Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers.


As an alternative to the Knowledge Base, check out the Map Viewer to access geotagged content in a spatial view.


Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptorssort descending
Biodiversity Characterisation of Fouling Communities and Their Hydrodynamic Consequences on Marine Renewable Energy Infrastructure in the UK Want, A., Harris, R., Porter, J. December 2018 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change N/A
Environmental Impacts of Renewable Energy Mazhar, N., Zia, S. September 2019 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), OTEC, Wave, Wind Energy (General) N/A N/A
A review of potential impacts of submarine power cables on the marine environment: Knowledge gaps, recommendations and future directions Taormina, B., et al. November 2018 Journal Article N/A N/A N/A
Disturbance affects biotic community composition at desert wind farms Keehne, J., Feldman, C. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change N/A
Continuation Implementation Masterplan Wind at Sea Ministry of Economic Affairs (Rijksoverheid), Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment (Rijkwaterstaat) September 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change, Noise N/A
Environmental Issues Associated with Wind Energy - A Review Dai, K., et al. March 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) N/A N/A
Tethys knowledge management system: Working to advance the marine renewable energy industry Whiting, J., et al. November 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General) N/A N/A
Demonstrating a New Framework for the Comparison of Environmental Impacts from Small- and Large-Scale Hydropower and Wind Power Projects Bakken, T., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Habitat Change N/A
Land cover and topography affect the land transformation caused by wind facilities Diffendorfer, J., Compton, R. February 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change N/A
An Analysis about Wind Farm Construction Based on the Perspective of the Development of Ecological Environment Bai, Z. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change N/A
Public Attitudes and Environmental Impacts of Wind Farms: A Review Karydis, M. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Summer Distribution of Semi-Domesticated Reindeer Relative to a New Wind-Power Plant Colman, J., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change N/A
Renewable Energy Respecting Nature: A Synthesis of Knowledge on Environmental Impacts of Renewable Energy Financed by the Research Council of Norway May, R., et al. October 2012 Report Wind Energy (General) N/A N/A
Prevention of the ecological effects of offshore windfarms in licensing and spatial planning - an overview Boon, A. July 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Synthesis of Wind Energy Development and Potential Impacts on Wildlife in the Pacific Northwest, Oregon and Washington Mockrin, M., Gravenmier, R. July 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change N/A
Study on the Marine Growth Effect on the Dynamic Response of Offshore Wind Turbines Shi, W., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change N/A
Short-Term Ecological Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm in the Dutch Coastal Zone: A Compilation Lindeboom, H., et al. August 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Wind Energy Development Specialist Report: Kiowa, Rita Blanca, Black Kettle and McClellan Creek National Grasslands Plan Revision Environmental Impact Statement Hall, D. May 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Technical Manual for Evaluating Wildlife Impacts of Wind Turbines Requiring Coastal Permits NJ Department of Environmental Protection September 2010 Report Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change N/A
Coastal And Offshore Wind Energy Generation: Is It Environmentally Benign? Wilson, J., et al. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Habitat Change N/A
Environment and Siting: Supporting Research on Impacts to Birds, Bats and Habitats from Wind Development National Renewable Energy Laboratory June 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change N/A
Environmental and Ecological Effects of Ocean Renewable Energy Development: A Current Synthesis Boehlert, G., Gill, A. June 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Final Environmental Impact Report for the SMUD Solano Wind Project Phase 3 Sacramento Municipal Utility District February 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Preliminary Flora and Fauna Assessment - Penshurst Wind Farm McMahon, A., Marr, R. October 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change N/A
The Habitat-Creation Potential of Offshore Wind Farms Elliott, M., Wilson, J. February 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change N/A
Wind Energy Systems: Environmental Aspects and Impacts Manwell, J., McGowan, J., Rogers, A. January 2009 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Wind Farms and Mires in the Basque Country and North-West Navarra, Spain Heras, P., Infante, M. July 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change N/A
The Impact of Offshore Wind Farms on the Marine Environment Steen, H., et al. January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Guide to the OCS Alternative Energy Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) US Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service October 2007 Report Marine Energy (General), Ocean Current, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Impacts of Wind Energy Facilities on Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Arnett, E., et al. September 2007 Report Wind Energy (General) Habitat Change N/A
