Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptorssort descending
Scoping Study for Offshore Wind Farm Development in Scottish Waters Davies, I., Watret, R. November 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
The Annapolis Tidal Power Project Head Pond Water Levels - Impacts and Mitigations Rice, R. September 1984 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal N/A
The European Offshore Wind Industry Key 2011 Trends and Statistics European Wind Energy Association January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
The Measurement of the Underwater Radiated Noise from Marine Piling Including Characterisation of a "Soft Start" Period Robinson, S., Lepper, P., Ablitt, J. June 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Understanding the Environmental Impacts of Offshore Windfarms Collaborative Offshore Wind Research Into The Environment, Huddleston, J. November 2010 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Underwater Noise Generated from Marine Piling Robinson, S., Theobald, P., Lepper, P. January 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Underwater Noise Measurements, Analysis, and Predictions Degn, U. March 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Underwater Noise from Construction and Operation of Offshore Wind Farms Tougaard, J., Madsen, P., Wahlberg, M. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Utgrunden Offshore Wind Farm Measurements of Underwater Noise Ingemansson Technology June 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Wave Power Potential along the Atlantic Coast of the Southeastern USA Defne, Z., Haas, K., Fritz, H. October 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave N/A N/A
Wind Conditions and Resource Assessment Petersen, E., Troen, I. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Mitigation of Low-Frequency Underwater Anthropogenic Noise using Stationary Encapsulated Gas Bubbles Lee, K., Wochner, M., Wilson, P. November 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Long Term Estimations of Low Frequency Noise Levels over Water from an Off-Shore Wind Farm Bolin, K., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Encouraging Renewable Energy in the Offshore Environment Appiott, J., Dhanju, A., Cicin-Sain, B. March 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
ReNews Global Offshore Wind Report 2012 Westbrook, T., Kennedy, S., Wachtmeister, W. November 2012 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Large Eddy Simulation Studies of the Effects of Alignment and Wind Farm Length Stevens, R., Gayme, D., Meneveau, C. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal N/A
Pseudo Spectral Analysis of the Energy Entrainment in a Scaled Down Wind Farm Newman, J., Drew, D., Castillo, L. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal N/A
Flow-Noise and Turbulence in Two Tidal Channels Bassett, C., et al. February 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise N/A
Identification of Outer Continental Shelf Renewable Energy Space-Use Conflicts and Analysis of Potential Mitigation Measures Conway, F., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device N/A
Developing Environmental Protocols and Modeling Tools to Support Ocean Renewable Energy and Stewardship McCann, J. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Underwater Sound Levels Associated with Pile Driving at the Cape Disappointment Boat Launch Facility, Wave Barrier Project Laughlin, J. March 2006 Report N/A Noise N/A
Coherence Extrapolation for Underwater Ambient Noise Quijano, J., et al. May 2014 Journal Article N/A Noise N/A
A Review Of Assessment Methodologies For Offshore Windfarms Maclean, I., et al. May 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Discovery of Sound in the Sea University of Rhode Island January 2013 Website N/A Noise N/A
Underwater Noise Emissions from Offshore Wind Turbines Betke, K., Schultz-von Glahn, M., Matuschek, R. January 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Planners to the Rescue: Spatial Planning Facilitating the Development of Offshore Wind Energy Jay, S. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device N/A
Wind Turbine Noise and Natural Sounds - Masking, Propagation and Modeling Bolin, K. April 2009 Thesis Wind Energy general Noise N/A
Monitoring Guidance for Underwater Noise in European Seas Dekeling, R., et al. May 2013 Report N/A Noise N/A
Offshore Wind Farms Measuring Instruction for Underwater Sound Monitoring Müller, A., Zerbs, C. October 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Adapting Offshore Wind Power Foundations to Local Environment Hammar, L., Andersson, S., Rosenberg, R. May 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device N/A
Offshore Wind Farms Development in Relation to Environmental Protected Areas Spiropoulou, I., Karamanis, D., Kehayias, G. February 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Off-Shore Wind Farm Development: Present Status and Challenges Perveen, R., Kishor, N., Mohanty, S. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Environmental Impact and Control Measures of New Wind Power Projects Zheng, L., Zheng, L., Wei, L. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Book of Abstracts: Conference on Wind Power and Environmental Impacts Naturvårdsverket February 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Potential Impacts from a Worst Case Discharge from an United States Offshore Wind Farm Gunter, T. January 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals N/A
