Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressorssort descending Receptors
Life Cycle Assessment of a Multi-Megawatt Wind Turbine Martínez, E., et al. March 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Life Cycle Assessment of a Wind Farm and Related Externalities Schleisner, L. July 2000 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Life Cycle Assessment of the Offshore Wind Farm Alpha Ventus Wagner, H., et al. May 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Life-Cycle Assessment of Electricity Generation Options: The Status of Research in the Year 2001 Gagnon, L., Bélanger, C., Uchiyama, Y. November 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Localization of Southern Resident Killer Whales Using Two Star Arrays to Support Marine Renewable Energy Ren, H., et al. October 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Managing Offshore Wind Developments in the United States: Legal, Environmental and Social Considerations using a Case Study in Nantucket Sound Santora, C., Hade, N., Odell, J. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Mandibular Fractures in Short-Finned Pilot Whales, Globicephala macrorhynchus Oremland, M., et al. January 2010 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Mapping Benthic Habitat in Regions of Gradual Substrata: An Automated Approach Utilised Geophysical, Geological, and Biological Relationships Brown, C., Collier, J. June 2008 Journal Article N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Marine ALSF Science Review: Aggregate Research in UK Waters Newell, R., Reeds, K. June 2005 Presentation N/A N/A Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Marine Renewable Energies: Perspectives and Implications for Marine Ecosystems Azzellino, A., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Marine Renewable Energy Legislation for Nova Scotia Nova Scotia Department of Energy January 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Marine Wind Farms: Seabirds, White-Tailed Eagles, Eurasian Eagle-Owl and Waders - A Screening of Potential Conflict Areas Christensen-Dalsgaard, S., et al. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Mechanics of the Right Whale Mandible: Full Scale Testing and Finite Element Analysis Tsukrov, I., et al. June 2009 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Meta-Analysis of Net Energy Return for Wind Power Systems Kubiszewski, I., Cleveland, C., Endres, P. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics
Mid-Atlantic Marine Wildlife Surveys, Modeling, and Data: Workshop to Establish Coordination & Communication Brown-Saracino, J., Smith, C., Gilman, P. July 2013 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Minimal Sampling Requirements for a Precise Assessment of Soft-Bottom Macrobenthic Communities, using AMBI Muxika, I., et al. October 2007 Journal Article N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Modelling Harbour Porpoise Seasonal Density as a Function of the German Bight Environment: Implications for Management Gilles, A., et al. August 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
Modelling Total Numbers and Distribution of Common Scoter Melanitta nigra at Horns Rev Petersen, I. November 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Modified Cave Entrances: Thermal Effect on Body Mass and Resulting Decline of Endangered Indiana Bats (Myotis sodalis) Richter, A., et al. June 1993 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Monitoring Bird Migration with a Fixed-Beam Radar and a Thermal-Imaging Camera Gauthreaux, S. Jr., Livingston, J. May 2006 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Multipurpose Marine Cadastre National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management January 2012 Website Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
National Register of Historic Places Database National Park Service January 2011 Website Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
National Status and Trends Data Portal Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment January 2012 Website N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Farfield Environment
New Insights and New Tools Regarding Risk to Roseate Terns, Piping Plovers, and Red Knots from Wind Facility Operations on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Gordon, C. October 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds
North Atlantic Right Whale Distribution and Seasonal Occurrence in Nearshore Waters off New Jersey, USA, and Implications for Management Whitt, A., Dudzinski, K., Laliberté, J. March 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
North Sea Wind Farms NSW Lot 1 Benthic Fauna Jarvis, S., et al. February 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem
OES GIS Map: Offshore Installations Worldwide Ocean Energy Systems (OES) January 2014 Website Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Ocean Management & Planning in the United States: From Competition to Cooperation Heimes, R. September 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Ocean Planning and the Gulf of Maine: Exploring Bi-National Policy Options Fanning, L., Heimes, R. May 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Ocean Renewable Energy's Potential Role In Supplying Future Electrical Energy Needs Thresher, R., Musial, W. January 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general N/A Socio-economics
