Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting Annex IV and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and Annex IV metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptorssort descending
The BIO-acoustic feature extraction and classification of bat echolocation calls Mirzaei, G., et al. May 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Regional-Scale Modelling of the Cumulative Impact of Wind Farms on Bats Roscioni, F., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Acoustic Deterrent Workshop National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Bat Conservation International August 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Bats
Behavior of Scandinavian Bats During Migration and Foraging at Sea Ahlén, I., Baagøe, H., Bach, L. December 2009 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Acoustic Deterrent Workshop National Wind Technology Center, Louisville, CO Bat Conservation International, National Renewable Energy Laboratory August 2013 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Bats
Patterns of Pre-Construction Bat Activity at the Proposed Hoosac Wind Energy Project, Massachusetts, 2006-2007 Hein, C., et al. May 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Field Test Results of a Potential Acoustic Deterrent to Reduce Bat Mortality from Wind Turbines Szewczak, J., Arnett, E. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Preliminary Field Test Results of an Acoustic Deterrent with the Potential to Reduce Bat Mortality from Wind Turbines Szewczak, J., Arnett, E. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Bats
Patterns of Pre-Construction Bat Activity at a Proposed Wind Facility in South-Central Pennsylvania Arnett, E., Hayes, J., Huso, M. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
A bibliography of bat fatality, activity, and interactions with wind turbines Johnson, G., Arnett, E., Hein, C. February 2014 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative 3rd Science and All Committees Meeting: 2012 Workshop Proceedings Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative January 2012 Workshop Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Relating Pre-Construction Bat Activity and Post-Construction Bat Fatality to Predict Risk at Wind Energy Facilities: A Synthesis Hein, C., Gruver, J., Arnett, E. March 2013 Report N/A Dynamic Device Bats
Patterns of Pre-Construction Bat Activity at a Proposed Wind Facility in Northwest Massachusetts: 2006 Annual Report Arnett, E., et al. September 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Effectiveness of Changing Wind Turbine Cut-in Speed to Reduce Bat Fatalities at Wind Facilities 2010 Arnett, E., et al. May 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Patterns of Bat Fatality at the Casselman Wind Project in South-Central Pennsylvania: 2008 Annual Report Arnett, E., et al. June 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative: 2008 Workshop Proceedings Energetics January 2008 Workshop Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative 4th Science and All Committees Meeting: Final 2015 Workshop Proceedings Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative January 2015 Workshop Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Reducing the Collision Risk for Bats at Onshore Wind Turbines (RENEBAT II) Behr, O., et al. April 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Pre-construction study: Recording bats from a helium balloon in collision relevant heights with an automated system Albrecht, K., Grünfelder, C. May 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Patterns of Pre-Construction Bat Activity Determined Using Acoustic Monitoring at a Proposed Wind Facility in South-Central Wisconsin Redell, D., et al. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Relationships between Bats and Wind Turbines in Pennsylvania and West Virginia: An Assessment of Fatality Search Protocols, Patterns of Fatality, and Behavioral Interactions with Wind Turbines Arnett, E., et al. June 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Ultrasound Emissions from Wind Turbines as a Potential Attractant to Bats: A Preliminary Investigation Szewczak, J., Arnett, E. May 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Bat mortality due to collision with wind turbines in Kutch District, Gujarat, India Kumar, S., Samsoor-Ali, A., Arun, P. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
South African Good Practice Guidelines for Surveying Bats at Wind Energy Facility Developments - Pre-construction Sowler, S., Stoffberg, S. January 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
The Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative: Synthesis of Activities (2004-2011), Key Findings and Next Steps Arnett, E., Hein, C., Patterson, R. October 2011 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Effectiveness of Changing Wind Turbine Cut-in Speed to Reduce Bat Fatalities at Wind Facilities 2009 Arnett, E., et al. April 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Proceedings: Bats and Wind Power Generation Technical Workshop Energetics April 2004 Workshop Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Behavior of the Hawaiian Hoary Bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) at Wind Turbines and its Distribution Across the North Ko'olau Mountains, O'ahu Gorresen, P., et al. May 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