Prediction of Structure Borne Noise Radiation and Propagation from Offshore Impact Pile Driving Huikwan, K. January 2014 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Effective Mitigation of Underwater Piling Noise Karl-Heinz, E. February 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Modeling of Underwater Noise from Pile Driving using Coupled Finite Element and Parabolic Equation Model with Improved Parabolic Equation Starting Field Park, J., Seong, W., Lee, K. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Assessment and Costs of Potential Engineering Solutions for the Mitigation of the Impacts of Underwater Noise Arising from the Construction of Offshore Windfarms Nehls, G., et al. September 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Delivering Offshore Electricity to the EU: Spatial Planning of Offshore Renewable Energies and Electricity Grid Infrastructures in an Integrated EU Maritime Policy Seanergy May 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Environmental Effects and the Permitting Processes for a Deep Water Offshore Wind-Wave Hybrid Generator DeVault, G. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Marine Renewable Energy and the Environment: Progress and Challenges Polagye, B. January 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Effect of Electromagnetic Fields on Marine Organisms Bochert, R., Zettler, M. January 2006 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF N/A
Standard for Measurement and Monitoring of Underwater Noise, Part II: Procedures for Measuring Underwater Noise in Connection with Offshore Wind Farm Licensing de Jong, C., Ainslie, M., Blacquière, G. September 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Performance and Integrity of Protective Coating Systems for Offshore Wind Power Structures after Three Years Under Offshore Site Conditions Momber, A., Plagemann, P., Stenzel, V. February 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals N/A
Why Offshore Wind Energy? Esteban, M., et al. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Development of Noise Mitigation Measures in Offshore Wind Farm Construction Koschinski, S., Lüdemann, K. February 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
The Significance of Parameter Uncertainties for the Prediction of Offshore Pile Driving Noise Lippert, T., von Estorff, O. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Applicability of the "Frame of Reference" Approach for Environmental Monitoring of Offshore Renewable Energy Projects Garel, E., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Environmental Impacts of Renewable Energy Spellman, F. December 2014 Book Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Environmental Issues Associated with Wind Energy - A Review Dai, K., et al. March 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, EMF, Noise, Static Device N/A
Sound Solutions: Construction of Offshore Wind Farms Without Underwater Noise Stichting de Noordzee January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Offshore Energy Structures Karimirad, M. January 2014 Book Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
The New Noise Mitigation System 'Hydro Sound Dampers': History of Development with Several Hydro Sound and Vibration Measurements Burns, B., et al. November 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
New Achievements in Underwater Noise Modelling for Offshore Pile Driving Trimoreau, B., et al. November 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
New Hydro Sound Dampers to Reduce Piling Underwater Noise Elmer, K., Savery, J. November 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Dynamic Measurements of Pile Deflections as a Source of Underwater Sound Emissions during Impact Driving of Offshore Pile Foundations Kuhn, C., et al. November 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Hydro Sound Measurements during the Installation of Large Diameter Offshore Piles using Combinations of Independent Noise Mitigation Systems Burns, B., et al. November 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Measured and Calculated Characteristics of Wind Turbine Noise Greene, G. February 1981 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
Wind Turbine Acoustic Standards Shepherd, K., Stephens, D., Grosveld, F. May 1981 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
Noise Generation of Upwind Rotor Wind Turbine Generators Spencer, R. February 1981 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
Method for Predicting Impulsive Noise Generated by Wind Turbine Rotors Viterna, L. May 1982 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
GE MOD-1 Noise Study Wells, R. May 1981 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
Nest-Guarding by Female Agassiz's Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) at a Wind-Energy Facility Near Palm Springs, California Agha, M., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device N/A
An Analysis about Wind Farm Construction Based on the Perspective of the Development of Ecological Environment Bai, Z. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Noise, Static Device N/A
A Hierarchical Distance Sampling Approach to Estimating Mortality Rates from Opportunistic Carcass Surveillance Data Bellan, S., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device N/A
Is a Wind-Power Plant Acting as a Barrier for Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) Movements? Colman, J., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device N/A
Summer Distribution of Semi-Domesticated Reindeer Relative to a New Wind-Power Plant Colman, J., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device N/A
