Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author*sort descending Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
First Report on Bat Mortalities on Wind Farms in Chile Escobar, L., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Tern Observations Near Monomoy Island ESS Group December 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Investigation of the Cape Wind Energy Project ESS Group August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Final Underwater Noise Analysis of Cape Wind Energy Project ESS Group January 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Long-tailed Duck Report, Winter 2005-2006 ESS Group September 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Fisheries Data Report South of Tuckernuck Area ESS Group September 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Fishing
Potential Impacts to Predator-Prey Relationships as a Result of the Proposed Cape Wind Project in Nantucket Sound ESS Group September 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
Draft Fisheries Report of Cape Wind Energy Project ESS Group, Battelle September 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Fishing
Revised Navigational Risk Assessment ESS Group, Inc. November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment, Navigation
Why Offshore Wind Energy? Esteban, M., et al. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Offshore Wind Farms: Foundations and Influence on the Littoral Processes Esteban, M., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Recent Developments in Ocean Energy and Offshore Wind: Financial Challenges and Environmental Misconceptions Esteban, M., Gasparatos, A., Doll, C. September 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Hidden Markov Models for Estimating Animal Mortality from Anthropogenic Hazards Etterson, M. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Long-Term Datasets on Marine Mammals: Learning from the Past to Manage the Future European Cetacean Society March 2011 Conference Paper N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
UK Marine Special Areas of Conservation Project European Commission October 2001 Website N/A N/A Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Fall of Warness Wildlife Observations Methodology European Marine Energy Centre February 2013 Report N/A N/A Birds, Marine Mammals
Wind energy developments and Natura 2000 European Union January 2011 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds, Socio-economics, Climate Change
Wind in power: 2013 European statistics European Wind Energy Association February 2014 Report Wind Energy general N/A N/A
The European Offshore Wind Industry Key 2011 Trends and Statistics European Wind Energy Association January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Wind in our Sails - The Coming of Europe's Offshore Wind Energy Industry European Wind Energy Association November 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Offshore Wind Farms and Marine Mammals: Impacts and Methodologies for Assessing Impacts Evans, P. February 2008 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Abundance and Behaviour of Cetaceans and Basking Sharks in the Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Evans, P., Baines, M., Coppock, J. January 2011 Report N/A N/A Fish, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Wind Turbines and Migratory Birds: Avoiding a Collision Between the Energy Industry and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act Evans, R. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Applications of Acoustic Bird Monitoring for the Wind Power Industry Evans, W. May 1998 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Acoustic Monitoring of Night-Migrating Birds: A Progress Report Evans, W., Rosenberg, K. January 2000 Workshop Article N/A N/A Birds, Passerines
Wind Turbines and Birds in Flanders: Preliminary Study Results and Recommendations Everaert, J. January 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Collision Risk and Micro-Avoidance Rates of Birds with Wind Turbines in Flanders Everaert, J. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Wind Turbines and Birds in Flanders (Belgium): Preliminary Summary of the Mortality Research Results Everaert, J., Kuijken, E. June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Impact of Wind Turbines on Birds in Zeebrugge (Belgium): Significant Effect on Breeding Tern Colony Due to Collisions Everaert, J., Stienen, E. January 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
How a Wind Turbine Works EWEA January 2013 Video Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Wind Energy Facts EWEA December 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics
Wind Energy Myths EWEA December 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics
Birds and Offshore Wind Farms: A Hot Topic in Marine Ecology Exo, K., Hüppop, O., Garthe, S. April 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Ökobilanzierung von Schweizer Windenergie Eymann, L., et al. November 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Socio-economics, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Effects of Wind Farm Construction and Operation on Mire and Wet Heath Vegetation in the Monte Maior SCI, North-West Spain Fagúndez, J. July 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Energy, Economic and Environmental Impact of Wind Power in Malaysia Faizal, M., Chelvan, R., Amirah, A. July 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
Bird Studies at Large Runs wind farm, Jamtland Falkdalen, U., Lindahl, L., Nygård, T. January 2009 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds
A GIS-Multicriteria Approach to Analyzing Noise and Visual Impacts of Wind Farms Fang, B. February 2015 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
Ocean Planning and the Gulf of Maine: Exploring Bi-National Policy Options Fanning, L., Heimes, R. May 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Underwater Noise Modelling for Environmental Impact Assessment Farcas, A., Thompson, P., Merchant, N. February 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Differential Recovery of Habitat Use by Birds after Wind Farm Installation: A Multi-Year Comparison Farfan, M., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Testing for errors in estimating bird mortality rates at wind farms and power lines Farfan, M., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
What is the Impact of Wind Farms on Birds? A Case Study in Southern Spain Farfan, M., et al. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Energy By Design: Science-Based Wind Energy Siting to Avoid Environmental Impact In the Continental United States Fargione, J. February 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Wind and Wildlife in the Northern Great Plains: Identifying Low-Impact Areas for Wind Development Fargione, J., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats, Birds
Flight-Call and their Value for Future Ornithological Studies and Conservation Research Farnsworth, A. July 2005 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Passerines
A Comparison of Nocturnal Call Counts of Migrating Birds and Reflectivity Measurements on Doppler Radar Farnsworth, A., Gauthreaux, S. Jr., Blaricom, D. January 2004 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Marine Noise Budgets in Practice Faulkner, R., Merchant, N., Martinez, R. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
The Potential Compatibility of Offshore Wind Power and Fisheries: An Example using Bluefin Tuna in the Adriatic Sea Fayram, A., Risi, A. May 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish, Socio-economics
Evaluating Offshore Wind Energy Feasibility off the California Central Coast Feinberg, L., et al. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Where Are All the People? A Study on the Integration of Socioeconomics and Marine Conservation Planning Feldman, L. May 2009 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
A Review of Bird Strike Mortality at Irish Onshore Windfarms Fennelly, R. June 2015 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Beauty in motion: Expectations, attitudes, and values of wind energy development in the rural U.S Fergen, J., Jacquet, J. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Winds of change – Predicting water-based recreationists' support and opposition for offshore wind energy development in the Great Lakes Ferguson, M., et al. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Recreation
Underwater Assessment of Anthropogenic Noise Sources Using a Field Recording Method Fernandez, A. February 2018 Journal Article N/A Noise N/A
Reproductive output of Hen Harriers Circus cyaneus in relation to wind turbine proximity Fernandez-Bellon, D., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
A Review of Goose Collisions at Operating Wind Farms and Estimation of the Goose Avoidance Rate Fernley, J., Lowther, S., Whitfield, P. June 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Effects of development of wind energy and associated changes in land use on bird densities in upland areas Fernández‐Bellon, D., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Do Habitat Characteristics Determine Mortality Risk for Bats at Wind Farms? Modelling Susceptible Species Activity Patterns and Anticipating Possible Mortality Events Ferreira, D., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Is wind energy increasing the impact of socio-ecological change on Mediterranean mountain ecosystems? Insights from a modelling study relating wind power boost options with a declining species Ferreira, D., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Passerines
Weak Relationship Between Risk Assessment Studies and Recorded Mortality in Wind Farms Ferrer, M., et al. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Bats in a Mediterranean Mountainous Landscape: Does Wind Farm Repowering Induce Changes at Assemblage and Species Level? Ferri, V., Battisti, C., Soccini, C. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Post construction monitoring of wind farms: First records of direct impact on bats in Italy Ferri, V., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Are magnetic and electromagnetic fields of anthropogenic origin potential threats to early life stages of fish? Fey, D., et al. April 2019 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Experimental studies of impacts of harbour sediments resuspension to marine invertebrates larvae: bioavailability of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn and toxicity Fichet, D., Radenac, G., Miramand, P. July 1998 Journal Article N/A N/A N/A
The Effect of a Giant Wind Farm on Precipitation in a Regional Climate Model Fiedler, B., Bukovsky, M. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Farfield Environment
Assessment of Bat Mortality and Activity at Buffalo Mountain Windfarm, Eastern Tennessee Fiedler, J. August 2004 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Results of Bat and Bird Mortality Monitoring at the Expanded Buffalo Mountain Windfarm, 2005 Fiedler, J., et al. June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds, Passerines