A comparison of supervised learning techniques in the classification of bat echolocation calls Armitage, D., Ober, H. November 2010 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Bat Interactions With Wind Turbines at the Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota Wind Resource Area: An Assessment of Bat Activity, Species Composition, and Collision Mortality Johnson, G., et al. November 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Big Blue Wind Energy Project Avian and Bat Protection Plan Western Ecosystems Technology Inc (WEST) January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Bats in a Mediterranean Mountainous Landscape: Does Wind Farm Repowering Induce Changes at Assemblage and Species Level? Ferri, V., Battisti, C., Soccini, C. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Habitat use of bats in relation to wind turbines revealed by GPS tracking Roeleke, M., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Do You Hear What I See? Vocalization Relative to Visual Detection Rates of Hawaiian Hoary Bats (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) Gorresen, P., et al. September 2017 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Estimating habitat loss due to wind turbine avoidance by bats: Implications for European siting guidance Barre, K., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Stable Isotope Analyses of Bat Fur: Applications for Investigating North American Bat Migration Fraser, E. December 2011 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Wind Turbines and Bat Mortality: Interactions of Bat Echolocation Pulses with Moving Turbine Rotor Blades Long, C., et al. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
Barbastelle bats in a wind farm: are they at risk? Apoznanski, G., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Altering Turbine Speed Reduces Bat Mortality at Wind-Energy Facilities Arnett, E., et al. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
Improved Analysis of Long-Term Monitoring Data Demonstrates Marked Regional Declines of Bat Populations in the Eastern United States Ingersoll, T., Sewall, B., Amelon, S. June 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
The Aversive Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation on Foraging Bats - A Possible Means of Discouraging Bats from Approaching Wind Turbines Nicholls, B., Racey, P. July 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general EMF Bats
The Impacts of Wind Farms on Animal Species Jana, S., Pogacnik, M. May 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Regional Analysis of Wind Turbine-Caused Bat Mortality Drake, D., et al. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Testing the Effectiveness of an Experimental Acoustic Bat Deterrent at the Maple Ridge Wind Farm Horn, J., et al. June 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Bat Mortality Due to Wind Turbines in Canada Zimmerling, J., Francis, C. November 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
When the Excrement Hits the Fan: Fecal Surveys Reveal Species-Specific Bat Activity at Wind Turbines Bennett, V., Hale, A., Williams, D. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Impact of Wind Energy on Bats: A Summary of Our Current Knowledge Hein, C., Schirmacher, M. April 2016 Journal Article N/A Dynamic Device Bats
Acoustic mirrors as sensory traps for bats Greif, S., Zsebok, S. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general Static Device Bats
How anthropogenic noise affects foraging Luo, J., Siemers, B., Koselj, K. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise Bats
Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Bats: Implications for Conservation Arnett, E., Baerwald, E. July 2013 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
Impact of wind facilities on bats in the Neotropics Rodríguez-Durán, A., Feliciano-Robles, W. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Bats in a tropical wind farm: species composition and importance of the spatial attributes of vegetation cover on bat fatalities Bolivar-Cime, B., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Inconspicuous echolocation in hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) Corcoran, A., Weller, T. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Bat flight height monitored from wind masts predicts mortality risk at wind farms Roemer, C., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Resource Availability May Not Be a Useful Predictor of Migratory Bat Fatalities or Activity at Wind Turbines Bennett, V., Hale, A. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Echolocation activity of migratory bats at a wind energy facility: testing the feeding-attraction hypothesis to explain fatalities Reimer, J., Baerwald, E., Barlay, R. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Habitat use of migratory bats killed during autumn at wind turbines Voigt, C., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Large-scale citizen science improves assessment of risk posed by wind farms to bats in southern Scotland Newson, S., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Bat fatalities at wind farms in Taiwan Chou, C., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Composition and activity of arthropodivorous bat community in wind farms in the Mexican Tropics Garcia-Luis, M., Briones-Salas, M. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Bat activity during autumn relates to atmospheric conditions: implications for coastal wind energy development Smith, A., McWilliams, S. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Static Device Bats
Evidence of the migratory bat, Pipistrellus nathusii, aggregating to the coastlines in the Northern Baltic Sea Ijas, A., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Genetic Diversity in Migratory Bats: Results from RADseq Data for Three Tree Bat Species at an Ohio Windfarm Sovic, M., Carstens, B., Gibbs, H. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Networking Networks for Global Bat Conservation Kingston, T., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
Effects of wind energy generation and white-nose syndrome on the viability of the Indiana bat Erickson, R., et al. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Monitoring Seasonal Bat Activity on a Coastal Barrier Island in Maryland, USA Johnson, J., Gates, J., Zegre, N. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general Static Device Bats
