Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author*sort ascending Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Assessing Significance of Impacts from Onshore Windfarms on Birds Outwith Designated Areas Scottish Natural Heritage July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Guidance note: Guidance on Methods for Monitoring Bird Populations at Onshore Wind Farms Scottish Natural Heritage January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Guidance: Survey Methods for Use in Assessing the Impacts of Onshore Windfarms on Bird Communities Scottish Natural Heritage November 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Survey Methods for Use in Assessment the Impacts of Onshore Wind Farms on Bird Communities Scottish Natural Heritage November 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Siting and Designing Wind Farms in the Landscape - Version 3 Scottish Natural Heritage February 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Assessing the Cumulative Impact of Onshore Wind Energy Developments Scottish Natural Heritage March 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Farfield Environment
Assessing the Impact of Small-Scale Wind Energy Proposals on the Natural Heritage Scottish Natural Heritage March 2016 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Development of Offshore Renewable Energy in Scotland's Seas: Research Implementation Strategy Scottish Government September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
User Guide for the MRSea Package: Marine Renewables Strategic Environmental Assessment Scott-Hayward, L., et al. October 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Marine Mammals
MRSea Package (version 0.0.1): Statistical Modelling of Bird and Cetacean Distributions in Offshore Renewables Development Areas Scott-Hayward, L., et al. November 2013 Report N/A N/A Birds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Tilting at Offshore Windmills: Regulating Wind Farm Development Within the Renewable Energy Zone Scott, K. December 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
From strategic marine planning to project licences – Striking a balance between predictability and adaptability in the management of aquaculture and offshore wind farms Schütz, S., Slater, A. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Proceedings of the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats Workshop: Understanding and Resolving Bird and Bat Impacts Schwartz, S. May 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the Onshore Wildlife Interactions with Wind Developments: Research Meeting V Schwartz, S. March 2005 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the NWCC Wildlife Workgroup Research Planning Meeting VI Schwartz, S. March 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the Wind Wildlife Research Meeting VII Schwartz, S. June 2009 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the Wind Wildlife Research Meeting VIII Schwartz, S. April 2011 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the Wind-Wildlife Research Meeting XI Schwartz, S. May 2017 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device N/A
Proceedings of the Wind-Wildlife Research Meeting X Schwartz, S. April 2015 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General) Collision Bats, Birds
An Analytical Impact Assessment Framework for Wildlife to Inform the Siting and Permitting of Wind Energy Facilities Schwartz, J. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device N/A
Oil and gas platforms as artificial substrates for epibenthic North Sea fauna: Effects of location and depth Schutter, M., et al. November 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Fish, Invertebrates
Low-Frequency Amphibious Hearing in Pinnipeds: Methods, Measurements, Noise, and Ecology Schusterman, R., Kastak, D. January 1998 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Consolidating the State of Knowledge: A Synoptical Review of Wind Energy's Wildlife Effects Schuster, E., Bulling, L., Köppel, J. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds, Marine Mammals
Toward a Common Understanding of Ocean Multi-Use Schupp, M., et al. April 2019 Journal Article N/A N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
The determinants of wind energy growth in the United States: Drivers and barriers to state-level development Schumacher, K., Yang, Z. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Wave energy drives biotic patterns beyond the surf zone: Factors influencing abundance and occurrence of mobile fauna adjacent to subtropical beaches Schultz, A., et al. January 2019 Journal Article N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Estimating Sample Size for Landscape-Scale Mark-Recapture Studies of North American Migratory Tree Bats Schorr, R., Ellison, L., Lukacs, P. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Where the Decibels Hit the Water: Perspectives on the Application of Science to Real-World Underwater Noise and Marine Protected Species Issues Scholik-Schlomer, A. June 2015 Journal Article N/A Noise N/A
Effects of underwater noise on auditory sensitivity of a cyprinid fish Scholik, A., Yan, H. February 2001 Journal Article N/A Noise Fish
Appropriate assessment of plans and projects for Croatian National Ecological Network - utilization of bird and bat impact zonation in the southern coastal part of Croatia Schneider, D., et al. May 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
Health Effects Related to Wind Turbine Noise Exposure: A Systematic Review Schmidt, J., Klokker, M. December 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Socio-economics
