Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptorssort descending
Grassland bird community and acoustic complexity appear unaffected by proximity to a wind energy facility in the Nebraska Sandhills Raynor, E., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Birds
Avian interactions with renewable energy infrastructure: An update Smith, J., Dwyer, J. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Nocturnal migrants do not incur higher collision risk at wind turbines than diurnally active species Welcker, J., et al. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Scavenger removal of bird carcasses at simulated wind turbines: Does carcass type matter? DeVault, T., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Testing for errors in estimating bird mortality rates at wind farms and power lines Farfan, M., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Predicting bird collisions with wind turbines: Comparison of the new empirical Flux Collision Model with the SOSS Band model Kleyheeg-Hartman, J., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Assessment of Diurnal Wind Turbine Collision Risk for Grassland Birds on the Southern Great Plains Wulff, S., Butler, M., Ballard, W. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Improving estimation of flight altitude in wildlife telemetry studies Poessel, S., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Estimation of bird fatalities caused by wind turbines in Turkey Arikan, K., Turan, S. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Proposal to Permit Take Provided Under the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act Gould, R. April 2009 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Bird Strikes and Electrocutions at Power Lines, Communication Towers, and Wind Turbines: State of the Art and State of the Science - Next Steps Toward Mitigation Manville, A. June 2005 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Impact assessment of wind farms on birds of prey in Thrace. Annual Report August 2009 - August 2010 Doutau, B., et al. March 2011 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Wind Farms and Birds: An Updated Analysis of the Effects of Wind Farms on Birds, and Best Practice Guidance on Integrated Planning and Impact Assessment Gove, B., et al. September 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Conservation and management issues for the Dadia-Lefkimi-Soufli Forest National Park Catsadorakis, G., et al. January 2010 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Winter Marine Bird Surveys Mills, G. March 2012 Report N/A N/A Birds
West Coast Marine Bird Surveys - Quantitative shipboard surveys of species distribution and abundance on the continental shelf during April 2008 and July-August 2008 Zamon, J. August 2008 Report N/A N/A Birds
Minimal effects of wind turbines on the distribution of wintering farmland birds Devereux, C., Denny, M., Whittingham, M. October 2008 Journal Article Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Is bird conservation a barrier to wind energy? Aversa, I., Polizel, J., Montaño, M. May 2018 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Avian Monitoring and Mortality Report at the National Wind Technology Center: January 2010 - February 2011 Tetra Tech Inc. January 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Automatic Bird Identification for Offshore Wind Farms Niemi, J., Tanttu, J. March 2019 Book Chapter Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Via Pontica-Myth and Reality for Birds and Wind Turbines Manev, T., Zehtindjiev, P. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
A Stochastic Collision Risk Model for Seabirds in Flight McGregor, R., et al. April 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Marine bird colony and at-sea distributions along the Oregon coast: Implications for marine spatial planning and information gap analysis Suryan, R., et al. April 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Effect of anthropogenic light on bird movement, habitat selection, and distribution: A systematic map protocol Adams, C., et al. June 2019 Journal Article N/A Lighting Birds
Meeting Europe's Renewable Energy Targets in Harmony with Nature BirdLife Europe January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Machine learning applied to wind turbine blades impact detection Hu, C., Albertani, R. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Operational offshore wind farms and associated ship traffic cause profound changes in distribution patterns of Loons (Gavia spp.) Mendel, B., et al. February 2019 Journal Article Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Effectiveness of a mitigation measure for the lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) in wind farms in Spain Pescador, M., Ramírez, J., Peris, S. February 2019 Journal Article Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Effect of wind turbines on bird abundance: A national scale analysis based on fixed effects models Miao, R., et al. September 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Of birds, blades and barriers: Detecting and analysing mass migration events at alpha ventus Hill, R., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Bat 1: Estimate of bat populations at the southern North Sea - Supporting note to ZDV report no. 2016.031 Migrating bats at the southern North Sea Lagerveld, S., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Cumulative Effects of Wind Farms in the Dutch North Sea on Bird Populations Poot, M., et al. June 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds
A Review of Methods to Monitor Collisions or Micro-Avoidance of Birds with Offshore Wind Turbines - Part 1: Review Strategic Ornithological Support Services Project Collier, M., Dirksen, S., Krijgsveld, K. September 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds
