Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting Annex IV and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and Annex IV metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Contentsort ascending Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Ecological Monitoring using Wildlife Detection Dogs: Bat Carcass Searches at the Wanlip Wind Turbine Stanhope, K. June 2015 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
When Blade Meets Bat Williams, W. February 2004 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Wind farms' deadly reputation hard to shift Marris, E., Fairless, D. May 2007 Magazine Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Shades of Green: A Bird's Eye View of Wind Energy Whittam, B., Kingsley, A. April 2003 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Measurement and Reduction of Offshore Wind Turbine Construction Noise Elmer, K., et al. February 2007 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Applying Research to Conservation: Science-Based Strategies Can Save Bats at Wind Farms Baerwald, E., Barclay, R. June 2014 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Whirly Birds Linn, A. March 1995 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Wind Energy & the Threat to Bats Tuttle, M. July 2004 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Economic Importance of Bats in Agriculture Boyles, J., et al. April 2011 Magazine Article N/A N/A Bats
Renewable Energy in Scotland Alldritt, D., Hopwood, D. May 2010 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
A Review of Bird Strike Mortality at Irish Onshore Windfarms Fennelly, R. June 2015 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Birds and Windfarms: What are the Real Issues? Percival, S. April 2005 Magazine Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds, Raptors
Battered by harsh winds - must bats pay the price for wind energy? Tuttle, M. October 2005 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Bats and Onshore Wind Farms: Site-by-Site Assessment and Post-Construction Monitoring Protocols Catherine, C., Spray, S. June 2009 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
An Overview Of Ocean Renewable Energy Technologies Bedard, R., et al. June 2010 Magazine Article Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Assessing the Impact of Underwater Sounds on Fishes and Other Forms of Marine Life Hawkins, A., Popper, A. March 2014 Magazine Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Greater Sage-Grouse: Overview and Effects of Wind Energy Development National Wind Coordinating Collaborative September 2017 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
ReNews Global Offshore Wind Report 2012 Westbrook, T., Kennedy, S., Wachtmeister, W. November 2012 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Ecological Impact Assessments Fail to Reduce Risk of Bat Casualties at Wind Farms Lintott, P., et al. November 2016 Magazine Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Fish and Benthos at Alpha Ventus Reichert, K., et al. May 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Nearfield Habitat
A bat fatality risk model at wind farms in Dobrogea, Romania, using a GIS approach Măntoiu, D., et al. March 2015 Presentation Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Ecosystem
Importance of coastal area on bat migration at the western coast of Latvia – implication for localization of wind farms Petersons, G., Suba, J., Vintulis, V. February 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Mitigating Bat Fatalities from Wind-Power Plants through Targeted Curtailment: Results from 4 Years of Testing of CHIROTECH Lagrange, H., et al. February 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Linking Turbine Collision Risks with Population Models to Assess Cumulative Impacts of Multiple Wind Farms on Threatened Birds Smales, I., et al. May 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Impact of wind speed on the activity of bats - at the coast and inland Bach, P., Niermann, I., Bach, L. May 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Wind Energy's Subtle Effect - Habitat Fragmentation Pruett, J. May 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Bats, Birds
Effects of Offshore Windfarms on Marine Wildlife - A Synthesis for Swedish Waters Bergström, L., et al. February 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Cautious but Committed - Towards a More Adaptive Environmental Planning Approach for Wind Energy? Köppel, J. February 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Effects of Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations on Mobile Demersal Megafauna and Pelagic Fish - Research at the Alpha Ventus Offshore Wind Farm Krone, R., Krägefsky, S. January 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Harbour Porpoises in the Southern North Sea - Analysis of Potential Influences of Alpha Ventus in the Context of General Distribution Trends Gilles, A., et al. January 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
Cod and Sole Behaviour in an Offshore Wind Farm Winter, E., Aarts, G., van Keeken, O. October 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Fish
Birds and Offshore Wind: Studying and Assessing Effects Pereksta, D. July 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Environmental Assessment of Offshore Wind Power Generation near Rhode Island: Acoustic and Electromagnetic Effects on Marine Animals [Presentation] Miller, J., et al. October 2009 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Migration and Habitat Use by Seabirds in the Atlantic Flyway: Evaluation of Potential Impacts of Proposed Wind Farms Berlin, A. January 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Factors influencing carcass removal at wind-farms, in mountain areas of the center-north region of Portugal Silva, B., Barreiro, S., Alves, P. August 2008 Presentation Wind Energy general N/A Bats
