Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Titlesort descending Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Socio-Economic Impact of Outer Continental Shelf Wind Energy Development on Fisheries in the US Atlantic: Volume II - Appendices Kirkpatrick, A., et al. January 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Fishing
Socioeconomic and demographic factors that influence publics' awareness on the different forms of renewable energy sources Karytsas, S., Theodoropoulou, H. November 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics
Sociological Effects of Wind Farms in Maine Barthold, J. May 2015 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
Some Clouds Have a Silver Lining: Paradoxes of Anthropogenic Perturbations from Study Cases on Long-Lived Social Birds Oro, D., Jimenez, J., Curco, A. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Some Examples of Marine Mammal 'Discomfort Thresholds' in Relation to Man-Made Noise Verboom, W., Kastelein, R. January 2005 Report N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
SORIANT VUM - final report von Benda-Beckmann, A., et al. June 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Sound Exposure in Harbour Seals During the Installation of an Offshore Wind Farm: Predictions of Auditory Damage Hastie, G., et al. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Sound Propagation Through the Stochastic Ocean Henyey, F. May 2017 Journal Article N/A Noise N/A
Sound Science: Maintaining Numerical and Statistical Standards in the Pursuit of Noise Exposure Criteria for Marine Mammals Wright, A. November 2015 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Sound Solutions: Construction of Offshore Wind Farms Without Underwater Noise Stichting de Noordzee January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Sound Speed and Void Fraction Profiles in the Sea Surface Bubble Layer Buckingham, M. July 1997 Journal Article N/A Noise N/A
Soundscape Analysis and Wildlife Presence in the Vicinity of a Wind Turbine Florentin, J., et al. June 2015 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
Soundscape characterization in a dynamic acoustic environment: Grand Passage, Nova Scotia, a planned in-stream tidal energy site Lombardi, A., Hay, A., Barclay, D. September 2016 Conference Paper N/A Noise N/A
Soundscape of an Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) hotspot before windfarm construction in the Pearl River Estuary, China: Do dolphin engage in noise avoidance and passive eavesdropping behavior? Wang, Z., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Source Levels of the Underwater Calls of a Male Leopard Seal Rogers, T. October 2014 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
South African Good Practice Guidelines for Operational Monitoring for Bats at Wind Energy Facilities Aronson, J., et al. July 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
South African Good Practice Guidelines for Surveying Bats at Wind Energy Facility Developments - Pre-construction Sowler, S., Stoffberg, S. January 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
South African Good Practice Guidelines for Surveying Bats in Wind Farm Developments Sowler, S., Stoffberg, S. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
South Inshore and South Offshore Marine Plan Areas: South Plans Analytical Report Marine Management Organisation June 2014 Report N/A N/A Socio-economics
South Marine Plan Areas Options Report Marine Management Organisation February 2015 Report N/A N/A Socio-economics
South West Marine Energy Park Prospectus Southwest Marine Energy Park Coalition January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Space use by Female Greater Prairie-Chickens in Response to Wind Energy Development Winder, V., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Spatial and Seasonal Relationships Between Pacific Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina richardii) and their Prey, at Multiple Scales Grigg, E., et al. July 2009 Journal Article N/A N/A Ecosystem, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Spatial and Temporal Changes in the Assemblage Structure of Fish Associated to Fish Aggregation Devices in the Western Mediterranean Addis, P., et al. May 2006 Journal Article N/A Static Device Fish
Spatial and Temporal Patterns in Golden Eagle Diets in the Western United States, with Implications for Conservation Planning Kochert, M., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Bryozoan Distribution and Diversity in the Scottish Sea Regions Rouse, S., Jones, M., Porter, J. August 2010 Journal Article N/A Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Spatial Association as an Indicator of the Potential for Future Interactions Between Wind Energy Developments and Golden Eagles Aquila chrysaetos in Scotland Fielding, A., Whitfield, D., McLeod, D. August 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Spatial Demographic Models to Inform Conservation Planning of Golden Eagles in Renewable Energy Landscapes Wiens, J., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Spatial Distribution of Wind Turbines is Crucial for the Survival of Red Kite Populations Schaub, M. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Spatial Distribution, Abundance and Flight Ecology of Birds in Nearshore and Offshore Waters in Rhode Island Paton, P., et al. June 2010 Report N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Spatial Ecology of Female Mule Deer in an Area Proposed for Wind Energy Development Webb, S., et al. November 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Terrestrial Mammals
