Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author*sort ascending Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Anthropogenic Sound: Effects on the Behavior and Physiology of Fishes Popper, A., et al. December 2003 Journal Article N/A Noise Fish
Effect Studies Offshore Wind Egmond aan Zee: Cumulative Effects on Seabirds - A Modelling Approach to Estimate Effects on Population Levels in Seabirds Poot, M., et al. November 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Cumulative Effects of Wind Farms in the Dutch North Sea on Bird Populations Poot, M., et al. June 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds
Green Light For Nocturnally Migrating Birds Poot, H., et al. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Lighting Birds
Marine Renewable Energy and the Environment: Progress and Challenges Polagye, B. January 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Meteorological and Environmental Variables Affect Flight Behaviour and Decision-Making of an Obligate Soaring Bird, the California Condor Gymnogyps californianus Poessel, S., et al. January 2018 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Raptors
Flight Response to Spatial and Temporal Correlates Informs Risk from Wind Turbines to the California Condor Poessel, S., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Improving estimation of flight altitude in wildlife telemetry studies Poessel, S., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
2010 Initial Bird Assessment of the Dennis Water District Wind Turbine Project Site Podolsky, R. October 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Passerines, Seabirds
Modeling the Distribution of Migratory Bird Stopovers to Inform Landscape-Scale Siting of Wind Development Pocewicz, A., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Potential impacts of energy development on shrublands in western North America Pocewicz, A., Copeland, H., Kiesecker, J. December 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Proceedings of the Wind-Wildlife Research Meeting XII PNWWRM XII March 2019 Conference Paper Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Wind Power and the Local Environment - No Free Lunches Plowden, B. March 1992 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Radar Monitoring of Migrating Pink-Footed Geese: Behavioural Responses to Offshore Wind Farm Development Plonczkier, P., Simms, I. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
A Framework for Assessing Ecological and Cumulative Effects (FAECE) of Offshore Wind Farms on Birds, Bats and Marine Mammals in the Southern North Sea Platteeuw, M., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Marine Mammals
First in situ evidence of wakes in the far field behind offshore wind farms Platis, A., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Farfield Environment
Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring of Migrating Waterbirds Piper, W., et al. October 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Spatial Pattern of Summer Bat Mortality from Collisions with Wind Turbines in Mixed-Grass Prairie Piorkowski, M., O'Connell, T. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Research Priorities for Wind Energy and Migratory Wildlife Piorkowski, M., et al. April 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Underwater Hearing Sensitivity of the Leatherback Sea Turtle (Dermochelys coriacea): Assessing the Potential Effect of Anthropogenic Noise Piniak, W., et al. September 2012 Report N/A Noise Sea Turtles
Application of GIS and Spatial Analysis of Golden Eagle Fatalities Caused by Wind Turbines at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Pinger, A. April 2013 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Turbine Sound May Influence the Metamorphosis Behaviour of Estuarine Crab Megalopae Pine, M., Jeffs, A., Radford, C. December 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Benthic Invertebrates
The Cumulative Effect on Sound Levels from Multiple Underwater Anthropogenic Sound Sources in Shallow Coastal Waters Pine, M., Jeffs, A., Radford, C. February 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
An integrated risk-based assessment of the North Sea to guide ecosystem-based management Piet, G., et al. March 2019 Journal Article N/A N/A Socio-economics
Wind Turbine Bird Strike Prevention System Method and Apparatus Piesinger, G. June 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Comparison of Recent Oil and Gas, Wind Energy, and Other Anthropogenic Landscape Alteration Factors in Texas Through 2014 Pierre, J., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Physical Environment
Artificial Reefs as a Tool to Aid Rehabilitation of Coastal Ecosystems: Investigating the Potential Pickering, H., Whitmarsh, D., Jensen, A. December 1999 Journal Article N/A Static Device Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Doppler Lidar-Based Wind-Profile Measurement System for Offshore Wind Energy and Other Marine Boundary Layer Applications Pichugina, Y., et al. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Advancing the relationship between renewable energy and ecosystem services for landscape planning and design: A literature review Picchi, P., et al. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Ecosystem, Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Life Cycle Analysis of Ecological Impacts of an Offshore and a Land-Based Wind Power Plant Piasecka, I., et al. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) for Wind Energy Planning: Lessons from the United Kingdom and Germany Phylip-Jones, J., Fischer, T. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
EIA for Wind Farms in the United Kingdom and Germany Phylip-Jones, J., Fischer, T. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Marine Mammals Philpott, E., Tollit, D., Mackey, B. August 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