What does bat activity inside the forest tell us about the activity above the canopy? A method for censuring bat activity at proposed wind farms in forests Bach, L., Bach, P., Tillmann, M. May 2011 Presentation N/A N/A Bats
Modelling Seabird Collision Risk with Off-Shore Wind Farms Mateos, M., Arroyo, G., Rosario, J. May 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
A Multi-Method Approach to Determine the Impact of Existing Wind Power Plants on Bird and Bat Migration on the Island of Fehmarn, Germany Reichenbach, M., Grunkorn, T. May 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
Long term studies on biogenic reefs and implications for offshore developments Lancaster, J., Walker, A. February 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem
Bat Migration Across the Southern North Sea and Possible Implications for Offshore Wind Farms Lagerveld, S., Platteeuw, M. March 2016 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats
Porpoises and Offshore Windfarms - Conflict, Co-Existence or Refuge Scheidat, M. October 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
Marine ALSF Science Review: Aggregate Research in UK Waters Newell, R., Reeds, K. June 2005 Presentation N/A N/A Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Risks to Birds and Wildlife from Offshore Wind Farms: BOEMRE NC Task Force Peterson, C. May 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Bats, Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
List of Environmental Effects of MHK Devices Simas, T., Moura, A., Conley, D. September 2010 Presentation Marine Energy general Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Offshore Obstruction Lighting - Issues and Mitigation Blew, J., Nehls, G., Prall, U. February 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Lighting Birds
Interactions with Offshore Wind Energy: Birds and Bats Island Institute January 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Static Device Bats, Birds, Seabirds
Offshore Wind Farms, New Players in Marine Ecosystems Lindeboom, H. October 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Wind Energy Facts EWEA December 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics
Field Scale Experiments to Assess the Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on Marine Organisms Gill, A., et al. July 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Bat fatalities at different wind facilities in Northwest Germany Bach, P., et al. February 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Regulators Workshop: Lessons from Wind Baring-Gould, I. May 2015 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Wind Energy Myths EWEA December 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics
Bats and wind power -investigations required for risk assessment in Denmark and Sweden Ahlén, I., Baagøe, H. February 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Robin Rigg Offshore Wind Farm Marine Environmental Monitoring Plan (MEMP): Ecological Analysis Data Wells, R., Shenton, S. November 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Fish, Marine Mammals
Pattern of bat fatalities at wind turbines in Europe: comparing north and south Dubourg-Savage, M., et al. May 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Appropriate assessment of plans and projects for Croatian National Ecological Network - utilization of bird and bat impact zonation in the southern coastal part of Croatia Schneider, D., et al. May 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
Impact on seabirds of new offshore wind energy test and demonstration projects in the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (BiMEP, N. Spain) Bald, J., et al. March 2017 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Acoustic characterization of submarine cable installation in the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (bimep) Bald, J., et al. April 2015 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Noise N/A
The integration of nature protection into environmental wind farm assessment procedures in Croatia Mazija, M., et al. May 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Pre-construction study: Recording bats from a helium balloon in collision relevant heights with an automated system Albrecht, K., Grünfelder, C. May 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Planner's Dilemma - How to handle Birds and Bats in the Planning Process of Wind Farms Reichenbach, M. February 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Unlocking the Economic Potential of South Africa's Oceans Operation Phakisa August 2014 Presentation N/A N/A Socio-economics
