Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author*sort descending Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Maritime and Marine: Synonyms, Solitudes or Schizophrenia? Hildebrand, L., Schröder-Hinrichs, J. October 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Socio-economics
Bird Disturbance: Improving the Quality and Utility of Disturbance Research Hill, D., et al. January 1997 Journal Article N/A Static Device Birds
Of birds, blades and barriers: Detecting and analysing mass migration events at alpha ventus Hill, R., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
State of the Science: An Assessment of Research on the Ecological Impacts of Wind Energy in the Great Lakes Region Hinderer, J., et al. October 2011 Workshop Article Wind Energy general N/A Ecosystem
Offshore Wind Farms in the Western Great Lakes: An Interdisciplinary Analysis of their Potential Hingtgen, J. January 2003 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
High Level Environmental Screening Study for Offshore Wind Farm Developments - Marine Habitats and Species Project Hiscock, K., Tyler-Walters, H., Jones, H. August 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
UK Marine Policy Statement HM Government March 2011 Report N/A N/A Socio-economics
Our Seas - A Shared Resource High Level Marine Objectives HM Government January 2009 Report N/A N/A Socio-economics
Examination of the Effects of Disturbance of Birds with Reference to its Importance in Ecological Assessments Hockin, D., et al. December 1992 Journal Article N/A Static Device Birds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Minimization of Motion Smear: Reducing Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: Period of Performance: July 12, 1999 - August 31, 2002 Hodos, W. August 2003 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Effects of Marine Windfarms on the Distribution of Fish, Shellfish and Marine Mammals in the Horns Rev Area Hoffmann, E., et al. May 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Acoustic monitoring reveals the times and tides of harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) distribution off central Oregon, U.S.A. Holdman, A., et al. January 2019 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals
Bridging the Gap Between Energy and the Environment Holland, R., et al. May 2016 Journal Article N/A N/A N/A
Bat Diversity, Activity, and Habitat Use in a Mixed Disturbance Landscape Hollen, J. August 2017 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Assessing Avian-Wind Turbine Collision Risk: An Approach Angle Dependent Model Holmstrom, L., et al. June 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Do American Golden-Plovers (Pluvialis dominica) Avoid Wind-energy Turbines in Agricultural Fields in Indiana During Spring Migration? Homoya, W., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Shorebirds
Life Cycle GHG Emission Analysis of Power Generation Systems: Japanese Case Hondo, H. August 2005 Journal Article N/A N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Capturing benefits Hooper, T., Ashley, M., Austen, M. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Perceptions of fishers and developers on the co-location of offshore wind farms and decapod fisheries in the UK Hooper, T., Ashley, M., Austen, M. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Socio-economics, Fishing
The Co-Location of Offshore Windfarms and Decapod Fisheries in the UK: Constraints and Opportunities Hooper, T., Austen, M. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
The Implications of Energy Systems for Ecosystem Services: A Detailed Case Study of Offshore Wind Hooper, T., Beaumont, N., Hattam, C. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Recreational Use of Offshore Wind Farms: Experiences and Opinions of Sea Anglers in the UK Hooper, T., Hattam, C., Austen, M. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Recreation
Response of Red-Tailed Hawks and Golden Eagles to Topographical Features, Weather, and Abundance of a Dominant Prey Species at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California: April 1999-December 2000 Hoover, S. June 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Behavior of Red-Tailed Hawks in a Wind Turbine Development Hoover, S., Morrison, M. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Large-Scale Wind Deployment, Social Acceptance Horbaty, R., Huber, S., Ellis, G. September 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Behavioral Responses of Bats to Operating Wind Turbines Horn, J., Arnett, E., Kunz, T. March 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
Testing the Effectiveness of an Experimental Acoustic Bat Deterrent at the Maple Ridge Wind Farm Horn, J., et al. June 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Density dependence and marine bird populations: are wind farm assessments precautionary? Horswill, C., O'Brien, S., Robinson, R. October 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Have we all gone batty? The need for a better balance between the conservation of protected species and the development of clean renewable energy Householder, L. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Socio-economics, Climate Change
Evidence of Negative Effects of Anthropogenic Structures on Wildlife: A Review of Grouse Survival and Behaviour Hovick, T., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
A Workshop on Raptors and Energy Development Howard, R., Gore, J. January 1980 Workshop Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds, Raptors
Olivebranches and Idiot's Guides: Frameworks for Community Engagement in Australian Wind Farm Development Howard, T. March 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Socio-economics
Recent Developments in Environmental Assessment Methods for Wind Turbine Noise Howe, B., McCabe, N. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise N/A
