Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers.


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Titlesort descending Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Wind farms' deadly reputation hard to shift Marris, E., Fairless, D. May 2007 Magazine Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Wind farms, farmland occupation and compensation: Evidences from landowners’ preferences through a stated choice survey in Italy Sardaro, R., Faccilongo, N., Roselli, L. October 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Wind in our Sails - The Coming of Europe's Offshore Wind Energy Industry European Wind Energy Association November 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Wind in power: 2013 European statistics European Wind Energy Association February 2014 Report Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Wind in the sails or choppy seas?: People-place relations, aesthetics and public support for the United States’ first offshore wind project Firestone, J., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts
Wind Industry in Portugal and Its Impacts on Wildlife: Special Focus on Spatial and Temporal Distribution on Bird and Bat Fatalities Marqués, J., et al. September 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Wind of Change or Wind of Challenges: Implementation Factors Regarding Wind Energy Development, an International Perspective Gartman, V., et al. December 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
Wind Power and Birds at Smøla 2003-2006 Follestad, A., et al. June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Wind power and community benefits: Challenges and opportunities Aitken, M. October 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
Wind Power and Externalities Zerrahn, A. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Wind Power and Planning: The Environmental Impact of Windfarms in the UK Coles, R., Taylor, J. July 1993 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Birds, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Wind Power and the Local Environment - No Free Lunches Plowden, B. March 1992 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Wind Power Company Compliance with Mitigation Plans in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Smallwood, K. April 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Wind Power Compensation is not for the Birds: An Opinion from an Environmental Economist Cole, S. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Wind Power Deployment as a Stressor for Ecosystem Services: A Comparative Case Study from Germany and Sweden Lauf, T., et al. February 2019 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Wind power gone bad: Critiquing wind power planning processes in northeastern Brazil Gorayeb, A., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Wind Power in Wyoming: Doing it Smart from the Start Biodiversity Conservation Alliance November 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Wind Power Plants and the Conservation of Birds and Bats in Spain: A Geographical Assessment Telleria, J. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Wind Power Siting Regulations and Wildlife Guidelines in the United States Stemler, J. April 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Wind Power Siting, Incentives, and Wildlife Guidelines in the United States Stemler, J. October 2007 Report Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Wind Power, Wildlife, and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act: A Way Forward Lilley, M., Firestone, J. November 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Wind Turbine Acoustic Standards Shepherd, K., Stephens, D., Grosveld, F. May 1981 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
Wind Turbine Bird Strike Prevention System Method and Apparatus Piesinger, G. June 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Wind Turbine Effects on Avian Activity, Habitat Use, and Mortality in the Altamont Pass and Solano County Wind Resource Areas, 1989-1991 Orloff, S., Flannery, A. March 1992 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Wind Turbine Fatalities Approach a Level of Concern in a Raptor Population Bellebaum, J., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Wind Turbine Guidelines Advisory Committee Recommendations US Fish and Wildlife Service March 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Fish
Wind turbine impact on near-ground air temperature Moravec, D., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Wind Turbine Interactions with Birds and Bats: A Summary of Research Results and Remaining Questions National Wind Coordinating Committee November 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Wind Turbine Interactions with Birds, Bats, and their Habitats: A Summary of Research Results and Priority Questions National Wind Coordinating Collaborative March 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Wind Turbine Interactions with Wildlife and their Habitats: A Summary of Research Results and Priority Questions American Wind Wildlife Institute January 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Wind Turbine Noise - An Overview Bastasch, T., et al. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise N/A
Wind Turbine Noise and Meteorological Influences Ramakrishnan, R., Sylvestre-Williams, N. September 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise N/A
Wind Turbine Noise and Natural Sounds - Masking, Propagation and Modeling Bolin, K. April 2009 Thesis Wind Energy general Noise N/A
Wind Turbine Noise and Sleep: Pilot Studies on the Influence of Noise Characteristics Morsing, J., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Noise Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Wind Turbine Sensor Array for Monitoring Avian and Bat Collisions Hu, C., Albertani, R., Suryan, R. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Wind Turbine Sound and Health Effects: An Expert Panel Review Colby, W., et al. December 2009 Report Wind Energy general Noise Socio-economics
Wind Turbine Underwater Noise and Marine Mammals: Implications of Current Knowledge and Data Needs Madsen, P., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Wind Turbines - Low Level Noise Sources Interfering with Restoration? Pedersen, E., Waye, K. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Wind turbines and bat mortality: Doppler shift profiles and ultrasonic bat-like pulse reflection from moving turbine blades Long, C., Flint, J., Lepper, P. October 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Wind Turbines and Bat Mortality: Interactions of Bat Echolocation Pulses with Moving Turbine Rotor Blades Long, C., et al. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
Wind Turbines and Bat Mortality: Rotor Detectability Profiles Long, C., et al. October 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Wind Turbines and Bats - A Pilot Study Ahlén, I. December 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision Bats, Birds, Passerines
