Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Typessort descending Stressors Receptors
The Challenges of Addressing Wildlife Impacts When Repowering Wind Energy Projects Smallwood, K. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Collision Effects of Wind-power Generators and Other Obstacles on Birds Drewitt, A., Langston, R. June 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Collision Fatality of Raptors in Wind Farms does not Depend on Raptor Abundance de Lucas, M., et al. October 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision Birds, Raptors
Collision Risk in White-Tailed Eagles Modelling Kernel-Based Collision Risk Using Satellite Telemetry Data in Smøla Wind-Power Plant May, R., et al. May 2011 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision Birds, Raptors
Collision Risk in White-Tailed Eagles: Modelling Collision Risk Using Vantage Point Observations in Smøla Wind-Power Plant May, R., et al. December 2010 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision Birds, Raptors
Curtailing Wind Turbine Operations to Reduce Avian Mortality Singh, K., Baker, E., Lackner, M. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Developing a science-based approach to defining key species of birds and bats of concern for wind farm developments in Victoria Lumsden, L., Moloney, P., Smales, I. September 2019 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision Bats, Birds
Assessing Impacts of Wind-Energy Development on Nocturnally Active Birds and Bats: A Guidance Document Kunz, T., et al. November 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Collision Bats, Birds
Impacts of Wind Energy Facilities on Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Arnett, E., et al. September 2007 Report Wind Energy (General) Habitat Change N/A
Ecological Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds: Questions, Hypotheses, and Research Needs Wang, S., Wang, S., Smith, P. April 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
The Effect of Avoidance Rates on Bird Mortality Predictions Made by Wind Turbine Collision Risk Models Chamberlain, D., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
The Effect of Wind Power on Birds and Bats - A Synthesis Rydell, J., et al. August 2012 Report Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Impact of Wind Turbines on Birds in Zeebrugge (Belgium): Significant Effect on Breeding Tern Colony Due to Collisions Everaert, J., Stienen, E. January 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Collision Birds, Seabirds
Proceedings of the NWCC Wildlife Workgroup Research Planning Meeting VI Schwartz, S. March 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General) N/A Bats, Birds
Renewable Energy Resources and Wildlife: Impacts and Opportunities Arnett, E., Strickland, M., Morrison, M. February 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Poor Evidence-Base For Assessment Of Windfarm Impacts On Birds Steward, G., Pullin, A., Coles, C. February 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Assessing the State of Knowledge of Utility-Scale Wind Energy Development and Operation on Non-Volant Terrestrial and Marine Wildlife Lovich, J., Ennen, J. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) N/A Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Effects of Wind Turbines on Flight Behaviour of Wintering Common Eiders: Implications for Habitat Use and Collision Risk Larsen, J., Guillemette, M. April 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Seabirds
Application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process to a Sustainability Assessment of Coastal Beach Exploitation: A Case Study of the Wind Power Projects on the Coastal Beaches of Yancheng, China Tian, W., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
The Effects of Wind Power on Human Interests - A Synthesis Henningsson, M., et al. January 2013 Report Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Wind Energy Facts EWEA December 2012 Presentation Wind Energy (General) N/A N/A
Noise impact assessment on the basis of onsite acoustic noise immission measurements for a representative wind farm Kaldellis, J., Garakis, K., Kapsali, M. May 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Noise N/A
Strategisk konsekv ensutredning for landbasert vindkraft. En evaluering av regionale planer for vindkraft May, R. December 2011 Report Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Regulating Avian Impacts Under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act and Other Laws: The Wind Industry Collides with One of its Own, the Environmental Protection Movement McKinsey, J. January 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) N/A Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Bird Movements and Behaviors in the Gulf Coast Region: Relation to Potential Wind-Energy Developments Morrison, M. June 2006 Report Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Birds
The Potential Health Impact of Wind Turbines Chief Medical Officer of Heath of Ontario May 2010 Report Wind Energy (General) Noise Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Meta-Analysis of Net Energy Return for Wind Power Systems Kubiszewski, I., Cleveland, C., Endres, P. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Landscape externalities from onshore wind power Meyerhoff, J., Ohl, C., Hartje, V. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Wind Turbine Sound and Health Effects: An Expert Panel Review Colby, W., et al. December 2009 Report Wind Energy (General) Noise Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Bird Strikes and Electrocutions at Power Lines, Communication Towers, and Wind Turbines: State of the Art and State of the Science - Next Steps Toward Mitigation Manville, A. June 2005 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General) Collision Birds
Wind Energy Technology, Environmental Impacts of Morrison, M., Sinclair, K. June 2004 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General) N/A N/A
Proceedings of the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats Workshop: Understanding and Resolving Bird and Bat Impacts Schwartz, S. May 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General) Collision Bats, Birds
The Effects of a Wind Farm on Birds in a Migration Point: The Strait of Gibraltar de Lucas, M., Janss, G., Ferrer, M. February 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision Birds