Effects of Wind Turbines on Birds and Bats in Northeastern Wisconsin Howe, R., Evans, W., Wolf, A. November 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Bird Mortality at Rotor Swept Area Equivalents, Altamont Pass and Montezuma Hills, California Howell, J. January 1997 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Shorebird Staging and Migratory Movements at Chaplin and Reed Lakes, Saskatchewan, with Implications for Wind Energy Development Howell, J. May 2018 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Shorebirds
Avian Mortality at Rotor Swept Area Equivalents, Altamont Pass and Montezuma Hills, California Howell, J. January 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Assessment of Avian Use and Mortality Related to Wind Turbine Operations, Altamont Pass, Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California, September 1988 through August 1989, Final Report Howell, J., Didonato, J. November 1991 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Predictable shorebird departure patterns from a staging site can inform collision risks and mitigation of wind energy developments Howell, J., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Shorebirds
Wind Turbine Sensor Array for Monitoring Avian and Bat Collisions Hu, C., Albertani, R., Suryan, R. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Preliminary Assessment of Offshore Wind Development Impacts on Marine Ecosystems Huang, H., Hall, A. March 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Farfield Environment
Noise Measurements for Single and Multiple Operation of 50-kW Wind Turbine Generators Hubbard, H., Shepherd, K. February 1982 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Environmental activism and vertical‐axis wind turbine preferences in California Hui, I., Cain, B., Dabiri, J. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Prediction of Structure Borne Noise Radiation and Propagation from Offshore Impact Pile Driving Huikwan, K. January 2014 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Bat fatalities at two wind farms in Tasmania, Australia: bat characteristics, and spatial and temporal patterns Hull, C., Cawthen, L. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Results and Analysis of Eagle Studies from the Bluff Point and Studland Bay Wind Farms 2002-2012 Hull, C., et al. January 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Wind and Wildlife: Proceedings from the Conference on Wind Energy and Wildlife Impacts, October 2012, Melbourne, Australia Hull, C., et al. January 2015 Book Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Avian Collisions at Two Wind Farms in Tasmania, Australia: Taxonomic and Ecological Characteristics of Colliders Versus Non-Colliders Hull, C., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Search Areas for Monitoring Bird and Bat Carcasses at Wind Farms using a Monte-Carlo Model Hull, C., Muir, S. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Behavior and Turbine Avoidance Rates of Eagles at Two Wind Farms in Tasmania, Australia Hull, C., Muir, S. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm: Offshore ES Description of the Physical Baseline Environment Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Farfield Environment
Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm: Offshore ES Description of the Biological Baseline Environment Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
Collision, Displacement and Barrier Effect Concept Note Humphreys, E., Cook, S., Burton, N. January 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Bat Surveys – Good Practice Guidelines (2nd edition): Surveying for Onshore Wind Turbines Hundt, L., et al. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Golden Eagles in a Perilous Landscape: Predicting the Effects of Mitigation for Wind Turbine Blade Strike Mortality Hunt, G. July 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
The Influence of High Ground Squirrel Densities on the Occurrence of Golden Eagles on Altamont Ownership Consortium Property Hunt, G., Culp, L. November 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
The Trend of Golden Eagle Territory Occupancy in the Vicinity of the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: 2005 Survey Hunt, G., Hunt, T. June 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Quantifying the Demographic Cost of Human-Related Mortality to a Raptor Population Hunt, W., et al. February 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
A Population Study of Golden Eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Population Trend Analysis 1994-1997 Hunt, W., et al. June 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Addressing the factors that juxtapose raptors and wind turbines Hunt,G., Watson, J. March 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Prioritisation of monitoring and research for diadromous fish in the context of Marine/Offshore Renewables: A summary of stakeholder engagement meetings between Marine Scotland, wild fisheries interests and wind, wave and tidal developers Hunter, D., Malcolm, I., Armstrong, J. March 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Socio-economics, Fishing, Stakeholder Engagement
An estimator of wildlife fatality from observed carcasses Huso, M. April 2011 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats, Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
Wildlife Mortality at Wind Facilities: How We Know What We Know How We Might Mislead Ourselves, and How We Set Our Future Course Huso, M. March 2019 Book Chapter Wind Energy general N/A N/A
A Comment on "Bats Killed in Large Numbers at United States Wind Energy Facilities" Huso, M., Dalthorp, D. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Accounting for Unsearched Areas in Estimating Wind Turbine-Caused Fatality Huso, M., Dalthorp, D. February 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