National Wind Technology Center Site Environmental Assessment: Bird and Bat Use and Fatalities - Final Report Schmidt, E., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Need for a wind of change? Use of offshore wind messages by stakeholders and the media in Germany and their effects on public acceptance Schmidt, A. October 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Adjustments of Wingbeat Frequency and Air Speed to Air Density in Free-Flying Migratory Birds Schmaljohann, H., Liechti, F. August 2009 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Impact Hypothesis for Offshore Wind Farms: Explanatory Models for Species Distribution at Extremely Exposed Rocky Areas Schläppy, M., Saskov, A., Dahlgren, T. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Life Cycle Assessment of a Wind Farm and Related Externalities Schleisner, L. July 2000 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Evaluating a Novel Approach to Optimize Operational Minimization to Reduce Bat Fatalities at the Pinnacle Wind Farm, Mineral County, West Virginia, 2015 Schirmacher, M., et al. April 2018 Report Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Bats
Assessment of the Effects of the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ) for Harbour Porpoise (comparison T0 and T1) Scheidat, M., et al. September 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals
Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and Wind Farms: A Case Study in the Dutch North Sea Scheidat, M., et al. June 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Marine Mammals
Porpoises and Offshore Windfarms - Conflict, Co-Existence or Refuge Scheidat, M. October 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
A Computational Method to Predict and Study Underwater Noise due to Pile Driving Schecklman, S., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
D2.6 Report on Offshore Wind System Monitoring Practice and Normalisation Procedures Schaumann, P., et al. December 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Spatial Distribution of Wind Turbines is Crucial for the Survival of Red Kite Populations Schaub, M. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Power Connections for Offshore Wind Farms Schachner, J. January 2004 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF N/A
The New Mode of Marine Planning in the UK: Aspirations and Challenges Scarff, G., Fitzsimmons, C., Gray, T. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
A New Model for Environmental and Economic Evaluation of Renewable Energy Systems: The Case of Wind Turbines Savino, M., et al. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Farfield Environment, Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Ormonde Offshore Wind Farm 2010 Construction Environmental Monitoring Report Saunders, S. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Noise Birds, Waterfowl, Marine Mammals
Comparison of Manual and Semi-Automatic Underwater Imagery Analyses for Monitoring of Benthic Hard-Bottom Organisms at Offshore Renewable Energy Installations Saskov, A., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Invertebrates
Effect of boat noise on the behaviour of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus in the Mediterranean Sea Sarà, G., et al. February 2007 Journal Article N/A Noise Fish
Wind farms, farmland occupation and compensation: Evidences from landowners’ preferences through a stated choice survey in Italy Sardaro, R., Faccilongo, N., Roselli, L. October 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Action on Multiple Fronts, Illegal Poisoning and Wind Farm Planning, is Required to Reverse the Decline of the Egyptian Vulture in Southern Spain Sanz-Aguilar, A., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Predicting the trends of vertebrate species richness as a response to wind farms installation in mountain ecosystems of northwest Portugal Santos, M., et al. March 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
A Spatial Explicit Agent Based Model Approach to Evaluate the Performance of Different Monitoring Options for Mortality Estimates in the Scope of Onshore Windfarm Impact Assessments Santos, M., et al. February 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Environmental Impact Assessment Methods: An Overview of the Process for Wind Farms’ Different Phases - From Pre-construction to Operation Santos, J., et al. September 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Using Species Distribution Modelling to Predict Bat Fatality Risk at Wind Farms Santos, H., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Challenges in Implementing Sustainable Marine Spatial Planning: The New Portuguese Legal Framework Case Santos, C., et al. November 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Match Between Soaring Modes of Black Kites and the Fine-Scale Distribution of Updrafts Santos, C., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
How sustainable is sustainable marine spatial planning? Part II - The Portuguese experience Santos, C., et al. November 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Marine Spatial Planning Santos, C., et al. January 2019 Book Chapter N/A N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Managing Offshore Wind Developments in the United States: Legal, Environmental and Social Considerations using a Case Study in Nantucket Sound Santora, C., Hade, N., Odell, J. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
A Call for Conservation Scientists to Evaluate Opportunities and Risks from Operation of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines Santangeli, A., Katzner, T. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Mapping the global potential exposure of soaring birds to terrestrial wind energy expansion Santangeli, A., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Negative Impact of Wind Energy Development on a Breeding Shorebird Assessed with a BACI Study Design Sansom, A., Pearce-Higgins, J., Douglas, D. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Shorebirds
