Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Typessort descending Stressors Receptors
Avoidance of Wind Farms by Harbour Seals is Limited to Pile Driving Activities Russell, D., et al. May 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on the Early Life Stages of Dicentrarchus labrax Debusschere, E., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
An improved marine radar system for studies of bird migration Cooper, B., et al. January 1991 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Movements of Seals from Rødsand Seal Sanctuary Monitored by Satellite Telemetry Dietz, R., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Investigations of migratory birds during operation of Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Annual status report 2004 Christensen, T., Hounisen, J. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Nocturnal Flight Patterns and Altitudes of Diving Ducks in the IJsselmeer Area Dirksen, S., et al. December 1997 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Marine Wind Farms and Cetaceans Doleman, S., Simmonds, M., Keith, S. May 2003 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Impact Assessment: Summary of EIA Report Elsamprojekt May 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Effect of Tunø Knob Windpark on Birds Guillemette, M., Larsen, J., Clausager, I. January 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Assessing the Impact of the Tunø Knob Wind Park on Sea Ducks: The Influence of Food Resources Guillemette, M., Larsen, J., Clausager, I. February 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Recommendations for project-related studies of possible impacts of marine wind farms during construction and operation on birds Hüppop, O., Exo, K., Garthe, S. January 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
The Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) on Sleneset and Windpower Jacobsen, K., Rov, N. January 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Nocturnal flight activity of sea ducks near the windfarm Tunø Knob in the Kattegat Tulp, I., et al. December 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Effects of Offshore Pile Driving on Harbour Porpoise Abundance in the German Bight: Assessment of Noise Effects Brandt, M., et al. June 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Preliminary Assessment of Offshore Wind Development Impacts on Marine Ecosystems Huang, H., Hall, A. March 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Farfield Environment
Potential Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on North Sea Stratification Carpenter, J., et al. August 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Offshore Wind Turbines: An Overview of the Effects on the Marine Environment Riefolo, L., et al. July 2016 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Achieving Blue Growth through Maritime Spatial Planning: Offshore Wind Energy Optimization and Biodiversity Conservation in Spain Rodríguez-Rodríguez, D., et al. November 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Modelling impacts of offshore wind farms on trophic web: the Courseulles-sur-Mer case study Raoux, A., et al. April 2016 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
A methodological update of the Framework for the Appropriate Assessment of the ecological effects of Offshore Windfarms at the Dutch Continental Shelf Boon, A., et al. July 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Avoidance Behaviour of Birds around Offshore Wind Farms: Overview of Knowledge Including Effects of Configuration Krijgsveld, K. July 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Monitoring and Research Shortlist Offshore Wind - Knowledge advancements and follow up Boon, A. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Prevention of the ecological effects of offshore windfarms in licensing and spatial planning - an overview Boon, A. July 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Effect of exposure duration to pile driving sounds on temporary hearing threshold shift in harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) Kastelein, R., et al. September 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Continuation Implementation Masterplan Wind at Sea Ministry of Economic Affairs (Rijksoverheid), Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment (Rijkwaterstaat) September 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Bats, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
SORIANT VUM - final report von Benda-Beckmann, A., et al. June 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Hearing thresholds of two harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) for playbacks of multiple pile driving strike sounds Kastelein, R., et al. August 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Effect of pile-driving sound on the survival of fish larvae Bolle, L., et al. December 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Hearing thresholds of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) for playbacks of multiple pile driving strike sounds Kastelein, R., et al. August 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Hearing frequencies of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) temporarily affected by played back offshore pile driving sounds Kastelein, R., et al. September 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Hearing thresholds of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) for narrow-band sweeps (0.125-150 kHz) Kastelein, R., et al. July 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Responses of Local Birds to the Offshore Wind Farms PAWP and OWEZ off the Dutch mainland coast Leopold, M., van Bemmelen, R., Zuur, A. October 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Report of the Workshop on International Harmonisation of Approaches to Define Underwater Noise Exposure Criteria Lucke, K., et al. April 2014 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm (OWF) on the Common Shore Crab Carcinus maenas: Tagging Pilot Experiments in the Lillgrund Offshore Wind Farm (Sweden) Langhamer, O., Holand, H., Rosenqvist, G. October 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Assessing The Benefit Of Noise Reduction Measures During Offshore Wind Farm Construction On Harbour Porpoises Verfuss, U., et al. September 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Local support for renewable energy technologies? Attitudes towards local near-shore wind farms among second home owners and permanent area residents on the Danish coast Johansen, K. September 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Positive energies? An empirical study of community energy participation and attitudes to renewable energy Bauwens, T., Devine-Wright, P. