North Sea Slavik, K., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Physical Environment, Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Ocean sprawl facilitates dispersal and connectivity of protected species Henry, L., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Connectivity of larval stages of sedentary marine communities between hard substrates and offshore structures in the North Sea van der Molen, J., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Invertebrates
Nonmarket Valuation of Marine Resources in the Northeast: Implications for Recreational Fisheries Management and Offshore Wind Energy Development Carr-Harris, A. January 2019 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Fisheries, Visual Impacts
Green Light For Nocturnally Migrating Birds Poot, H., et al. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Lighting Birds
Influences of Artificial Light on Marine Birds Montevecchi, W. January 2006 Book Chapter N/A Lighting Birds, Seabirds
The Effects of Light Characteristics on Avian Mortality at Lighthouses Jones, J., Francis, C. November 2003 Journal Article N/A Lighting Birds
Light-Induced Bird Strikes on Vessels in Southwest Greenland Merkel, F., Johansen, K. November 2011 Journal Article N/A Lighting Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Socio-economics, Navigation
Response of Night-Migrating Songbirds in Cloud to Colored and Flashing Light Kaiser, M., et al. January 2007 Journal Article N/A Lighting Birds, Passerines
Barriers and Benefits: Implications of Artificial Night-Lighting for the Distribution of Common Bats in Britain and Ireland Mathews, F., et al. May 2015 Journal Article N/A Lighting Bats
Offshore Obstruction Lighting - Issues and Mitigation Blew, J., Nehls, G., Prall, U. February 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Lighting Birds
Green Light to Birds: Investigation into the Effect of Bird-Friendly Lighting van de Laar, F. December 2007 Report N/A Lighting Birds, Passerines, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Evaluation of Lighting Schemes for Offshore Wind Facilities and Impacts to Local Environments Orr, T., Herz, S., Oakley, D. August 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Lighting N/A
Assessing bird avoidance of high-contrast lights using a choice test approach: implications for reducing human-induced avian mortality Goller, B., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general Lighting Birds
Endogenous cycles, activity patterns and energy expenditure of an intertidal fish is modified by artificial light pollution at night (ALAN) Pulgar, J., et al. January 2019 Journal Article N/A Lighting Fish
Attraction of nocturnally migrating birds to artificial light: The influence of colour, intensity and blinking mode under different cloud cover conditions Rebke, M., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Lighting Birds
Spoiled darkness? Sense of place and annoyance over obstruction lights from the world’s largest wind turbine test centre in Denmark Rudolph, D., et al. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Lighting Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Effect of anthropogenic light on bird movement, habitat selection, and distribution: A systematic map protocol Adams, C., et al. June 2019 Journal Article N/A Lighting Birds
The influence of wind turbine visibility on the health of local residents: a systematic review Freiberg, A., et al. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general Lighting, Noise Socio-economics, Aesthetics
From strategic marine planning to project licences – Striking a balance between predictability and adaptability in the management of aquaculture and offshore wind farms Schütz, S., Slater, A. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
A Characterization of Marine Mammals and Turtles in the Mid and North Atlantic Areas of the US Outer Continental Shelf Cetacean and Turtle Assessment Program June 1981 Report N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Reptiles
A Comparison of Nocturnal Call Counts of Migrating Birds and Reflectivity Measurements on Doppler Radar Farnsworth, A., Gauthreaux, S. Jr., Blaricom, D. January 2004 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
A Comparison of Offshore Wind Power Development in Europe and the US: Patterns and Drivers of Development Snyder, B., Kaiser, M. October 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Risk Evaluation for Federally Listed (Roseate Tern, Piping Plover) or Candidate (Red Knot) Bird Species in Offshore Waters: A First Step for Managing the Potential Impacts of Wind Facility Development on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Burger, J., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Farfield Environment
A High Resolution Hydrodynamic Model of Puget Sound to Support Nearshore Restoration Feasibility Analysis and Design Khangaonkar, T., Yang, Z. March 2011 Journal Article N/A N/A Ecosystem
A Report on the Perceptions of the Fishing Industry into the Potential Socio-Economic Impacts of Offshore Wind Energy Developments on their Work Patterns and Income Mackinson, S., et al. October 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Socio-economics
A Review and Inventory of Fixed Autonomous Recorders for Passive Acoustic Monitoring of Marine Mammals Sousa-Lima, R., et al. March 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals
A Review of Approaches for Classifying Benthic Habitats and Evaluating Habitat Quality Diaza, R., Solan, M., Valente, R. November 2004 Journal Article N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates
A Review of Killer Whale Interactions with Other Marine Mammals: Predation to Co-existence Jefferson, T., Stacey, P., Baird, R. December 1991 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Future Offshore: A Strategic Framework for the Offshore Wind Industry UK Department of Trade and Industry November 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Abundance and Behaviour of Cetaceans and Basking Sharks in the Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Evans, P., Baines, M., Coppock, J. January 2011 Report N/A N/A Fish, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Acoustic Monitoring of Night-Migrating Birds: A Progress Report Evans, W., Rosenberg, K. January 2000 Workshop Article N/A N/A Birds, Passerines
Adjustments of Wingbeat Frequency and Air Speed to Air Density in Free-Flying Migratory Birds Schmaljohann, H., Liechti, F. August 2009 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Aerial Survey of Seabirds: The Advent of Digital Methods Buckland, S., et al. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Aerial Surveys of Waterbirds in Strategic Wind Farm Areas Bloor, P., Wratten, A. May 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Aggregation at Windmill Artificial Reefs: CPUE of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) and Pouting (Trisopterus luscus) at Different Habitats in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Reubens, J., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Nearfield Habitat
An Approach to the Intercalibration of Benthic Ecological Status Assessment in the North Atlantic Ecoregion, According to the European Water Framework Directive Borja, A., et al. January 2007 Journal Article N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates
An Assessment of the Conservation Importance of Species and Habitats Identified During a Series of Recent Research Cruises around Scotland Moore, C., Roberts, J. January 2011 Report N/A N/A Nearfield Habitat