Worldwide Synthesis and Analysis of Existing Information Regarding Environmental Effects of Alternative Energy Uses on the Outer Continental Shelf Michel, J., et al. July 2007 Report Marine Energy (General), Ocean Current, OTEC, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change N/A
Gunfleet Sands 2 Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement RPS Group June 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Standard Investigation of the Impacts of Offshore Wind Turbines on the Marine Environment (StUK3) Bellebaum, J., et al. February 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Review Report 2005: The Danish Offshore Wind Farm Demonstration Project: Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farms Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring DONG Energy, Vattenfall November 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Ecological Effects of Wind-Energy Development National Resource Council August 2007 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change N/A
Wind Energy Facts EWEA December 2012 Presentation Wind Energy (General) N/A N/A
Noise impact assessment on the basis of onsite acoustic noise immission measurements for a representative wind farm Kaldellis, J., Garakis, K., Kapsali, M. May 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Noise N/A
A Vessel Noise Budget for Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound, Washington (USA) Bassett, C., et al. September 2012 Journal Article N/A Noise N/A
Case Study: The Royal Norwegian Navy Underwater Acoustic Noise Measurement of Vessels Brüel & Kjær January 2009 Report N/A Noise N/A
Measurement of Radiated Ship Noise Wang, L., et al. July 2012 Conference Paper N/A Noise N/A
Snefjord vindpark: Vurdering av konsekvenser for landskap, flora, fauna, friluftsliv, kulturminner og reindriftsnæring Tombre, I., et al. February 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change N/A
Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm: Offshore ES Description of the Biological Baseline Environment Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Wind Energy Technology, Environmental Impacts of Morrison, M., Sinclair, K. June 2004 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General) N/A N/A
Problems and Benefits Associated with the Development of Offshore Wind-Farms OSPAR Commission January 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Onshore Environmental Impact Statement for Lincs, Docking Shoal, and Race Bank OSW Farms Centrica Energy June 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change N/A
Acoustic and Electromagnetic Noise Induced by Wind Mills - Implications for Underwater Surveillance Systems Pilot Study Fristedt, T., Morén, P., Söderberg, P. September 2001 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF, Noise N/A
Ocean Energies: Environmental, Economic and Technological Aspects of Alternative Power Sources Charlier, R., Justus, J. September 1993 Book Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Environmental Sensitivity Modeling and Site Characterization Guttenplan, K., Koopman, M., Belin, D. May 2019 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Sustainable Decommissioning of an Offshore Wind Farm Topham, E., McMillan, D. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Northeast Ocean Plan Northeast Regional Planning Body October 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Offshore Wind Park Monitoring Programmes, Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the Future Lindeboom, H., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Energy Transitions Towards Low Carbon Resilience: Evaluation of Disaster-Triggered Local and Regional Cases Ko, Y., et al. November 2019 Journal Article Wave, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Harnessing the Wind: How to Advance Wind Power Offshore NRDC July 2019 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Displacement, Noise N/A
Interference of Flying Insects and Wind Parks Trieb, F. October 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision, Displacement N/A
Monitoring Guidance for Underwater Noise in European Seas, Part I Dekeling, R., et al. May 2013 Report N/A Noise N/A
Monitoring Guidance for Underwater Noise in European Seas, Part II: Monitoring Guidance Specifications Dekeling, R., et al. January 2014 Report N/A Noise N/A
The Airspace is Habitat Diehl, R. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Habitat Change N/A
Electromagnetic Simulation of the Near-Field Distribution around a Wind Farm Ling, H., Yang, S. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF N/A
Averaging Underwater Noise Levels for Environmental Assessment of Shipping Merchant, N., et al. September 2012 Journal Article N/A Noise N/A
Wind Energy Development and its Environmental Impact: A Review Leung, D., Yang, Y. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Pathways of Effects for Offshore Renewable Energy in Canada Isaacman, L., Daborn, G. December 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Mitigation of Underwater Piling Noise Using New Hydro Sound Dampers (HSD) Elmer, K., et al. September 2011 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Environmental Impact of Wind Energy Saidur, R., et al. June 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) N/A N/A
A Preliminary Review of the Impact of Placing Portions of an Extra-High Voltage Transmission Line Beneath the Chesapeake Bay & Other Waters Community & Environmental Defense Service February 2011 Report N/A EMF, Habitat Change N/A
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Appropriate Assessment Information Review APS Group Scotland January 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Underwater Surf Noise Near Sea Coasts of Different Types Bardyshev, V. January 2008 Journal Article N/A Noise N/A