Spatial Association as an Indicator of the Potential for Future Interactions Between Wind Energy Developments and Golden Eagles Aquila chrysaetos in Scotland Fielding, A., Whitfield, D., McLeod, D. August 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Bird Movements at Rotor Heights Measured Continuously with Vertical Radar at a Dutch Offshore Wind Farm Fijn, R., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Seabirds
Using Standardised Counting Methods for Seabirds to Monitor Marine Mammals in the Dutch North Sea from Fixed Platforms Fijn, R., et al. January 2012 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals
Habitat Use, Disturbance and Collision Risks for Bewick's Swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii Wintering Near a Wind Farm in the Netherlands Fijn, R., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
Behaviour related flight speeds of Sandwich Terns and their implications for wind farm collision rate modelling and impact assessment Fijn, R., Gyimesi, A. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Remote Sensing for Marine Management Fingas, M. January 2019 Book Chapter N/A N/A N/A
Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Marine Mammals: A Review of Temporary Threshold Shift Studies from 1996 to 2015 Finneran, J. September 2015 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Auditory Effects of Underwater Noise in Odontocetes Finneran, J. January 2012 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Low-frequency acoustic pressure, velocity, and intensity thresholds in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and white whale (Delphinapterus leucas) Finneran, J., Carder, D., Ridgway, S. January 2002 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Auditory and Behavioral Responses of California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus) to Single Underwater Impulses from an Arc-Gap Transducer Finneran, J., et al. August 2003 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Temporary Shift in Masked Hearing Thresholds in Odontocetes After Exposure to Single Underwater Impulses from a Seismic Watergun Finneran, J., et al. March 2002 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Wind in the sails or choppy seas?: People-place relations, aesthetics and public support for the United States’ first offshore wind project Firestone, J., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Statistical Modeling of North Atlantic Right Whale Migration along the Mid-Atlantic Region of the Eastern Seaboard of the United States Firestone, J., et al. January 2008 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Public acceptance of offshore wind power: does perceived fairness of process matter? Firestone, J., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Public Opinion about Large Offshore Wind Power: Underlying Factors Firestone, J., Kempton, W. March 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Corrosion of Stainless Steel in Simulated Tide of Fresh Natural Seawater of South East Pacific Fischer, D., et al. July 2016 Journal Article N/A N/A N/A
Comparing Transect Survey and WSR-88D Radar Methods for Monitoring Daily Changes in Stopover Migrant Communities Fischer, R., et al. February 2012 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Eastern Scotian Shelf Integrated Ocean Management Plan Fisheries and Oceans Canada January 2007 Report N/A N/A Socio-economics
Impact of the establishment of US offshore wind power on neodymium flows Fishman, T., Graedel, T. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Key Seabird Areas in Southern New England Identified Using a Community Occupancy Model Flanders, N., et al. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Pelagic effects of offshore wind farm foundations in the stratified North Sea Floeter, J., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment, Fish
Seabed Morphology Off Southern Long Island: Studies of Artificial Reefs and Implications for Wind Farms Flood, R. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Soundscape Analysis and Wildlife Presence in the Vicinity of a Wind Turbine Florentin, J., et al. June 2015 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
Analysis of Environmental Characteristics and Operational Reports of Small and Medium Turbines Florescu, A., Bandoc, G., Degeratu, M. May 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Socio-economics
Design and Testing of an Integrated Wildlife-Wind Turbine Interactions Detection System Flowers, J. March 2015 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Design and Initial Component Tests of an Integrated Avian and Bat Collision Detection System for Offshore Wind Turbines Flowers, J., et al. April 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Rangifer within areas of human influence: understanding effects in relation to spatiotemporal scales Flydal, K., et al. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Terrestrial Mammals
Effects of Wind Turbines on Area Use and Behaviour of Semi-Domestic Reindeer in Enclosures Flydal, K., et al. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device N/A
Marine wind energy and the North Sea Offshore Grid Initiative: A Multi-Level Perspective on a stalled technology transition? Flynn, B. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Human pressures on UK seabed habitats: a cumulative impact assessment Foden, J., Rogers, S., Jones, A. May 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Is Male-Biased Collision Mortality of Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) in Florida Associated with Flock Behavior Folk, M., Dellinger, T., Leone, E. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Wind Power and Birds at Smøla 2003-2006 Follestad, A., et al. June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors

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