Spatial Factors Affecting Statistical Power in Testing Marine Fauna Displacement Lapeña, B., et al. October 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Spatial Framework Assessment and Assessment Criteria for On-Shore Wind Energy Development in West Lothian West Lothian Council April 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Spatial Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (SMCDA) toolbox for Consensus-based Siting of Powerlines and Wind-power plants (ConSite) Hanssen, F., et al. January 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Spatial Overlap of Wind Farms on Peatland with Sensitive Areas for Birds Bright, J., et al. September 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Spatial Pattern of Summer Bat Mortality from Collisions with Wind Turbines in Mixed-Grass Prairie Piorkowski, M., O'Connell, T. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Spatial Planning for the Gulf: An International Review of Marine Spatial Planning Initiatives and Application to the Hauraki Gulf Hauraki Gulf Forum January 2011 Report N/A N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Spatial Planning of Offshore Wind Farms: A Windfall to Marine Environmental Protection? Punt, M., et al. November 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Spatial targeting, synergies and scale: Exploring the criteria of smart practices for siting renewable energy projects Frantal, B., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Spatial Trends in Coastal Socio-economics National Ocean Service January 2012 Website N/A N/A Socio-economics
Spatially Explicit Model of Wintering Common Loons: Conservation Implications Winiarski, K., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Spatially-Explicit Bat Impact Screening Tool for Wind Turbine Siting Versar, Exponent October 2013 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Spatiotemporal Structure of Wind Farm-atmospheric Boundary Layer Interactions Cervarich, M., Roy, S., Zhou, L. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Special framework for the spatial planning & the sustainable development of renewable energy sources Baltas, A., Dervos, A. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Special Issue: Renewable Ocean Energy Development and the Environment Zydlewski, G., Copping, A., Redden, A. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem
Special Topic: Wildlife and Wind Energy: Are They Compatible? Hutchins, M., Leopold, B. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Species composition and mortality of bats at the Osorio Wind Farm, southern Brazil Barros, M., de Magalhaes, R., Rui, A. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Spectral Density of Polarimetric Variables Separating Biological Scatters in the VAD Display Bachmann, S., Zrnić, D. July 2007 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Passerines
Speeds and Wingbeat Frequencies of Migrating Birds Compared with Calculated Benchmarks Pennycuick, C. July 2001 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Spoiled darkness? Sense of place and annoyance over obstruction lights from the world’s largest wind turbine test centre in Denmark Rudolph, D., et al. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Lighting Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Spring 2006 Bird and Bat Migration Surveys at the Proposed Deerfield Wind Project in Searsburg and Readsboro, Vermont Stantec Consulting December 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Spring 2007 Radar, Visual, and Acoustic Survey of Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Windpark in Coos County, New Hampshire by Granite Reliable Power, LLC Stantec Consulting October 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Stable Isotope Analyses of Bat Fur: Applications for Investigating North American Bat Migration Fraser, E. December 2011 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Stakeholder empowerment through participatory planning practices: The case of electricity transmission lines in France and Norway Späth, L., Scolobig, A. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Stakeholder Outcomes in a Wind Turbine Investment; Is the Irish Energy Policy Effective in Reducing GHG Emissions by Promoting Small-Scale Embedded Turbines in SME's? Kealy, T. February 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change, Stakeholder Engagement
Stakeholder Perceptions of the Wave Hub Development in Cornwall, UK. West, J., Bailey, I., Whithead, I. September 2009 Conference Paper Offshore Wind N/A Stakeholder Engagement
Stakeholder Perspectives on the Value of Marine Spatial Planning Towards Advancing Offshore Wind in the U.S. Ryan, K., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-Economics, Environmental Impact Assessment, Marine Spatial Planning
Stakeholder Priorities in Wind Energy Lantz, E. May 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Stakeholders or Subject Matter Experts, who Should be consulted? Alberts, D. April 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Standard for Measurement and Monitoring of Underwater Noise, Part I: Physical Quantities and their Units Ainslie, M. September 2011 Report N/A Noise N/A
Standard for Measurement and Monitoring of Underwater Noise, Part II: Procedures for Measuring Underwater Noise in Connection with Offshore Wind Farm Licensing de Jong, C., Ainslie, M., Blacquière, G. September 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Standard Investigation of the Impacts of Offshore Wind Turbines on the Marine Environment (StUK3) Bellebaum, J., et al. February 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Standard Investigation of the Impacts of Offshore Wind Turbines on the Marine Environment (StUK4) Bundesamt fur Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie (BSH) October 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Standard Metrics and Methods for Conducting Avian/Wind Energy Interaction Studies Anderson, R., et al. January 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