Ireland Offshore Renewable Energy Strategic Action Plan 2012 - 2020 UK Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Offshore Renewables - Guidance on Assessing the Impact on Coastal Landscape and Seascape: Guidance for Scoping an Environmental Statement Scottish Natural Heritage March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Offshore Wind Capital Cost Estimation in the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf - A Reference Class Approach Kaiser, M., Snyder, B. September 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Offshore Wind Farms and Birds: Round 3 Zones, Extensions to Round 1 & Round 2 Sites & Scottish Territorial Waters Langston, R. February 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Offshore Wind Farms and Commercial Fisheries in the UK: A Study in Stakeholder Consultation Gray, T., Haggett, C., Bell, D. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Fishing, Stakeholder Engagement
Offshore Wind Farms and the Environment: Danish Experiences from Horns Rev and Nysted Danish Energy Authority November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Offshore Wind Farms in the Western Great Lakes: An Interdisciplinary Analysis of their Potential Hingtgen, J. January 2003 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis Navigant Consulting February 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Offshore Wind Power Policy and Planning in Sweden Söderholm, P., Pettersson, M. February 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary: Invertebrates List National Marine Sanctuaries July 2004 Website N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary: Marine Mammals List National Marine Sanctuaries July 2004 Website N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary: Seabirds List National Marine Sanctuaries July 2004 Website N/A N/A Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Oregon Historic Sites Database Oregon State Parks January 2012 Website N/A N/A Socio-economics
Real-Time Monitoring for Beluga Whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in the Eagle River, Alaska using a PAMBuoy Detection System Gillespie, D., et al. May 2013 Report N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Permitting and Leasing for Marine Offshore Wind Energy Projects Thaler, J. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Population Sizes of Seabirds Breeding in Scottish SPAs Lewis, M., et al. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Potential Impacts of Ocean Energy Development on Marine Mammals in Oregon Davis, A. December 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Process-Driven Characterization and Mapping of Seabed Habitats Kostylev, V., Hannah, C. January 2007 Book Chapter N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Proposed Approach for the Screening and Assessment of the Short and Medium Term Options APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Public Engagement with Large-Scale Renewable Energy Technologies: Breaking the Cycle of NIMBYism Devine-Wright, P. November 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Public Opinion about Large Offshore Wind Power: Underlying Factors Firestone, J., Kempton, W. March 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Recording Foraging Seabirds at Sea: Standardised Recording and Coding of Foraging Behaviour and Multi-Species Foraging Associations Camphuysen, K., Garthe, S. January 2004 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds
Draft Recovery Plan for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica) National Marine Fisheries Service January 2013 Report N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Recreational Fisheries Statistics National Marine Fisheries Service, Fisheries Statistics Division January 2012 Website N/A N/A Socio-economics, Fishing
Redefining the Territorial Sea in the Clean Water Act: Replacing Outdated Terminology and Extending Regulatory Jurisdiction Matthews, J. June 2011 Journal Article N/A N/A Socio-economics
Reflections on Integrating Operations and Maintenance Activities of Offshore Wind Farms and Mariculture Michler-Cieluch, T., Krause, G., Buck, B. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Remote Sensing Image Data and Automated Analysis to Describe Marine Bird Distributions and Abundances Groom, G., et al. March 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Renewable Energy from the Ocean Pelc, R., Fujita, R. November 2002 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Renewable Energy in Scotland Alldritt, D., Hopwood, D. May 2010 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Residence Time and Behaviour of Sole and Cod in the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee Winter, H., Aarts, G., van Keeken, O. September 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Review of Migratory Routes and Behaviour of Atlantic Salmon, Sea Trout and European Eel in Scotland's Coastal Environment: Implications for the Development of Marine Renewables Malcolm, I., Godfrey, J., Youngson, A. January 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Revised Best Practice Guidance for the Use of Remote Techniques for Ornithological Monitoring at Offshore Windfarms Walls, R., et al. June 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Robin Rigg Offshore Wind Farm Marine Environmental Monitoring Plan (MEMP): Ecological Analysis Data Wells, R., Shenton, S. November 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Fish, Marine Mammals