A Quantitative-Based Evaluation of the Environmental Impact and Sustainability of a Proposed Onshore Wind Farm in the United Kingdom Phillips, J. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Steel forests or smoke stacks: the politics of visualisation in the Cape Wind controversy Phadke, R. February 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Foraging Range and Habitat use by Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres from the Msikaba Colony, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa Pfeiffer, M., Venter, J., Downs, C. May 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Modeling Large Offshore Wind Farms Under Different Atmospheric Stability Regimes with the Park Wake Model Peña, A., Réthoré, P., Rathmann, O. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment
An ecosystem approach for studying the impact of offshore wind farms: a French case study Pezy, J., Raoux, A., Dauvin, J. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Towards an Ecosystem Approach to Assess the Impacts of Marine Renewable Energy Pezy, J., et al. March 2019 Book Chapter Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Day of Year, Temperature, Wind, and Precipitation Predict Timing of Bat Migration Pettit, J., O'Keefe October 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Night Migration of Songbirds and Waterfowl at the Utgrunden Off-Shore Wind Farm: A Radar-Assisted Study in Southern Kalmar Sound Pettersson, J., Fågelvind, J. July 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Passerines, Waterfowl
The Impact of Offshore Wind Farms on Bird Life in Southern Kalmar Sound, Sweden Pettersson, J. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
Identifying Information Needs and Approaches for Assessing Potential Impacts of Offshore Wind Farm Development on Fisheries Resources in the Northeast Region Petruny-Parker, M., et al. July 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Getting it Right for the North Atlantic Right Whale (Eubalaena glacialis): A Last Opportunity for Effective Marine Spatial Planning? Petruny, L., Wright, A., Smith, C. August 2014 Journal Article N/A Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
From NIMBY to Acceptance: Toward a Novel Framework - VESPA - For Organizing and Interpreting Community Concerns Petrova, M. February 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Eagle Take Minimization System Petr, R., Knag, J., Laufer, E. March 2018 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds, Raptors
Importance of coastal area on bat migration at the western coast of Latvia – implication for localization of wind farms Petersons, G., Suba, J., Vintulis, V. February 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Long-term Bat Monitoring on Islands, Offshore Structures, and Coastal Sites in the Gulf of Maine, mid-Atlantic, and Great Lakes Peterson, T. January 2016 Report N/A N/A Bats
Carbon or Cash: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Environmental and Economic Messages on Attitudes about Wind Energy in the United States Peterson, D., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Risks to Birds and Wildlife from Offshore Wind Farms: BOEMRE NC Task Force Peterson, C. May 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Bats, Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Development of a Comprehensive Conservation Strategy for the North Shore Region of Minnesota in the Context of Future Wind Power Development Peterson, A., Niemi, G. December 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Offshore Windmill Farms: Threats to or Possibilities for the Marine Environment Petersen, J., Malm, T. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Changes in Bird Habitat Utilisation around the Horns Rev 1 Offshore Wind Farm, with Particular Emphasis on Common Scoter Petersen, I., Fox, A. April 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Final Results of Bird Studies at the Offshore Wind Farms at Nysted and Horns Rev, Denmark Petersen, I., et al. January 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Nearfield Habitat
Comparing Pre- and Post-Construction Distributions of Long-Tailed Ducks Clangula hyemalis in and around the Nysted Offshore Wind Farm, Denmark: A Quasi-Designed Experiment Accounting for Imperfect Detection, Local Surface Features and Autocorrelation Petersen, I., et al. January 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Bird Numbers and Distributions in the Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Area Petersen, I. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Modelling Total Numbers and Distribution of Common Scoter Melanitta nigra at Horns Rev Petersen, I. November 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Wind Conditions and Resource Assessment Petersen, E., Troen, I. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A N/A
On the Electrodetection Threshold of Aquatic Vertebrates with Ampullary or Mucous Gland Electroreceptor Organs Peters, R., Eeuwes, L., Bretschneider, F. August 2007 Journal Article N/A EMF N/A
Empirical Evidence for Factors Affecting Searcher Efficiency and Scavenging Rates at a Coastal, Terrestrial Wind-Power Facility Peters, K., Mizrahi, D., Allen, M. December 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Evaluating anthropogenic landscape alterations as wildlife hazards, with wind farms as an example Peter R. Law, Mark Fuller July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Nearfield Habitat
How to Mitigate Impacts of Wind Farms on Bats? A Review of Potential Conservation Measures in the European Context Peste, F., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Trends of Harbour Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) Density in the Southern North Sea Peschko, V., et al. January 2016 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals
Effectiveness of a mitigation measure for the lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) in wind farms in Spain Pescador, M., Ramírez, J., Peris, S. February 2019 Journal Article Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Off-Shore Wind Farm Development: Present Status and Challenges Perveen, R., Kishor, N., Mohanty, S. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Valuing the Shoreline - Guideline for Socio-Economic Analyses Persson, M., et al. January 2006 Report N/A N/A Socio-economics