Nesting Ecology of a Population of Gopherus agassizii at a Utility-Scale Wind Energy Facility in Southern California Ennen, J., et al. June 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device N/A
Female Agassizs Desert Tortoise Activity at a Wind Energy Facility in Southern California: The Influence of an El Nino Event Ennen, J., Meyer, K., Lovich, J. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device N/A
Effects of Wind Turbines on Area Use and Behaviour of Semi-Domestic Reindeer in Enclosures Flydal, K., et al. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device N/A
Is there Room for All of Us? Renewable Energy and Xerospermophilus mohavensis Inman, R., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device N/A
A Methodology for Assessment of Wind Turbine Noise Generation Kelley, N., Hemphill, R., McKenna, H. May 1982 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
Turtles and Culverts, and Alternative Energy Development: An Unreported but Potentially Significant Mortality Threat to the Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) Lovich, J., et al. July 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device N/A
Long-Term Post-Fire Effects on Spatial Ecology and Reproductive Output of Female Agassiz's Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) at a Wind Energy Facility near Palm Springs, California, USA Lovich, J., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device N/A
Effects of wind energy production on growth, demography, and survivorship of a desert tortoise population in Southern California with comparisons to natural populations Lovich, J., et al. June 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device N/A
Stressor Analysis Approaches for Endangered Species Assessments Salatas, J., et al. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Response of Rocky Mountain Elk (Cervus elaphus) to Wind-power Development Walter, W., Leslie, D., Jenks, J. October 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device N/A
Winter Resource Selection by Mule Deer on the Wyoming-Colorado Border Prior to Wind Energy Development Webb, S., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device N/A
Wind Energy Development in California, USA Wilshire, H., Prose, D. January 1987 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Comprehensive Post-Evaluation Model on Wind Power Wu, Y., Chen, W., Li, Y. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Oregon Columbia Plateau Ecoregion Wind Energy: Siting and Permitting Guidelines Iberdrola Renewables, et al. September 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device N/A
Modelling Foraging Movements of Diving Predators: A Theoretical Study Exploring the Effect of Heterogeneous Landscapes on Foraging Efficiency Chimienti, M., et al. September 2014 Journal Article N/A Static Device N/A
How a Wind Turbine Works EWEA January 2013 Video Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Tradeoff Analysis of Energy Harvesting and Noise Emission for Distributed Wind Turbines Shaltout, M., et al. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise N/A
Standard for Measurement and Monitoring of Underwater Noise, Part I: Physical Quantities and their Units Ainslie, M. September 2011 Report N/A Noise N/A
Sound Speed and Void Fraction Profiles in the Sea Surface Bubble Layer Buckingham, M. July 1997 Journal Article N/A Noise N/A
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA License Conditions Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) August 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Numerical Study for Wave-Induced Seabed Response around Offshore Wind Turbine Foundation in Donghai Offshore Wind Farm, Shanghai, China Chang, K., Jeng, D. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal N/A
The European Offshore Wind Industry - Key Trends and Statistics 2013 Corbetta, G., Pineda, I., Moccia, J. January 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Geological and Geotechnical Characterisation for Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations: A Case Study of the Sheringham Shoal Wind Farm Le, T., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device N/A
On a Hybrid Model for the Prediction of Pile Driving Noise from Offshore Wind Farms Lippert, T., von Estorff, O. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Low Frequency Noise and Infrasound from Wind Turbines O'Neal, R., Hellweg, R., Lampeter, R. March 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise N/A
The Cumulative Effect on Sound Levels from Multiple Underwater Anthropogenic Sound Sources in Shallow Coastal Waters Pine, M., Jeffs, A., Radford, C. February 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
The Current State of Offshore Wind Energy Technology Development Sun, X., Huang, D., Wu, G. May 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Airborne Sound Propagation Over Sea During Offshore Wind Farm Piling Van Renterghem, T., Botteldooren, D., Dekoninck, L. February 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
The Effect of Wind-Generated Bubbles on Sea-Surface Backscattering at 940 Hz van Vossen, R., Ainslie, M. November 2011 Journal Article N/A Noise N/A
The Key Technologies and Development of Offshore Wind Farm in China Wu, J., Wang, Z., Wang, G. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Acoustic Techniques for Wind Turbine Blade Monitoring Burnham, K., Pierce, S. September 2007 Book Chapter Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Intervisibility Analysis of an Offshore Wind Farm Using GIS Tools Errico, A., et al. January 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device N/A

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