The Local Fish Community, Indifferent to the Wind Farm? van Hal, R., Griffioen, B. October 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Marine Renewable Energy and the Environment: Progress and Challenges Polagye, B. January 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Stakeholder Priorities in Wind Energy Lantz, E. May 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Impact of wind turbines on bat activity: an ommited long-distance concern Barre, K., et al. February 2017 Presentation Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Harbor Seals & Harbor Porpoises-Pile Driving: Detection, Behavioral Response and TTS Kastelein, R. November 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Use of Population Viability Analysis (PVA) to Assess the Potential for Long Term Impacts from Piling Noise on Marine Mammal Populations - A Case Study from the Scottish East Coast De Silva, R., et al. May 2014 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Behavioral Responses of Beaked Whales and Other Cetaceans to Controlled Exposures of Simulated Sonar and Other Sounds Southall, B., et al. October 2009 Presentation N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Risk of whale encounters with offshore renewable energy mooring lines and electrical cables Copping, A., Grear, M., Sanders, G. April 2018 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Overview of Issues Related to Bats and Wind Energy Cryan, P. February 2008 Presentation Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Sustainable Seas Ko ngā moana whakauka: National Science Challenge Hall, J., et al. July 2015 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Environmental Interview: The Effects of Wind Power on Land-Dwelling Mammals Helldin, J., Skarin, A. March 2016 Video Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Terrestrial Mammals
Environmental Interview: Wind Power, Birds and Bats Green, M., Rydell, J. March 2016 Video Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
Environmental Interview: The Effects of Wind Power on Human Interests Henningsson, M. March 2016 Video Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Environmental Interview: Effects of Wind Power on Marine Life Kautsky, L. March 2016 Video Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Marine Mammals
How a Wind Turbine Works EWEA January 2013 Video Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Humpback Whales and Floating Offshore Wind Farm Animation Grear, M., et al. November 2018 Video Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Electromagnetic Fields Emitted by High Voltage Alternating Current Offshore Wind Power Cables and Interactions with Marine Organisms Gill, A., et al. January 2012 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF N/A
A Workshop on Raptors and Energy Development Howard, R., Gore, J. January 1980 Workshop Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds, Raptors
Applications of Acoustic Bird Monitoring for the Wind Power Industry Evans, W. May 1998 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Ecological Research on Offshore Wind Farms: International Exchange of Experiences - Part A Zucco, C., et al. January 2006 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Report of the Workshop on International Harmonisation of Approaches to Define Underwater Noise Exposure Criteria Lucke, K., et al. April 2014 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Mid-Atlantic Marine Wildlife Surveys, Modeling, and Data: Workshop to Establish Coordination & Communication Brown-Saracino, J., Smith, C., Gilman, P. July 2013 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Status and Applications of Acoustic Mitigation and Monitoring Systems for Marine Mammals Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement November 2009 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Acoustic Deterrent Workshop National Wind Technology Center, Louisville, CO Bat Conservation International, National Renewable Energy Laboratory August 2013 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Bats
Towards an Environmentally Sound Offshore Wind Energy Deployment Verfuß, U. January 2012 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative 3rd Science and All Committees Meeting: 2012 Workshop Proceedings Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative January 2012 Workshop Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative: 2008 Workshop Proceedings Energetics January 2008 Workshop Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative 4th Science and All Committees Meeting: Final 2015 Workshop Proceedings Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative January 2015 Workshop Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
How Deep does an Anchor Penetrate the Seafloor? Maushake, C. November 2013 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Acoustic Monitoring of Night-Migrating Birds: A Progress Report Evans, W., Rosenberg, K. January 2000 Workshop Article N/A N/A Birds, Passerines
Proceedings: Bats and Wind Power Generation Technical Workshop Energetics April 2004 Workshop Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Offshore Wind Energy: Understanding Impacts on Great Lakes Fishery and Other Aquatic Resources GLWC, GLC March 2013 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
State of the Science: An Assessment of Research on the Ecological Impacts of Wind Energy in the Great Lakes Region Hinderer, J., et al. October 2011 Workshop Article Wind Energy general N/A Ecosystem
Proceedings of Ocean Waves Workshop (2013) Nichols, C., Williams, R. February 2013 Workshop Article N/A N/A Farfield Environment
Proceedings of Ocean Waves Workshop (2015) Nichols, C. January 2015 Workshop Article N/A N/A Farfield Environment
Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative 5th Science and All Committees Meeting: 2018 Workshop Proceedings Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative June 2018 Workshop Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Offshore Wind Farms and Marine Mammals: Impacts and Methodologies for Assessing Impacts Evans, P. February 2008 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Recreational Fisheries Statistics National Marine Fisheries Service, Fisheries Statistics Division January 2012 Website N/A N/A Socio-economics, Fishing

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