Temporal Patterns in Capture Rate and Sex Ratio of Forest Bats in Arkansas Perry, R., Carter, S., Thill, R. October 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Visual Tracking From a Rigid-Hulled Inflatable Boat to Determine Foraging Movements of Breeding Terns Perrow, M., Gilroy, J., Skeate, E. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Effects of the Construction of Scroby Sands Offshore Wind Farm on the Prey Base of Little Tern Sternula albifons at its Most Important UK Colony Perrow, M., et al. August 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Fish
Radio Telemetry as a Tool for Impact Assessment of Wind Farms: The Case of Little Terns Sterna albifrons at Scroby Sands, Norfolk, UK Perrow, M., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Quantifying the Relative Use of Coastal Waters by Breeding Terns: Towards Effective Tools for Planning & Assessing the Ornithological Impact of Offshore Wind Farms Perrow, M., et al. June 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Wildlife and Wind Farms - Conflicts and Solutions, Volume 2 Onshore: Monitoring and Mitigation Perrow, M. April 2017 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Wildlife and Wind Farms - Conflicts and Solutions, Volume 1 Onshore: Potential Effects Perrow, M. April 2017 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Ecosystem, Terrestrial Mammals
FatalityCMR - Capture-Recapture Software to Correct Raw Counts of Wildlife Fatalities using Trial Experiments for Carcass Detection Probability and Persistence Time Peron, G., Hines, J. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device N/A
Estimation of Bird and Bat Mortality at Wind-Power Farms with Superpopulation Models Peron, G., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
The energy landscape predicts flight height and wind turbine collision hazard in three species of large soaring raptor Peron, G., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Process-based vs. ad-hoc methods to estimate mortality using carcass surveys data: A review and a note about evidence complacency Peron, G. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device N/A
At the Heart of a Sustainable Energy Transition: The Public Acceptability of Energy Projects Perlaviciute, G., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Interannual Home Range Variation, Territoriality and Overlap in Breeding Bonelli's Eagles (Aquila fasciata) Tracked by GPS Satellite Telemetry Perez-Garcia, J., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Birds and Offshore Wind: Studying and Assessing Effects Pereksta, D. July 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Impacts of On-shore Wind Farms in Wildlife Communities: Direct Fatalities and Indirect Impacts (Behavioural and Habitat Effects) Pereira, P., Salgueiro, N., Mesquita, S. September 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
Characterization of the Ultrasonic Acoustic Field of a Wind Turbine Pereira, M., Fonseca, C., Inácio, O. October 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Managing Coniferous Production Forests Towards Bat Conservation Pereira, M., et al. January 2016 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
The vulnerability of wind power to climate change in Brazil Pereira de Lucena, A., et al. May 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change
Assessment of the Effects of Offshore Wind in Birds Percival, S. January 2001 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Birds and Wind Farms in Ireland: A Review of Potential Issues and Impact Assessment Percival, S. December 2003 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Kentish Flats Offshore Wind Farm: Diver Surveys 2009-10 Percival, S. November 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Birds and Windfarms: What are the Real Issues? Percival, S. April 2005 Magazine Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds, Raptors
Speeds and Wingbeat Frequencies of Migrating Birds Compared with Calculated Benchmarks Pennycuick, C. July 2001 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Wingbeat Frequency of Birds in Steady Cruising Flight: New Data and Improved Predictions Pennycuick, C. March 1996 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Pennsylvania Game Commission Wind Energy Voluntary Cooperation Agreement: Amendment I Pennsylvania Game Commission July 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
Noise in the Sea and Its Impacts on Marine Organisms Peng, C., Zhao, X., Liu, G. September 2015 Journal Article N/A Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Monitoring of Marine Mammal Strandings Along French Coasts Reveals the Importance of Ship Strikes on Large Cetaceans: A Challenge for the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive Peltier, H., et al. July 2019 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Information Synthesis on the Potential for Bat Interactions with Offshore Wind Facilities - Final Report Pelletier, S., et al. June 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats
Renewable Energy from the Ocean Pelc, R., Fujita, R. November 2002 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Consequential Environmental System Analysis of Expected Offshore Wind Electricity Production in Germany Pehnt, M., Oeser, M., Swider, D. May 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Wind Turbines - Low Level Noise Sources Interfering with Restoration? Pedersen, E., Waye, K. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Human Perception of Sound from Wind Turbines Pedersen, E., Forssén, J., Waye, K. June 2010 Report Wind Energy general Noise Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Wintering Sandhill Crane Exposure to Wind Energy Development in the Central and Southern Great Plains, USA Pearse, A., Brandt, D., Krapu, G. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Greater impacts of wind farms on bird populations during construction than subsequent operation: results of a multi-site and multi-species analysis Pearce-Higgins, J., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds

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