Birds and Wind Farms in Ireland: A Review of Potential Issues and Impact Assessment Percival, S. December 2003 Report Wind Energy (General) N/A Birds
Windfarms and Birds: An Analysis of the Effects of Windfarms on Birds, and Guidance on Environmental Assessment Criteria and Site Selection Issues Langston, R., Pullan, J. September 2003 Report Wind Energy (General) N/A Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Avian Interactions with Wind Power Structures Electric Power Research Institute March 2003 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General) N/A Birds
Assessing the determinants of local acceptability of wind-farm investment: A choice experiment in the Greek Aegean Islands Dimitropoulos, A., Kontoleon, A. May 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Stakeholders or Subject Matter Experts, who Should be consulted? Alberts, D. April 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Noise Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data, Stakeholder Engagement
Development of Regulatory Requirements for Wind Turbines in Alberta DeGagne, D., Lewis, A. June 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Noise Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Numerical simulation of spudcan-soil interaction using an improved smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method Wu, H., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) N/A Physical Environment
Evaluating anthropogenic landscape alterations as wildlife hazards, with wind farms as an example Peter R. Law, Mark Fuller July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes
Factors influencing citizens' acceptance and non-acceptance of wind energy in Germany Langer, K., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Procedural justice in Canadian wind energy development: A comparison of community-based and technocratic siting processes Walker, C., Baxter, J. July 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data, Stakeholder Engagement
Stakeholder Outcomes in a Wind Turbine Investment; Is the Irish Energy Policy Effective in Reducing GHG Emissions by Promoting Small-Scale Embedded Turbines in SME's? Kealy, T. February 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Legal & Policy
Environmental Interview: The Effects of Wind Power on Human Interests Henningsson, M. March 2016 Video Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions
From NIMBY to Acceptance: Toward a Novel Framework - VESPA - For Organizing and Interpreting Community Concerns Petrova, M. February 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Improving Australia's Renewable Energy Project Policy and Planning: A Multiple Stakeholder Analysis Martin, N., Rice, J. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Global Wind Energy Policy and Development Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
The Vindication of Don Quixote: The Impact of Noise and Visual Pollution from Wind Turbines Jensen, C., Panduro, T., Lundhede, T. November 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Noise Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data, Visual Impacts
Wind farms - Where and how to place them? A choice experiment approach to measure consumer preferences for characteristics of wind farm establishments in Sweden Ek, K., Persson, L. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Societal acceptance of wind farms: Analysis of four common themes across Australian case studies Hall, N., Ashworth, P., Devine-Wright, P. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Welcoming the Wind? Determinants of Wind Power Development Among U.S. States Bohn, C., Lant, C. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data, Visual Impacts
A framework for decision points to trigger adaptive management actions in long-term incidental take permits Dalthorp, D., Huso, M. December 2015 Report Wind Energy (General) N/A Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Biodiversity and Wind Farms in Portugal: Current Knowledge and Insights for an Integrated Impact Assessment Process Mascarenhas, M., et al. January 2018 Book Wind Energy (General) Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Terrestrial Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal & Policy
Examples of State and International Guidance for Duration and Intensity of Pre-Construction and Post-Construction Monitoring US Fish and Wildlife Service January 2011 Report Wind Energy (General) N/A Nearfield Habitat, Physical Environment, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Proposal to Permit Take Provided Under the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act Gould, R. April 2009 Report Wind Energy (General) N/A Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Bats: A Global Perspective Arnett, E., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats
Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Bats: Implications for Conservation Arnett, E., Baerwald, E. July 2013 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Bats
Impacts on Biodiversity of Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources: The Example of Birds and Bats Hötker, H., Thomsen, K., Jeromin, H. January 2006 Report Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
The Influence of Group Size and Social Interactions on Collision Risk with Obstacles Croft, S., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Birds
Impact of substantial wind farms on the local and regional atmospheric boundary layer: Case study of Zhangbei wind power base in China Wang, Q., et al. September 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
The Iowa Atmospheric Observatory: Revealing the Unique Boundary Layer Characteristics of a Wind Farm Takle, E., Rajewski, D., Purdy, S. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Modelling the Effects of Wind Farming on the Local Weather Using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model Jawaheer, B., et al. January 2019 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Effects of wind farms on near-surface wind speed Xin, Z., et al. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow N/A
Environmental impact analysis of power generation from biomass and wind farms in different locations Gao, C., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Environmental Impact Assessment