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Collision and Displacement Vulnerability Among Marine Birds of the California Current System Associated with Offshore Wind Energy Infrastructure Adams, J., et al. October 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Sustainable Decommissioning of an Offshore Wind Farm Topham, E., McMillan, D. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Review of the Potential Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on Migrating and Overwintering Swans and Geese in the SEA 5 Area Barton, C., Pollock, C. June 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Shorebirds
Environmental Impacts of Balancing Offshore Wind Power with Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Bouman, E., Øberg, M., Hertwich, E. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
The Implications of Energy Systems for Ecosystem Services: A Detailed Case Study of Offshore Wind Hooper, T., Beaumont, N., Hattam, C. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
A Synchronized Sensor Array for Remote Monitoring of Avian and Bat Interactions with Offshore Renewable Energy Facilities Suryan, R., Albertani, R., Polagye, B. July 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Issuance of Incidental Harassment Authorizations to Deepwater Wind for the Take of Marine Mammals Incidental to Construction of the Block Island Wind Farm and Block Island Transmission System National Marine Fisheries Service August 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
A Well-Being Framework for Impact Evaluation: The Case of the UK Offshore Wind Industry Hattam, C., Hooper, T., Papathanasopoulou, E. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Recreational Use of Offshore Wind Farms: Experiences and Opinions of Sea Anglers in the UK Hooper, T., Hattam, C., Austen, M. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Recreation
Maritime Route Delineation using AIS Data from the Atlantic Coast of the US Breithaupt, S., et al. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Navigation
A Framework for Assessing Ecological and Cumulative Effects (FAECE) of Offshore Wind Farms on Birds, Bats and Marine Mammals in the Southern North Sea Platteeuw, M., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Marine Mammals
Unforeseen Responses of a Breeding Seabird to the Construction of an Offshore Wind Farm Harwood, A., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Is There a State-of-the-Art to Reduce Pile-Driving Noise? Bellmann, M., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Benthic and Fish Aggregation Inside an Offshore Wind Farm: Which Effects on the Trophic Web Functioning? Raoux, A., et al. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem
Changes in Fish Communities on a Small Spatial Scale, an Effect of Increased Habitat Complexity by an Offshore Wind Farm van Hal, R., Griffioen, A., van Keeken, O. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Socio-Economic Impact of Outer Continental Shelf Wind Energy Development on Fisheries in the US Atlantic: Volume I - Report Narrative Kirkpatrick, A., et al. January 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Fishing
Socio-Economic Impact of Outer Continental Shelf Wind Energy Development on Fisheries in the US Atlantic: Volume II - Appendices Kirkpatrick, A., et al. January 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Fishing
An Assessment of the Economic Potential of Offshore Wind in the United States from 2015 to 2030 Beiter, P., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Use of High Resolution Sonar for Near-Turbine Fish Observations (DIDSON) - WeSea 2007-002 Couperus, B., et al. November 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Electromagnetic Fields Emitted by High Voltage Alternating Current Offshore Wind Power Cables and Interactions with Marine Organisms Gill, A., et al. January 2012 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF N/A
Navitus Bay Wind Park Technical Appendix 2.1 - EMF Calculations Report Dorey, P. April 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF N/A
Navitus Bay Wind Park Environmental Statement: Non-Technical Summary Navitus Bay Development April 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Year-Round Spatiotemporal Distribution of Harbour Porpoises Within and Around the Maryland Wind Energy Area Wingfield, J., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals
Lack of Sound Science in Assessing Wind Farm Impacts on Seabirds Green, R., et al. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Deep Water: The Next Step for Offshore Wind Energy Arapogianni, A., et al. July 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Visual assessment of off-shore wind turbines: The influence of distance, contrast, movement and social variables Bishop, I., Miller, D. April 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Will Communities "Open-Up" to Offshore Wind? Lessons Learned from New England Islands in the United States Klain, S., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Evaluating the Visual Impact of an Offshore Wind Farm Maslov, N., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Impact on seabirds of new offshore wind energy test and demonstration projects in the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (BiMEP, N. Spain) Bald, J., et al. March 2017 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Bat Activity in Dutch offshore wind farms in autumn 2012 Lagerveld, S., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats
