Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting Annex IV and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and Annex IV metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date**sort ascending Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Evidence for Infanticide in Bottlenose Dolphins: An Explanation for Violent Interactions with Harbour Porpoises? Patterson, I., et al. July 1998 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Avian Use of Norris Hill Wind Resource Area, Montana Harmata, A., Podruzny, K., Zelenak, J. July 1998 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Experimental studies of impacts of harbour sediments resuspension to marine invertebrates larvae: bioavailability of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn and toxicity Fichet, D., Radenac, G., Miramand, P. July 1998 Journal Article N/A N/A N/A
Applications of Acoustic Bird Monitoring for the Wind Power Industry Evans, W. May 1998 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Impact Assessment of an Off-shore Wind Park on Sea Ducks Guillemette, M., Larsen, J., Clausager, I. March 1998 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Birds, Waterfowl, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Low-Frequency Amphibious Hearing in Pinnipeds: Methods, Measurements, Noise, and Ecology Schusterman, R., Kastak, D. January 1998 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
A Survey of Acoustic Harassment Device (AHD) Use in the Bay of Fundy, NB, Canada Johnston, D., Woodley, T. January 1998 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Bird Flight Characteristics Near Wind Turbines in Minnesota Osborn, R., et al. January 1998 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Passerines, Waterfowl
Predicting the Response of Bird Populations to Wind Energy-Related Deaths Morrison, M., et al. January 1998 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Ecosystem
Diet of the Endangered Indiana Bat (Myotis sodalis) on the Northern Edge of Its Range Kurta, A., Whitaker, J. Jr. January 1998 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
US National Ocean Service's Estuarine Bathymetry NOAA’s National Ocean Service Special Projects January 1998 Website N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Calculating Limits to the Allowable Human-Caused Mortality of Cetaceans and Pinnipeds Wade, P. January 1998 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Altamont Avian Plan: Status Report to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service By the Consortium of Altamont Owners Richard Curry Associates December 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Sensitivity and Response Dynamics of Elasmobranch Electrosensory Primary Afferent Neurons to Near Threshold Fields Tricas, T., New, J. December 1997 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Nocturnal Flight Patterns and Altitudes of Diving Ducks in the IJsselmeer Area Dirksen, S., et al. December 1997 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Using Geographic Information Systems to Predict North Atlantic Right Whale (Eubalaena glacialis) Habitat Moses, E., Finn, J. December 1997 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Magnetoreception: Homing in on Vertebrates Kirschvink, J. November 1997 Journal Article N/A EMF N/A
The Influence of High Ground Squirrel Densities on the Occurrence of Golden Eagles on Altamont Ownership Consortium Property Hunt, G., Culp, L. November 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Addendum to Final: Seawest/KENETECH Windfarm Development Comparison, Carbon County, Wyoming TRC Mariah Associates November 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Development of a Practical Modeling Framework for Estimating the Impact of Wind Technology on Bird Populations Morrison, M., Pollack, K. November 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Sound Speed and Void Fraction Profiles in the Sea Surface Bubble Layer Buckingham, M. July 1997 Journal Article N/A Noise N/A
A Population Study of Golden Eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Second-Year Progress Report Predatory Bird Research Group July 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Assessing Impacts to Birds from the Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota Windplant Development Erickson, W., et al. June 1997 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Waterfowl
Overview of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Avian Research Program Sinclair, K., Morrison, M. June 1997 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Effect of Modified Magnetic Field on the Ocean Migration of Maturing Chum Salmon, Oncorhynchus keta Yano, A., et al. April 1997 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Migratory behaviour of bats at south Swedish coasts Ahlén, I. March 1997 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Estimating Harbour Seal Abundance and Status in an Estuarine Habitat in North-East Scotland Thompson, P., et al. February 1997 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Avian Mortality at Rotor Swept Area Equivalents, Altamont Pass and Montezuma Hills, California Howell, J. January 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Bird Disturbance: Improving the Quality and Utility of Disturbance Research Hill, D., et al. January 1997 Journal Article N/A Static Device Birds