A Comment on Novel Scavenger Removal Trials Increase Wind Turbine-Caused Avian Fatality Estimates Huso, M., Erickson, W. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Estimating Wind-Turbine Caused Bird and Bat Fatality when Zero Carcasses are Observed Huso, M., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Wind Energy Development: Methods to Assess Bird and Bat Fatality Rates Post-Construction Huso, M., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Special Topic: Wildlife and Wind Energy: Are They Compatible? Hutchins, M., Leopold, B. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A N/A
ABC’s Bird-Smart Wind Energy Campaign: Protecting Birds from Poorly Sited Wind Energy Development Hutchins, M., Parr, M., Schroeder, D. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
Effects of an Electric Field on White Sharks: In Situ Testing of an Electric Deterrent Huveneers, C., et al. May 2013 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Hydro-Acoustic Monitoring of Fish Communities at Offshore Wind Farms Hvidt, C., et al. May 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
The impact of repowering of wind farms on birds and bats Hötker, H. October 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Red Kites and Wind Farms - Telemetry Data from the Core Breeding Range Hötker, H., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines
Conclusions, Risk Assessment, Conflict Minimisation, Practical Recommendations, Need for Further Research Hötker, H., et al. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Birds of Prey and Wind Farms Hötker, H., Krone, O., Nehls, G. April 2017 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Impacts on Biodiversity of Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources: The Example of Birds and Bats Hötker, H., Thomsen, K., Jeromin, H. January 2006 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Bird collisions at an offshore platform in the North Sea Hüppop, O., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Bird Migration Studies and Potential Collision Risk with Offshore Wind Turbines Hüppop, O., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines
Recommendations for project-related studies of possible impacts of marine wind farms during construction and operation on birds Hüppop, O., Exo, K., Garthe, S. January 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Flight Call Rates of Migrating Thrushes: Effects of Wind Conditions, Humidity and Time of Day at an Illuminated Offshore Platform Hüppop, O., Hilgerloh, G. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines
Migration Phenology and Behaviour of Bats at a Research Platform in the South-Eastern North Sea Hüppop, O., Hill, R. December 2016 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Effects of Pile Driving on the Residency and Movement of Tagged Reef Fish Iafrate, J., et al. November 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Avian and Bat Protection Plan: Iberdrola Renewables Iberdrola Renewables October 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
Oregon Columbia Plateau Ecoregion Wind Energy: Siting and Permitting Guidelines Iberdrola Renewables, et al. September 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device N/A
Avian and Bat Risk Assessment for the Montezuma II Wind Project, Solano County, California ICF International November 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Inventory and Analysis of Coastal and Submerged Archaeological Site Occurrence on the Pacific Outer Continental Shelf ICF International, Southeastern Archaeological Research, Davis Geoarchaeological Research November 2013 Report N/A N/A Socio-economics
Wave and Tidal Energy: Environmental Effects Iglesias, G., et al. July 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave N/A Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Evidence of the migratory bat, Pipistrellus nathusii, aggregating to the coastlines in the Northern Baltic Sea Ijas, A., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Going with the flow: Tidal influence on the occurrence of the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in the Marsdiep area, The Netherlands IJsseldijk, L., et al. September 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals
The Possible Effects of Wind Energy on Illinois Birds and Bats Illinois Department of Natural Resources June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors, Waterfowl
Inch Cape Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement Inch Cape Offshore June 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Who influences windpower licensing decisions in Norway? Formal requirements and informal practices Inderberg, T., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Utgrunden Offshore Wind Farm Measurements of Underwater Noise Ingemansson Technology June 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Marine Renewable Energy: Potential Benefits to Biodiversity? An Urgent Call for Research Inger, R., et al. December 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Improved Analysis of Long-Term Monitoring Data Demonstrates Marked Regional Declines of Bat Populations in the Eastern United States Ingersoll, T., Sewall, B., Amelon, S. June 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Endangered Atlantic Sturgeon in the New York Wind Energy Area: implications of future development in an offshore wind energy site Ingram, E., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Impacts of climate change and renewable energy development on habitat of an endemic squirrel, Xerospermophilus mohavensis, in the Mojave Desert, USA Inman, R., et al. August 2016 Journal Article N/A N/A Terrestrial Mammals
Is there Room for All of Us? Renewable Energy and Xerospermophilus mohavensis Inman, R., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device N/A
Interim Report of the Working Group on Marine Benthal and Renewable Energy Developments (WGMBRED) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea March 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat

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