An Evaluation of the Relationship Between Small Cetacean Tag Design and Attachment Durations: A Bioengineering Approach Hanson, M. May 2001 Thesis N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
An Integrated Risk Framework for Gigawatt-Scale Deployments of Renewable Energy: The U.S. Wind Energy Case Ram, B. October 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
An Introduction to Socio-Economic Assessment within a Marine Strategy Framework Turner, R., et al. March 2010 Report N/A N/A Socio-economics
An Overview Of Ocean Renewable Energy Technologies Bedard, R., et al. June 2010 Magazine Article Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Analysis of Marine Environmental Monitoring Plan Data from the Robin Rigg Offshore Wind Farm, Scotland (Operational Year 1) Walls, R., et al. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Applications of Acoustic Bird Monitoring for the Wind Power Industry Evans, W. May 1998 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Approaches to Marine Mammal Monitoring at Marine Renewable Energy Developments Macleod, K., et al. August 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
Assessing Integrated Risks Of Offshore Wind Projects: Moving Towards Gigawatt-scale Deployments Ram, B. June 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Assessing the Life Cycle Environmental Impacts of Wind Power: A Review of Present Knowledge and Research Needs Arvesen, A., Hertwich, E. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Assessment of the Environmental Impact of Offshore Wind-Farms OSPAR Commission January 2008 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Atlas of UK Marine Renewable Energy Resources ABP Marine Environmental Research May 2008 Website Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Automatic Identification of Bird Targets with Radar via Patterns Produced by Wing Flapping Zaugg, S., et al. September 2008 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Bats and Wind Energy - A Literature Synthesis and Annotated Bibliography Ellison, L. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Benthic Cover Data NOAA Coastal Services Center January 2010 Website N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Bird Numbers and Distributions in the Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Area Petersen, I. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Blue Seas - Green Energy: A Sectoral Marine Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters (The Plan) APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Blue Seas - Green Energy: A Sectoral Marine Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters (Post Adoption Statement) APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
California Offshore Wind Energy Potential Dvorak, M., Archer, C., Jacobson, M. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Call and Component Evaluation for Improved Performance of Recognition of Killer Whale Individuals Nichols, N., et al. September 2010 Conference Paper N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Case Study: European Offshore Wind Farms - A Survey for the Analysis of the Experiences and Lessons Learnt by Developers of Offshore Wind Farms Gerdes, G., Tiedemann, A., Zeelenberg, S. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Challenges and Solutions of Remote Sensing at Offshore Wind Energy Developments Kelly, T., West, T., Davenport, J. November 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Charting Progress 2: An Assessment of the State of UK Seas UK Marine Monitoring Assessment Strategy Community July 2010 Report N/A N/A Socio-economics
Charting Progress: An Integrated Assessment of the State of UK Seas UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs March 2005 Report N/A N/A Socio-economics
Click Communication in Harbour Porpoises Phocoena phocoena Clausen, K., et al. January 2010 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning Data Registry National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration March 2014 Website N/A N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Combining Vessel-Based Surveys and Tracking Data to Identify Key Marine Areas for Seabirds Louzao, M., et al. September 2009 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds
Community Profiles for West Coast and North Pacific Fisheries Northwest Fisheries Science Center November 2007 Report N/A N/A Fish, Socio-economics
Comparison of Energy Systems Using Life Cycle Assessment World Energy Council July 2004 Report Marine Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Comparison of Ship and Aerial Surveys of Birds at Sea Briggs, K., Tyler, W., Lewis, D. September 1984 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds
Concerted Action for Offshore Wind Energy Deployment (COD): Overview of Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Energy Roth, E., Verhoef, L., Dingenouts, M. September 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Conference on Wind Energy and Wildlife Impacts 2011: Proceedings May, R., Bevanger, K. May 2011 Conference Paper Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Consequences of a Cumulative Perspective on Marine Environmental Impacts: Offshore Wind Farming and Seabirds at North Sea Scale in Context of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive Busch, M., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Farfield Environment
Consequential Environmental System Analysis of Expected Offshore Wind Electricity Production in Germany Pehnt, M., Oeser, M., Swider, D. May 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Preliminary Assessment of the Conservation Importance of Benthic Species and Habitats off the West Coast of Orkney and in the Pentland Firth in Relation to the Development of Renewable Energy Schemes Moore, C. January 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Cultural Ecosystem Services in the Context of Offshore Wind Farming: A Case Study from the West Coast of Schleswig-Holstein Gee, K., Burkhard, B. September 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Cumulative Impact Assessments and Bird/Wind Farm Interactions: Developing a Conceptual Framework Masden, E., et al. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Farfield Environment
Cumulative Impacts of Wave Energy In Oregon: A Literature and Research Review Aquatera, Parametrix April 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave N/A Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
Cumulative Impacts of Wave Energy In Oregon: Data Atlas Parametrix, Aquatera April 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave N/A Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
Danish Offshore Wind Key Environmental Issues - A Follow-up Danish Energy Agency, et al. February 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Decision Bias in Marine Spatial Planning of Offshore Wind Farms: Problems of Singular Versus Cumulative Assessments of Economic Impacts on Fisheries Berkenhagen, J., et al. May 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Declining Survival Probability Threatens the North Atlantic Right Whale Caswell, H., Fujiwara, M., Brault, S. March 1999 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Definition of a 5-MW Reference Wind Turbine for Offshore System Development Jonkman, J., et al. February 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A

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