Bird Mortality at Rotor Swept Area Equivalents, Altamont Pass and Montezuma Hills, California Howell, J. January 1997 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Standard Metrics and Methods for Conducting Avian/Wind Energy Interaction Studies Anderson, R., et al. January 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Effect of Tunø Knob Windpark on Birds Guillemette, M., Larsen, J., Clausager, I. January 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Effects of Wind Turbines on Nesting Raptors at Buffalo Ridge in Southwestern Minnesota Usgaard, R., et al. January 1997 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Windfarm Design in the Light of Previous Experience Lloyd, A. January 1997 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Influences of Man-Made Noise and Other Human Actions on Cetacean Behaviour Richardson, W., Würsig, B. January 1997 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Locomotor design of dolphin vertebral columns: bending mechanics and morphology of Delphinus delphis Long, J., et al. January 1997 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
A Mathematical Model of Bird Collisions With Wind Turbine Rotors Tucker, V. November 1996 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Using a Collision Model to Design Safer Wind Turbine Rotors for Birds Tucker, V. November 1996 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Collision Course: The Hazards of Lighted Structures and Windows to Migrating Birds Ogden, L. September 1996 Report N/A Dynamic Device, Lighting Birds
A Continued Examination of Avian Mortality in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Orloff, S., Flannery, A. June 1996 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Wingbeat Frequency of Birds in Steady Cruising Flight: New Data and Improved Predictions Pennycuick, C. March 1996 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Bird Casualties Caused by a Wind Energy Project in an Estuary Musters, C., Noordervliet, M., terKeurs, W. March 1996 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Bat Collisions with Wind Turbines in Southwestern Minnesota Osborn, R., et al. January 1996 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Proceedings of the National Avian - Wind Power Planning Meeting II LGL January 1996 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
A Review of the Impacts of Wind Farms and Other Aerial Structures Upon Birds Gill, J., Townsley, M., Mudge, G. January 1996 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Effects of Underwater Sounds on Escape Behavior of Steller Sea Lions Akamatsu, T., et al. January 1996 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Avian interactions with wind energy facilities: A summary Colson, E. December 1995 Conference Paper Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Final Environmental Impact Statement: Kenetech/Pacificorp Windpower Project, Carbon County, Wyoming Mariah Associates August 1995 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Noise Impact Analysis of Wind Turbines, Searsburg, Vermont Resource Systems Group July 1995 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
A Pilot Golden Eagle Population Study in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area California Predatory Bird Research Group May 1995 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
A Study of the Risk of Collision with Power Lines by Waterbirds in Winter at Shotton Steel Works, North Wales Balmer, D., Henderson, I., Clark, N. April 1995 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Waterfowl
Proceedings of the National Avian - Wind Power Planning Meeting LGL April 1995 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Whirly Birds Linn, A. March 1995 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Monitoring of Seasonal Bird Activity and Mortality on Unit 2 at the Buffalo Ridge Windplant, Minnesota Higgins, K., Dieter, C., Usgaard, R. January 1995 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
Avian use of proposed KENETECH and CARES wind farm sites in Klickitat County, Washington: Technical report Jones & Stokes Associates January 1995 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors, Waterfowl
Impact of Wind Turbines on Birds - Status of present Knowledge and Perspectives Clausager, I., Nohr, H. January 1995 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds
A Pilot Study of the Distribution and Abundances of Rockfishes in Relation to Natural Environmental Factors and an Offshore Oil and Gas Production Platform off the Coast of Southern California Love, M., et al. September 1994 Journal Article N/A Static Device Fish
The Birds of Blyth Harbour Still, D., et al. June 1994 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Shorebirds
Nocturnal Bird Migration in the Negev (Israel) - a Tracking Radar Study Bruderer, B. June 1994 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Influence of Wind-Produced Noise on Orientation in the Sole (Solea solea) Lagardère, J., et al. January 1994 Journal Article N/A Noise Fish
Low-Frequency Sound and Marine Mammals: Current Knowledge and Research Needs Ocean Studies Board January 1994 Book Chapter N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Ocean Energies: Environmental, Economic and Technological Aspects of Alternative Power Sources Charlier, R., Justus, J. September 1993 Book Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
Effects of Seismic Shooting on Catch and Catch-Availability of Cod and Haddock Engas, A., et al. August 1993 Report N/A Noise Fish
Wind Power and Planning: The Environmental Impact of Windfarms in the UK Coles, R., Taylor, J. July 1993 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Birds, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Modified Cave Entrances: Thermal Effect on Body Mass and Resulting Decline of Endangered Indiana Bats (Myotis sodalis) Richter, A., et al. June 1993 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Environmental Magnetic Fields: Influences on Early Embryogenesis Cameron, I., et al. April 1993 Journal Article N/A EMF N/A