Cape Wind Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Diver Survey Woods Hole Group, Inc. July 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Reconnaissance Geology and Geologic Hazards of the Offshore Coos Bay Basin, Oregon Clarke, S., Field, M., Hirozawa, C. January 1985 Report N/A N/A Nearfield Habitat
Additional Papers from the 10th International Congress on Marine Corrosion and Fouling Defence Science & Technology Imagination (DSTO) February 1999 Conference Paper N/A N/A Nearfield Habitat
Comparison of Recent Oil and Gas, Wind Energy, and Other Anthropogenic Landscape Alteration Factors in Texas Through 2014 Pierre, J., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Physical Environment
Impact of substantial wind farms on the local and regional atmospheric boundary layer: Case study of Zhangbei wind power base in China Wang, Q., et al. September 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Seabed morphodynamics due to offshore wind farms van der Veen, H., Hulscher, S., Lapeña, B. July 2019 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
The Iowa Atmospheric Observatory: Revealing the Unique Boundary Layer Characteristics of a Wind Farm Takle, E., Rajewski, D., Purdy, S. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Modelling the Effects of Wind Farming on the Local Weather Using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model Jawaheer, B., et al. January 2019 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
The Influence of Real‐World Wind Turbine Deployments on Local to Mesoscale Climate Pryor, S., Barthelmie, R., Shepherd, T. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Meteorological and Hydrological Effect of Wind Farm in Arid Areas Yin, R., et al. January 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Exploring the wakes of large offshore wind farms Emeis, S., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Offshore Wind Farm Wake Effect on Stratification and Coastal Upwelling Paskyabi, M. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Changes in fluxes of heat, H2O, and CO2 caused by a large wind farm Rajewski, D., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Numerical Study for Wave-Induced Seabed Response around Offshore Wind Turbine Foundation in Donghai Offshore Wind Farm, Shanghai, China Chang, K., Jeng, D. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Effects of Man-Made Structures on Sedimentary Oxygenation: Extent, Seasonality and Implications for Offshore Renewables Wilding, T. June 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Large Eddy Simulation Studies of the Effects of Alignment and Wind Farm Length Stevens, R., Gayme, D., Meneveau, C. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Crop Wind Energy Experiment (CWEX): Observations of Surface-Layer, Boundary Layer, and Mesoscale Interactions with a Wind Farm Rajewski, D., et al. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Evaluation of the nearshore impact of a hybrid wave-wind energy farm Diaconu, S., Onea, F., Rusu, E. February 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Spatiotemporal Structure of Wind Farm-atmospheric Boundary Layer Interactions Cervarich, M., Roy, S., Zhou, L. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Further evidence of impacts of large-scale wind farms on land surface temperature Walsh-Thomas, J., et al. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Numerical Calculation of the Impact of Offshore Wind Farm Power Stations on Hydrodynamic Conditions Zhang, W., Xia, H., Wang, B. January 2009 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Threats to Sandy Beach Ecosystems: A Review Defeo, O., et al. January 2009 Journal Article N/A N/A Physical Environment
On The Influence Of Large Wind Farms On The Upper Ocean Circulation Broström, G. November 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Effects of Wind Farm Foundations on the Water Exchange between North Sea and Baltic Sea - A First Careful Assessment Derived from the QuantAS-Off Project Burchard, H., et al. January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Dynamics of Scour Pits and Scour Protection - Synthesis Report and Recommendations Whitehouse, R., Harris, J., Rees, J. January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Wake Effects on Middelgrund Windfarm Jørgensen, H., Frandsen, S., Vølund, P. July 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Offshore Wind Turbine Wakes Measured by Sodar Barthelmie, J., et al. April 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
The Annapolis Tidal Power Project Head Pond Water Levels - Impacts and Mitigations Rice, R. September 1984 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Wind turbine impact on near-ground air temperature Moravec, D., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
The Expected Shoreline Effect of a Marine Energy Farm Operating Close to Sardinia Island Onea, F., Rusu, E. November 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Current and Wave Effects around Windfarm Monopile Foundations Miles, J., Martin, T, Goddard, L March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Foundation Damping and the Dynamics of Offshore Wind Turbine Monopiles Carswell, W., et al. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Preliminary Assessment of Offshore Wind Development Impacts on Marine Ecosystems Huang, H., Hall, A. March 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Human pressures on UK seabed habitats: a cumulative impact assessment Foden, J., Rogers, S., Jones, A. May 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Physical Environment

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