Bats and onshore wind turbines Natural England February 2009 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Comparing Field Methods Used to Determine Bird and Bat Fatalities Paula, J., et al. January 2018 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Day of Year, Temperature, Wind, and Precipitation Predict Timing of Bat Migration Pettit, J., O'Keefe October 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Carcass Age and Searcher Identity Affect Morphological Assessment of Sex of Bats Nelson, D., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Wind Energy and Wildlife: 20 Years of Translational Ecology in Action Allison, T., Arnold, A. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Species composition and mortality of bats at the Osorio Wind Farm, southern Brazil Barros, M., de Magalhaes, R., Rui, A. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Bats: A Global Perspective Arnett, E., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Scaling of Wingbeat Frequency with Body Mass in Bats and Limits to Maximum Bat Size Norberg, U., Norberg, R November 2011 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Draft Bat Monitoring Studies at the Fowler Ridge Wind Farm Benton County, Indiana: August 3 - Octoboer 12, 2016 Good, R., et al. January 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Bat Evaluation Monitoring Studies at the Fowler Ridge Wind Farm Benton County, Indiana: August 1 - October 15, 2017 Good, R., et al. January 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Bat Evaluation Monitoring Studies at the Fowler Ridge Wind Farm Benton County, Indiana: August 3 - October 14, 2015 Good, R., Iskali, G., Nasman, K. January 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Bat Evaluation Monitoring Studies at the Fowler Ridge Wind Farm Benton County, Indiana: August 4 - October 14, 2014 Good, R., Iskali, G., Adachi, K. January 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Mitigating the negative impacts of tall wind turbines on bats: Vertical activity profiles and relationships to wind speed Wellig, S., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Migrating bats at the southern North Sea: Approach to an estimation of migration populations of bats at the southern North Sea Limpens, H., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats
Bats and Wind Energy: Impacts, Mitigation, and Tradeoffs Allison, T. November 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
A Summary of Bat Fatality Data in a Nationwide Database Allison, T., Butryn, R. July 2018 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
An Acoustic Study of Bat Activity at the Proposed Roaring Brook Wind Project, New York, Spring - Fall 2008 Hein, C., Schwab, N., Mabee, T. January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
A Visual and Acoustic Study of Nocturnal Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Roaring Brook Wind Project, New York, Fall 2007 Mabee, T., Schwab, N. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Bat Surveys – Good Practice Guidelines (2nd edition): Surveying for Onshore Wind Turbines Hundt, L., et al. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Bat Flight Analysis around Wind Turbines - A Feasibility Study Lagerveld, S., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats
Bat Acoustic Studies for the Pleasant Ridge Wind Resource Area - Livingston County, Illinois - Final Report July 15 - October 21, 2009 Good, R., et al. February 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Evaluating a Novel Approach to Optimize Operational Minimization to Reduce Bat Fatalities at the Pinnacle Wind Farm, Mineral County, West Virginia, 2015 Schirmacher, M., et al. April 2018 Report Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Pre-Construction Impact Assessment of Wind Development on Bats: Grande Prairie Wind Project, Holt County, Nebraska Midwest Wind Energy, LLC. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Multi-Year Acoustic Monitoring of Bats at the Maple Ridge Wind Project New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) December 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Telemetry for migratory bats - a feasibility study Lagerveld, S., et al. February 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats
Wind Farm Le Peuchapatte: Analysis of Bat Recordings and Evaluation of Mitigation Measures Brossard, C., et al. March 2018 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Wind Energy and Bat Conservation - A Review by the Canadian Wind Energy Association Barnes, R., Hill, M., Peters, K. August 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Understanding the Risk of European Protected Species (Bats) at Onshore Wind Turbine Sites to Inform Risk Management Mathews, F., et al. October 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Migratory bats are attracted by red light but not by warm-white light: Implications for the protection of nocturnal migrants Voigt, C., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Multi-state occupancy models of foraging habitat use by the Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) Gorresen, P., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Ultrasonic Bat Deterrent Technology Kinzie, K. June 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
South African Good Practice Guidelines for Operational Monitoring for Bats at Wind Energy Facilities Aronson, J., et al. July 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Bats: A Global Perspective Arnett, E., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Bats in the Anthropocene: Conservation of Bats in a Changing World Voigt, C., Kingston, T. January 2016 Book Wind Energy general N/A Bats

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