The Effects of Aero-Generators on Moorland Bird Populations in the Orkney Islands, Scotland Meek, E., et al. January 1993 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Principles of Anatomy and Physiology Tortora, G., Grabowski, S. January 1993 Book N/A N/A N/A
Examination of the Effects of Disturbance of Birds with Reference to its Importance in Ecological Assessments Hockin, D., et al. December 1992 Journal Article N/A Static Device Birds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Manual for Aeroplane and Ship Surveys of Waterfowl and Seabirds Komdeur, J., Bertelsen, J., Cracknell, G. December 1992 Report N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Evidence that Fin Whales Respond to the Geomagnetic Field During Migration Walker, M., et al. July 1992 Journal Article N/A EMF Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Wind Power and the Local Environment - No Free Lunches Plowden, B. March 1992 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Visual Impact Assessment: There's More to it than Meets the Eye! Robotham, A., Quilleash, P., Hempstead, H. March 1992 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Wind Turbine Effects on Avian Activity, Habitat Use, and Mortality in the Altamont Pass and Solano County Wind Resource Areas, 1989-1991 Orloff, S., Flannery, A. March 1992 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Risks and Benefits of Wind Generated Electricity: Facts and Perceptions Bosley, P., Bosley, K. January 1992 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
A Review of Killer Whale Interactions with Other Marine Mammals: Predation to Co-existence Jefferson, T., Stacey, P., Baird, R. December 1991 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Assessment of Avian Use and Mortality Related to Wind Turbine Operations, Altamont Pass, Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California, September 1988 through August 1989, Final Report Howell, J., Didonato, J. November 1991 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Artificial Habitats for Marine and Freshwater Fisheries Seaman, W. Jr. October 1991 Book Chapter N/A Static Device Fish
An improved marine radar system for studies of bird migration Cooper, B., et al. January 1991 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Large-Scale Management Experiments and Learning By Doing Walter, C., Holling, C. December 1990 Journal Article N/A N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Avoidance Responses of Loggerhead Turtles, Caretta caretta, to Low Frequency Sound O'Hara, J., Wilcox, J. June 1990 Journal Article N/A Noise Sea Turtles
Are High Densities of Fishes at Artificial Reefs the Result of Habitat Limitation or Behavioral Preference? Bohnsack, J. March 1989 Journal Article N/A Static Device Fish
Environmental Noise Characteristics of the MOD5-B (3.2 MW) Wind Turbine Generator Shepherd, K., Hubbard, H. March 1989 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Wind Farm Location and Environmental Impact Clarke, A. January 1989 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise, Static Device Birds
Research Program Concerning the Social and Environmental Aspects Related to the Windfarm Project of SEP Lubbers, F. January 1988 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Altamont: Public Perceptions of a Wind Energy Landscape Thayer, R., Freeman, C. January 1987 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Vogels en windturbines (Birds and windturbines) Winkelman, J. January 1987 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Wind Energy Development in California, USA Wilshire, H., Prose, D. January 1987 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Cape Blanco Wind Farm Feasibility Study Technical Report No. 11: Terrestrial Ecology Portland General Electric Company April 1986 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Prediction of Far Field Noise from Wind Energy Farms Shepherd, K., Hubbard, H. April 1986 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Farfield Environment
Acoustic Noise Associated with the MOD-1 Wind Turbine: Its Source, Impact, and Control Kelley, N., et al. February 1985 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
Reconnaissance Geology and Geologic Hazards of the Offshore Coos Bay Basin, Oregon Clarke, S., Field, M., Hirozawa, C. January 1985 Report N/A N/A Nearfield Habitat
Comparison of Ship and Aerial Surveys of Birds at Sea Briggs, K., Tyler, W., Lewis, D. September 1984 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds
The Annapolis Tidal Power Project Head Pond Water Levels - Impacts and Mitigations Rice, R. September 1984 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal N/A
Counting Seabirds at Sea from Ships: A Review of Methods Employed and a Suggestion for a Standardized Approach Tasker, M., et al. July 1984 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds
Environmental Aspects of Large-Scale Wind-Power Systems in the UK Robson, A. December 1983 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Birds, Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Bird Movements and Collision Mortality at a Large Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Byrne, S. January 1983 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Waterfowl
Electric and Magnetic Field Detection in Elasmobranch Fishes Kalmijn, A. November 1982 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Method for Predicting Impulsive Noise Generated by Wind Turbine Rotors Viterna, L. May 1982 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
A Methodology for Assessment of Wind Turbine Noise Generation Kelley, N., Hemphill, R., McKenna, H. May 1982 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A

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