Scaling of Wingbeat Frequency with Body Mass in Bats and Limits to Maximum Bat Size Norberg, U., Norberg, R November 2011 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Scaling Possible Adverse Effects of Marine Wind Farms on Seabirds: Developing and Applying a Vulnerability Index Garthe, S., Hüppop, O. July 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Scientific Advice on Matters Related to the Management of Seal Populations Special Committee on Seals January 2012 Website N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Scoping Study for Offshore Wind Farm Development in Scottish Waters Davies, I., Watret, R. November 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Scotland's Renewables Routemap Short Life Task Force On Streamlining Energy Development Licensing and Consents The Scottish Government February 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Seal Scarers as a Tool to Deter Harbour Porpoises from Offshore Construction Sites Brandt, M., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Seascapes of Fear: Evaluating Sublethal Predator Effects Experienced and Generated by Marine Mammals Wirsing, A., et al. January 2008 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Short- and Long-Term Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm on Three Species of Sandeel and their Sand Habitat van Deurs, M., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Skin Density and Its Influence on Buoyancy in the Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), Harbor Porpoise (Phocoenca phocoena), and Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops trucnatus) Kipps, E., et al. July 2002 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Small Scale Distribution of Fish in Offshore Wind Farms Hansen, K., Stenberg, C., Møller, P. September 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Social Barriers to Renewable Energy Landscapes Pasqualetti, M. May 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
South West Marine Energy Park Prospectus Southwest Marine Energy Park Coalition January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Spatial Distribution, Abundance and Flight Ecology of Birds in Nearshore and Offshore Waters in Rhode Island Paton, P., et al. June 2010 Report N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Spectral Density of Polarimetric Variables Separating Biological Scatters in the VAD Display Bachmann, S., Zrnić, D. July 2007 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Passerines
Speeds and Wingbeat Frequencies of Migrating Birds Compared with Calculated Benchmarks Pennycuick, C. July 2001 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Statistical Modeling of North Atlantic Right Whale Migration along the Mid-Atlantic Region of the Eastern Seaboard of the United States Firestone, J., et al. January 2008 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Fish Walker, R., et al. July 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Strategy of Approach Demersal Fish Fauna Grift, R., Tien, N. May 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Studying Marine Mammal Cognition in the Wild: A Review of Four Decades of Playback Experiments Deecke, V. January 2006 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals
Studying The Behaviour And Sensory Ecology Of Marine Mammals Using Acoustic Recording Tags: A Review Johnson, M., Soto, N., Madsen, P. December 2009 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals
Swimming Speed, Respiration Rate, and Estimated Cost of Transport in Adult Killer Whales Williams, R., Noren, D. April 2009 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Symposium Sound Solutions Report The North Sea Foundation February 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Techniques for Cetacean-Habitat Modeling Redfern, J., et al. April 2006 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Temporal Variability in the Benthos: Does the Sea Floor Function Differently over Time? Frid, C. April 2011 Journal Article N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates
The California Ocean Uses Atlas Marine Conservation Biology Institute, NOAA's Marine Protected Areas Center September 2011 Website N/A N/A Socio-economics
The Derivation, Performance and Role of Univariate and Multivariate Indicators of Benthic Change: Case Studies at Differing Spatial Scales Quintino, V., Elliott, M., Rodríguez, A. March 2006 Journal Article N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates
The European Offshore Wind Industry Key 2011 Trends and Statistics European Wind Energy Association January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
The Flight Behaviour of Individual Passerine Nocturnal Migrants: A Tracking Radar Study Able, K. November 1977 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Passerines
The Lessons Learned from the Development of the Wind Energy Industry that Might be Applied to Marine Industry Renewables Garrad, A. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
The Multi-Use In Wind Farm Projects: More Conflicts Or A Win-Win Opportunity? Lacroix, D., Sylvain, P. August 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
The New Hampshire and Southern Maine Ocean Uses Atlas National Marine Protected Areas Center August 2011 Website N/A N/A Socio-economics
The Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters Pre-Screening for Appropriate Assessment Halcrow Group June 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
The Potential for Cooperative Management of Elasmobranchs and Offshore Renewable Energy Development in UK Waters Gill, A., Kimber, J. October 2005 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
The State of Rhode Island Coastal Resources Management Program Goldman Law Offices December 2010 Report N/A N/A Socio-economics
The State of the UK's Birds 2011 Eaton M., et al. November 2011 Report N/A N/A Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Shorebirds
The Turning Point for Atlantic Offshore Wind Energy: Time for Action to Create Jobs, Reduce Pollution, Protect Wildlife, and Secure America's Energy Future Bowes, C., Allegro, J. September 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
The Need for Integrated Assessment of Large-Scale Offshore Wind Farm Development Kannen, A., et al. January 2005 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment, Socio-economics

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