Assessing the Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds Drewitt, A., Langston, R. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Horns Rev 2 Offshore Wind Farm Bird Monitoring Program 2010-2012 Skov, H., et al. December 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Attraction of nocturnally migrating birds to artificial light: The influence of colour, intensity and blinking mode under different cloud cover conditions Rebke, M., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Lighting Birds
Assessing bird avoidance of high-contrast lights using a choice test approach: implications for reducing human-induced avian mortality Goller, B., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Lighting Birds
Green Light For Nocturnally Migrating Birds Poot, H., et al. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Lighting Birds
The Effects of Light Characteristics on Avian Mortality at Lighthouses Jones, J., Francis, C. November 2003 Journal Article N/A Attraction, Lighting Birds
Collision Course: The Hazards of Lighted Structures and Windows to Migrating Birds Ogden, L. September 1996 Report N/A Attraction, Collision, Lighting Birds
Soaring Migratory Birds Avoid Wind Farm in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Southern Mexico Villegas-Patraca, R., Cabrera-Cruz, S., Herrera-Alsina, L. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds
Behavior and Turbine Avoidance Rates of Eagles at Two Wind Farms in Tasmania, Australia Hull, C., Muir, S. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds
Canadian Estimate of Bird Mortality Due to Collisions and Direct Habitat Loss Associated with Wind Turbine Developments Zimmerling, J., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds
A Review of Flight Heights and Avoidance Rates of Birds in Relation to Offshore Wind Farms Cook, A., et al. May 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds
Bird and Bird Habitats: Guidelines for Wind Power Projects Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources December 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds: A Review Powlesland, R. January 2009 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Avian information systems: Developing web-based bird avoidance models Shamoun-Baranes, J., et al. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance Birds
Baseline Studies North Sea Wind Farms: Fluxes, Flight Paths and Altitudes of Flying Birds 2003-2004 Krijgsveld, K., et al. October 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance Birds
Windfarms and Birds: An Analysis of the Effects of Windfarms on Birds, and Guidance on Environmental Assessment Criteria and Site Selection Issues Langston, R., Pullan, J. September 2003 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Avian Hearing and the Avoidance of Wind Turbines Dooling, R. June 2002 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Noise Birds
Windfarms and Birds: Calculating a Theoretical Collision Risk Assuming No Avoiding Action Band, W. January 2000 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Collision and displacement vulnerability to offshore wind energy infrastructure among marine birds of the Pacific Outer Continental Shelf Kelsey, E., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Displacement Birds
An Analysis of Displacement from Wind Turbines in a Wintering Grassland Bird Community Stevens, T., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Bird Monitoring at Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea - Assessing Seabird Displacement Effects Vanermen, N., et al. January 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Spatial Factors Affecting Statistical Power in Testing Marine Fauna Displacement Lapeña, B., et al. October 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Strategic Joint Industry Project No.1: Bird avoidance behavior and collision impact monitoring at Offshore Windfarms Marine Scotland, et al. December 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Assessment of Displacement Impacts of Offshore Windfarms and Other Human Activities on Red-Throated Divers and Alcids McGovern, S., Goddard, B., Rehfisch, M. December 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement Birds
Testing efficacy of bird deterrents at wind turbine facilities: a pilot study in Nova Scotia, Canada Dorey, K., Dicky, S., Walker, T. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Obstacle Avoidance in Social Groups: New Insights from Asynchronous Models Croft, S., et al. May 2015 Journal Article N/A Collision Birds
Predicting Migratory Corridors of White Storks, Ciconia ciconia, to Enhance Sustainable Wind Energy Planning: A Data-Driven Agent-Based Model Oloo, F., Safi, K., Aryal, J. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Opportunistically collected data reveal habitat selection by migrating Whooping Cranes in the US Northern Plains Niemuth, N., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Mapping the global potential exposure of soaring birds to terrestrial wind energy expansion Santangeli, A., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Pre-Construction Breeding Bird Surveys Number Three Wind Energy Project Lewis County, New York Bay, K., et al. May 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Differential Recovery of Habitat Use by Birds after Wind Farm Installation: A Multi-Year Comparison Farfan, M., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement Birds
Bird collisions at an offshore platform in the North Sea Hüppop, O., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds
A Unifying Framework for the Underlying Mechanisms of Avian Avoidance of Wind Turbines May, R. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Displacement Birds
Developing an Avian Collision Risk Model to Incorporate Variability and Uncertainty Masden, E. September 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds
Evaluation of the Impact of Wind Farms on Birds: The Case Study of Lebanon Al Zohbi, G., Hendrick, P., Bouillard, P. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Observation of Sandhill Cranes' (Grus canadensis) Flight Behavior in Heavy Fog Kirsch, E., et al. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Analysis of Wind Farm Effects on the Surrounding Environment: Assessing Population Trends of Breeding Passerines Garcia, D., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Birds and Wind-Energy Best-Practice Guidelines: Best-Practice Guidelines for Assessing and Monitoring the Impact of Wind Energy Facilities on Birds in Southern Africa Jenkins, A., et al. January 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Study of the Wildlife of Jhimpir Wind Corridor, District Thatta, Sindh and Development of Bird Monitoring Strategy in the Area Ghalib, S., et al. November 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Modelling Foraging Movements of Diving Predators: A Theoretical Study Exploring the Effect of Heterogeneous Landscapes on Foraging Efficiency Chimienti, M., et al. September 2014 Journal Article N/A Habitat Change Birds
Mapping Seabird Sensitivity to Offshore Wind Farms Bradbury, G., et al. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Displacement Birds
No Evidence of Displacement due to Wind Turbines in Breeding Grassland Songbirds Hale, A., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement Birds
Avoidance Behaviour of Birds around Offshore Wind Farms: Overview of Knowledge Including Effects of Configuration Krijgsveld, K. July 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds
A Preliminary Overview of Monitoring for Raptors in Croatia Mazal, V., Mikulic, K. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Short-Term Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Greater Sage-Grouse Fitness LeBeau, C., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
A Review of Methods to Monitor Collisions or Micro-Avoidance of Birds with Offshore Wind Turbines - Part 2: Feasibility Study of Systems to Monitor Collisions Collier, M., Dirksen, S., Krijgsveld, K. February 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds
A synthesis of human-related avian mortality in Canada Calvert, A., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
A Theoretical Approach to Estimating Bird Risk of Collision with Wind Turbines Where Empirical Flight Activity Data Are Lacking Furness, R., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Collision, Displacement Birds
Assessing Risk to Birds from Industrial Wind Energy Development via Paired Resource Selection Models Miller, T., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Effects of Wind Energy Development on Survival of Female Greater Prairie-Chickens Winder, V., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Hidden Markov Models for Estimating Animal Mortality from Anthropogenic Hazards Etterson, M. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Evaluating Greater Sage-Grouse Seasonal Space Use Relative to Leks: Implications for Surface Use Designations in Sagebrush Ecosystems Coates, P., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Influence of Wind Turbines on Presence of Willet, Marbled Godwit, Wilson's Phalarope and Black Tern on Wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota and South Dakota Niemuth, N., et al. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
The Relative Vulnerability of Migratory Bird Species to Offshore Wind Energy Projects on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf: An Assessment Method and Database Willmott, J., Forcey, G., Kent, A. August 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Displacement Birds
Habitat Utilization in White-Tailed Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) and the Displacement Impact of the Smøla Wind-Power Plant May, R., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement Birds
A Description of the Biosis Model to Assess Risk of Bird Collisions with Wind Turbines Smales, I., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds
New Discoveries in Landbird Migration using Geolocators, and a Flight Plan for the Future McKinnon, E., Fraser, K., Stutchbury, B. March 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Measuring the Insecurity Index of species in networks of protected areas using species distribution modeling and fuzzy logic: The case of raptors in Andalusia Diaz-Gomez, D., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Response to Huso and Erickson's Comments on Novel Scavenger Removal Trials Smallwood, K., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
An Overview of Monitoring for Raptors in Bulgaria Spasov, S., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement Birds
An Overview of Monitoring for Raptors in Ireland Mee, A. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Assessing the Influence of Wind Turbines and Land-use on Mortality Risk of Avian Species on the Llano Estacado with Emphasis on Birds of Prey Linner, K. December 2014 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Effects of Beipiao Wind Power Development Planning on Local Birds Ecosystem Wang, L., Jinghai, Z., Zhongqiang, M. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ecosystem
Acoustic Indices for Biodiversity Assessments: Analyses of Bias Based on Simulated Bird Assemblages and Recommendations for Field Surveys Gasc, A., et al. November 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Ecosystem
Proceedings of Wind Energy and Wildlife: The Good, the Bad... the Possible Kathy, B., MacGregor, G., Grodner, S. May 2005 Conference Paper Wind Energy general N/A Birds, Ecosystem
Assessing Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms: Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the Future Bailey, H., Brookes, K., Thompson, P. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Noise Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Marine Mammals
World Seas: An Environmental Evaluation Volume III: Ecological Issues and Environmental Impacts Sheppard, C. January 2019 Book N/A Noise Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Fisheries, Legal & Policy

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