A Multi-National Project Management Framework Audit of a European Union Marine Spatial Planning Project Sangiuliano, S. March 2018 Report N/A N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Motionally Induced Electric and Magnetic Fields in the Sea Sanford, T. May 1971 Journal Article N/A EMF N/A
Wildlife Science: Connecting Research with Management Sands, J., et al. May 2012 Book Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Marine Protected Areas and Offshore Wind Farms Sanders, N., Haynes, T., Goriup, P. March 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Noise Marine Mammals
Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens Sandercock, B. May 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Detection of Infrasound in Fish and Behavioral Responses to Intense Infrasound in Juvenile Salmonids and European Silver Eels: A Minireview Sand, O., et al. January 2001 Conference Paper N/A Noise Fish
The influence of regulatory framework on environmental impact assessment in the development of offshore wind farms in Spain: Issues, challenges and solutions Salvador, S., Gimeno, L., Larruga, F. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
How Does Wind Turbine Noise Affect People? Salt, A., Lichtenhan, J. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
Handbook on Marine Environment Protection: Science, Impacts, and Sustainable Management Salomon, M., Markus, T. January 2018 Book Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
External Effects of Renewable Energy Projects: Life Cycle Analysis-based Approach Salnikova, A., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-Economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Marine Renewable Energy Law and Policy in the Bay of Fundy: The Impact of Ambiguous Domestic Boundaries in Canada on Nova Scotia's Regulatory Framework Salcedo, E. January 2019 Journal Article N/A N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Stressor Analysis Approaches for Endangered Species Assessments Salatas, J., et al. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Environmental Impact of Wind Energy Saidur, R., et al. June 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Role of Benthic Habitat Distribution Data in Coastal Water Wind Turbine Site Selection Sahla, M., Kalliola, R., Haldin, M. May 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates
A Report on National Greater Sage-Grouse Conservation Measures Sage-grouse National Technical Team December 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Vitamine ENA: A framework for the development of ecosystem-based indicators for decision makers Safi, G., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Final Environmental Impact Report for the SMUD Solano Wind Project Phase 3 Sacramento Municipal Utility District February 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Exploring technologically, temporally and geographically-sensitive life cycle inventories for wind turbines: A parameterized model for Denmark Sacchi, R., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Evaluations of Wind Potential in Dobrogea Plateau Sabafu, A., Tudor, D. January 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Birds
Knowledge Brokerage Context Factors - What Matters in Knowledge Exchange in Impact Assessment? Saarela, S., Söderman, T., Lyytimäki, J. August 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Fish are Attracted to Vessels Røstad, A., et al. March 2006 Journal Article N/A Attraction Fish, Human Dimensions, Navigation
Fixed Point Raptor Migration Survey at the National Wind Technology Center: April 2010 Ryon, T., Brenda, B. June 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Bat Activity at a Small Wind Turbine in the Baltic Sea Rydell, J., Wickman, A. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats
Photography as a Low-Impact Method to Survey Bats Rydell, J., Russo, D. May 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Mortality of Bats at Wind Turbines Links to Nocturnal Insect Migration? Rydell, J., et al. December 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
The Effect of Wind Power on Birds and Bats - A Synthesis Rydell, J., et al. August 2012 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Bat Mortality at Wind Turbines in Northwestern Europe Rydell, J., et al. July 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Bats May Eat Diurnal Flies that Rest on Wind Turbines Rydell, J., et al. May 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
The Effects of Wind Power on Birds and Bats: An Updated Synthesis Report Rydell, J., et al. December 2017 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
Testing the Performances of Automated Identification of Bat Echolocation Calls: A Request for Prudence Rydell, J., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Stakeholder Perspectives on the Value of Marine Spatial Planning Towards Advancing Offshore Wind in the U.S. Ryan, K., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
Consideration of scales in offshore wind environmental impact assessments Ryan, K., Danylchuk, A., Jordaan, A. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Is Marine Spatial Planning Enough to Overcome Biological Data Deficiencies? Ryan, K., Danylchuk, A., Jordaan, A. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Overcoming Biological Data Deficiencies in Environmental Permitting for Offshore Wind Energy Ryan, K. May 2018 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Gwynt y Môr Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement RWE Group November 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Applying Radar Technology to Migratory Bird Conservation and Management: Strengthening and Expanding a Collaborative Ruth, J. January 2007 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
Evaluation of the near future wave energy resources in the Black Sea under two climate scenarios Rusu, L. November 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change

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