Bat Migration Across the Southern North Sea and Possible Implications for Offshore Wind Farms Lagerveld, S., Platteeuw, M. March 2016 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats
Long term studies on biogenic reefs and implications for offshore developments Lancaster, J., Walker, A. February 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem
Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Floating Offshore Wind Energy in California Bang, J., et al. January 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Modelling flight heights of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Great Skuas from GPS: a Bayesian approach Ross-Smith, V., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
The Scientific Validity of Criticisms made by the RSPB of Metrics used to Assess Population Level Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on Seabirds Cook, A., Robinson, R. November 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Assessing the risk of offshore wind farm development to migratory birds designated as features of UK Special Protection Areas (and other Annex 1 species) Wright, L., et al. October 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Identifying a Range of Options to Prevent or Reduce Avian Collision with Offshore Wind Farms using a UK-Based Case Study Cook, A., et al. May 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
The Potential Effects on Birds arising from the Onshore Infrastructure of the Proposed Greater Gabbard Offshore Wind Farm Burton, N., et al. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Ocean Beliefs and Support for an Offshore Wind Energy Project Bidwell, D. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Bat Activity at a Small Wind Turbine in the Baltic Sea Rydell, J., Wickman, A. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats
A Review of Bird Strike Mortality at Irish Onshore Windfarms Fennelly, R. June 2015 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Effect of an Offshore Wind Farm on the Viviparous Eelpout: Biometrics, Brood Development and Population Studies in Lillgrund, Sweden Langhamer, O., Dahlgren, T., Rosenqvist, G. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Bird Killer, Industrial Intruder or Clean Energy? Perceiving Risks to Ecosystem Services Due to an Offshore Wind Farm Klain, S., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Review of Methods and Techniques for Field Validation of Collision Rates and Avoidance Amongst Birds and Bats at Offshore Wind Turbines Dirksen, S. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Assessing larval connectivity for marine spatial planning in the Adriatic Bray, L., Kassis, D., Hall-Spencer, J. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Current and Wave Effects around Windfarm Monopile Foundations Miles, J., Martin, T, Goddard, L March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device N/A
A Framework for Regulating Underwater Noise During Pile Driving Andersson, M., et al. August 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Development of a Geographic Information System-Based Decision Support Tool for Evaluating Windfarm Sitings in Great Lakes Aquatic Habitats Wehrly, K., et al. July 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Bubble Curtains Attenuate Noise from Offshore Wind Farm Construction and Reduce Temporary Habitat Loss for Harbour Porpoises Dähne, M., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Method to Estimate the Visual Impact of an Offshore Wind Farm Maslov, N., et al. October 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Application of Reanalysis Data to Estimate Offshore Wind Potential in EEZ of India Based on Marine Ecosystem Considerations Nagababu, G., et al. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Possible Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on Seabirds: A Pilot Study in Northern Gannets in the Southern North Sea Garthe, S., Markones, N., Corman, A. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Mobile Demersal Megafauna at Common Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations in the German Bight (North Sea) Two Years after Deployment - Increased Production Rate of Cancer pagurus Krone, R., et al. February 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
On the Multi-Scale Interactions Between an Offshore-Wind-Turbine Wake and the Ocean-Sediment Dynamics in an Idealized Framework - A Numerical Investigation Nagel, T., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Observing Cable Laying and Particle Settlement During the Construction of the Block Island Wind Farm James, E., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device N/A
U.S. Job Creation in Offshore Wind: A Report for the Roadmap Project for Multi-State Cooperation on Offshore Wind BVG Associates October 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Improving Efficiencies of National Environmental Policy Act Documentation for Offshore Wind Facilities - Case Studies Report English, P., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Evaluating Benefits of Offshore Wind Energy Projects in NEPA AECOM July 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Broad-Scale Acoustic Monitoring for Cetaceans and Underwater Noise in Relation to Offshore Wind Farm Construction in Scotland Brookes, K., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Site Selection for Offshore Wind Farms in the Southwest Coast of South Korea Kim, C., Jang, S., Kim, T. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Too loud to talk?: Do wind turbine-related sounds affect harbour seal communication? Lucke, K., et al. March 2008 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Seabirds and Offshore Wind Farms in European Waters: Avoidance and Attraction Dierschke, V., Furness, R., Garthe, S. October 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Benthic Conservation Features and Species Associated With Subsea Pipelines: Considerations for Decommissioning Rouse, S., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Invertebrates, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy

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