State of the Nation's de Facto Marine Protected Areas Grober-Dunsmore, R., et al. May 2008 Report Marine Energy general N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics
State of the Science: An Assessment of Research on the Ecological Impacts of Wind Energy in the Great Lakes Region Hinderer, J., et al. October 2011 Workshop Article Wind Energy general N/A Ecosystem
State of the World's Raptors: Distributions, Threats, and Conservation Recommendations McClure, C., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
State of Washington Bat Conservation Plan Hayes, G., Wiles, G. June 2013 Report N/A N/A Bats
Stateline Wind Project Wildlife Monitoring Annual Report: Results for the Period July 2001 - December 2002 Erickson, W., et al. May 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Stateline Wind Project Wildlife Monitoring Final Report: July 2001 - December 2003 Erickson, W., et al. December 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors
Statistical guidelines for assessing marine avian hotspots and coldspots: A case study on wind energy development in the U.S. Atlantic Ocean Zipkin, E., et al. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Statistical Modeling of North Atlantic Right Whale Migration along the Mid-Atlantic Region of the Eastern Seaboard of the United States Firestone, J., et al. January 2008 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Statistical Modelling of Seabird and Cetacean Data: Guidance Document Mackenzie, M., et al. October 2013 Report N/A N/A Birds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Statistical Modelling of Seabird and Cetacean Data: Literature Review Oedekoven, C., et al. May 2014 Report N/A N/A Birds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Status and Applications of Acoustic Mitigation and Monitoring Systems for Marine Mammals Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement November 2009 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Status and Trends for the World’s Kelp Forests Wernberg, T., et al. January 2019 Book Chapter N/A N/A Ecosystem
Status of Avian Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sinclair, K. June 2001 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Status of herpatofaunal diversity of Ramagiri east and west reserve forests of Ananthapuramu district, Andhra Pradesh Subramanyam, B., Khan, I., Kumari, K. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Status of Marine Mammals in Korea Song, K. April 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Status of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Avian Research Program Sinclair, K. June 1999 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Statutory Nature Conservation Agency Protocol for Minimising the Risk of Injury to Marine Mammals from Piling Noise Joint Nature Conservation Committee August 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Steel forests or smoke stacks: the politics of visualisation in the Cape Wind controversy Phadke, R. February 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Stereo-Optic High Definition Imaging: A New Technology to Understand Bird and Bat Avoidance of Wind Turbines Adams, E., et al. July 2017 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
Storm effects on intertidal invertebrates: increased beta diversity of few individuals and species Corte, G., et al. May 2017 Journal Article N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Socio-economics, Climate Change
Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) for Wind Energy Planning: Lessons from the United Kingdom and Germany Phylip-Jones, J., Fischer, T. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Strategic Environmental Assessment Area 8 - Contamination of Water and Sediments Voisey, C., Tyrrell, D., Rowlatt, S March 2004 Report N/A Chemicals Nearfield Habitat
Strategic Health Impact Assessment on Wind Energy Development in Oregon Joshi, S., et al. March 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Socio-economics
Strategic Impact Assessment of Offshore Windpower in Norway - Impacts on Seabirds Lorensten, S., et al. March 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Strategic Impact Management of Wind Power Projects Lima, F., Ferreira, P., Vieira, F. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
Strategic Joint Industry Project No.1: Bird avoidance behavior and collision impact monitoring at Offshore Windfarms Marine Scotland, et al. December 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Strategic Planning to Reduce Conflicts for Offshore Wind Development in Taiwan: A Social Marketing Perspective Chen, J., Liu, H., Chuang, C. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Benthic Ecology Walker, R., et al. August 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Birds Budgey, R., Ormston, C. August 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Fish Walker, R., et al. July 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Marine Mammals Philpott, E., Tollit, D., Mackey, B. August 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Underwater Noise Pattenden, A., Thomsen, F., Walker, R. January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA License Conditions Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) August 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Strategic Sectoral Planning for Offshore Renewable Energy in Scotland Davies, I., Pratt, D. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Strategisk konsekv ensutredning for landbasert vindkraft. En evaluering av regionale planer for vindkraft May, R. December 2011 Report Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics
Strategy of Approach Demersal Fish Fauna Grift, R., Tien, N. May 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish

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