Wind Turbines and Bats - Guidelines for an Assessment Study and for Planning Aspects Rahmel, U., et al. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Wind Turbines and Birds in Flanders (Belgium): Preliminary Summary of the Mortality Research Results Everaert, J., Kuijken, E. June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Wind Turbines and Birds in Flanders: Preliminary Study Results and Recommendations Everaert, J. January 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Wind Turbines and Birds in Germany - Examples of Current Knowledge, New Insights and Remaining Gaps Reichenbach, M. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Wind Turbines and Birds: A Background Review for Environmental Assessment Kingsley, A., Whittam, B. May 2005 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
Wind Turbines and Birds: A Guidance Document for Environmental Assessment Canadian Wildlife Service April 2007 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Wind Turbines and Coastal Recreation Demand Landry, C., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Recreation
Wind Turbines and Landscape van Grieken, M., Dower, B. May 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Wind Turbines and Migratory Birds: Avoiding a Collision Between the Energy Industry and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act Evans, R. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Wind Turbines and Sensitive Bird Populations: A Spatial Planning Guide for On-Shore Wind Farm Developments in Cumbria Youngs, T., Shackleton, D. December 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Wind turbines as landscape impediments to the migratory connectivity of bats Cryan, P. May 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision Bats
Wind Turbines as Overwintering Sites Attractive to an Invasive Lady Beetle, Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Dudek, K., Dudek, M., Tryjanowski, P. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction N/A
Wind turbines cause chronic stress in badgers (Meles meles) in Great Britain Agnew, R., Smith, V., Fowkes, R. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Terrestrial Mammals
Wind turbines cause functional habitat loss for migratory soaring birds Marques, A.,, et al. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement Raptors
Wind Turbines do Not Negatively Affect Nest Success in the Dickcissel (Spiza americana) Hatchett, W., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Wind turbines impact bat activity, leading to high losses of habitat use in a biodiversity hotspot Millon, L., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Bats
Wind turbines in high quality habitat cause disproportionate increases in collision mortality of the white-tailed eagle Heuck, C., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Wind, Fire and Water: Renewable Energy and Birds. A report on the BOU's Annual Conference held at the University of Leicester, 1–3 April 2005 Greenwood, J. October 2005 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Windfarm Design in the Light of Previous Experience Lloyd, A. January 1997 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Windfarm Impacts on Blanket Peat Habitats in Scotland Dargie, T. May 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Windfarms and Birds: An Analysis of the Effects of Windfarms on Birds, and Guidance on Environmental Assessment Criteria and Site Selection Issues Langston, R., Pullan, J. September 2003 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Windfarms and Birds: Calculating a Theoretical Collision Risk Assuming No Avoiding Action Band, W. January 2000 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Windpower and Grey Seals: An Impact Assessment of Potential Effects by Sea-Based Windpower Plants on a Local Seal Population Sundberg, J., Söderman, M. December 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Windpower and reindeer Strand, O., et al. March 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Terrestrial Mammals
Winds of change – Predicting water-based recreationists' support and opposition for offshore wind energy development in the Great Lakes Ferguson, M., et al. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Recreation
Windy Business: Exploring a Local Wind Power Project in Germany Dennis, K. June 2017 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Wing Kinematics and Flexibility for Optimal Manoeuvring and Escape Wong, J. July 2017 Thesis N/A N/A Birds
Wing-Beat Characteristics of Birds Recorded with Tracking Radar and Cine Camera Bruderer, B., et al. April 2010 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Passerines
Wingbeat Frequency of Birds in Steady Cruising Flight: New Data and Improved Predictions Pennycuick, C. March 1996 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Winter Foraging Activity of Central European Vespertilionid Bats Zahn, A., Kriner, E. January 2016 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Winter Marine Bird Surveys Mills, G. March 2012 Report N/A N/A Birds
Winter Resource Selection by Mule Deer on the Wyoming-Colorado Border Prior to Wind Energy Development Webb, S., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device N/A
Wintering Sandhill Crane Exposure to Wind Energy Development in the Central and Southern Great Plains, USA Pearse, A., Brandt, D., Krapu, G. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
World Seas: An Environmental Evaluation Volume III: Ecological Issues and Environmental Impacts Sheppard, C. January 2019 Book N/A Noise Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Fisheries, Legal & Policy
Worldviews as predictors of wind and solar energy support in Austria: Bridging social acceptance and risk perception research Sposato, R., Hampl, N. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Worldwide Synthesis and Analysis of Existing Information Regarding Environmental Effects of Alternative Energy Uses on the Outer Continental Shelf Michel, J., et al. July 2007 Report Marine Energy (General), Ocean Current, OTEC, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Physical Environment, Reptiles, Human Dimensions
WT-Bird: A Low Cost Solution for Detecting Bird Collisions Verhoef, J., et al. April 2004 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds
WT-Bird: Bird Collision Recording for Offshore Wind Farms Wiggelinkhuizen, E., et al. November 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Year-Round Spatiotemporal Distribution of Harbour Porpoises Within and Around the Maryland Wind Energy Area Wingfield, J., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
Zooplankton Community Responses and the Relation to Environmental Factors from Established Offshore Wind Farms within the Rudong Coastal Area of China Wang, T., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem Processes, Physical Environment, Water Quality
Ökobilanzierung von Schweizer Windenergie Eymann, L., et al. November 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment

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