Input-Output Life Cycle Environmental Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Utility Scale Wind Energy in the United States Kumar, I., Tyner, W., Sinha, K. February 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Life Cycle Assessment
Ökobilanzierung von Schweizer Windenergie Eymann, L., et al. November 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
Life cycle energy and greenhouse emissions analysis of wind turbines and the effect of size on energy yield Crawford, R. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
A GIS-Multicriteria Approach to Analyzing Noise and Visual Impacts of Wind Farms Fang, B. February 2015 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Noise Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts
Potential impacts of energy development on shrublands in western North America Pocewicz, A., Copeland, H., Kiesecker, J. December 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change N/A
The Influence of Real‐World Wind Turbine Deployments on Local to Mesoscale Climate Pryor, S., Barthelmie, R., Shepherd, T. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Oklahoma's future wind energy resources and their relationship with the Central Plains low-level jet Wimhurst, J., Greene, J. November 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Climate Change
The VERTEX field campaign: observations of near-ground effects of wind turbine wakes Archer, C., et al. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow N/A
Meteorological and Hydrological Effect of Wind Farm in Arid Areas Yin, R., et al. January 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Ecological Efficiency Assessment Model for Environmental Safety Management of Wind Power Plant Kasner, R., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Life Cycle Assessment
Land-Based Wind Energy and the Environment: Potential Impacts for Wildlife and the West Michigan Landscape Gajewsk, B., et al. May 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Assessment of the Environmental Impacts of a Wind Farm in Central Greece during its Life Cycle Abeliotis, K., Pactiti, D. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Life Cycle Assessment
Interim Guidelines to Avoid and Minimize Wildlife Impacts from Wind Turbines US Fish and Wildlife Service May 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Maiden Wind Farm Benton County, Washington Final SEPA Environmental Impact Statement and Final NEPA Environmental Impact Statement Bonneville Power Administration, Benton County, Washington January 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Changes in fluxes of heat, H2O, and CO2 caused by a large wind farm Rajewski, D., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Crop Wind Energy Experiment (CWEX): Observations of Surface-Layer, Boundary Layer, and Mesoscale Interactions with a Wind Farm Rajewski, D., et al. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Spatiotemporal Structure of Wind Farm-atmospheric Boundary Layer Interactions Cervarich, M., Roy, S., Zhou, L. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Further evidence of impacts of large-scale wind farms on land surface temperature Walsh-Thomas, J., et al. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Aerial-Hawking Bats Can Glean Prey Items From Surfaces Similar to Wind Turbine Towers: Implications for Reducing Bat Fatalities at Wind Facilities Jarzombek, L. May 2016 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Bats
Surface Texture Discrimination by Bats: Implications for Reducing Bat Mortality at Wind Turbines Bienz, C. May 2016 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Bats
Wind Turbines as Overwintering Sites Attractive to an Invasive Lady Beetle, Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Dudek, K., Dudek, M., Tryjanowski, P. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction N/A
Bats, Bugs, and Wind Turbines - Is There a Connection? Cochran, C. May 2013 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Bats
Mating Behavior as a Possible Cause of Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines Cryan, P. April 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision Bats
Wind Turbines and Bats - A Pilot Study Ahlén, I. December 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision Bats, Birds, Passerines
Bird and Bat Conservation Strategy Deuel Harvest North Wind Farm Deuel County, South Dakota Simon, S., Welch-Acosta, B. March 2019 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance Bats, Birds
Texturizing Wind Turbine Towers to Reduce Bat Mortality Bennett, V., Hale, A. July 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Bats
Behavioral accommodation of nesting hawks to wind turbines Watson, J., Keren, I, Davies, R. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance Birds, Raptors
Do American Golden-Plovers (Pluvialis dominica) Avoid Wind-energy Turbines in Agricultural Fields in Indiana During Spring Migration? Homoya, W., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance Birds, Shorebirds
Mammalian Mesocarnivore Visitation at Tortoise Burrows in a Wind Farm Agha, M., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Noise Reptiles, Terrestrial Mammals
Negative Impact of Wind Energy Development on a Breeding Shorebird Assessed with a BACI Study Design Sansom, A., Pearce-Higgins, J., Douglas, D. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Shorebirds
Behavior and Turbine Avoidance Rates of Eagles at Two Wind Farms in Tasmania, Australia Hull, C., Muir, S. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds
Is a Wind-Power Plant Acting as a Barrier for Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) Movements? Colman, J., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change N/A
Avoidance Behavior by Prairie Grouse: Implications for Development of Wind Energy Pruett, C., Patten, M., Wolfe, D. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
The Effects of Wind Turbines on Antipredator Behavior in California Ground Squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) Rabin, L., Coss, R., Owings, D. August 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Noise Birds, Raptors, Ecosystem Processes, Terrestrial Mammals
Effects of Wind Turbines and Other Physical Elements on Field Utilization by Pink-Footed Geese (Anser brachyrhynchus): A Landscape Perspective Larsen, J., Madsen, J. December 2000 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl

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