Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date**sort descending Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Assessment of the Effects of the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ) for Harbour Porpoise (comparison T0 and T1) Scheidat, M., et al. September 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals
Bird species of concern at wind farms in New Zealand Powlesland, R. September 2009 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
An Investigation of the Wind Induced Background Sound Levels in Rural Areas for Existing and Proposed Wind Farms Bonsma, I., Munro, M. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise N/A
Integrated Assessment of Coastal and Marine Changes Using the Example of Offshore Wind Farms: the Coastal Futures Approach Kannen, A., Burkhard, B. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Stakeholder Perceptions of the Wave Hub Development in Cornwall, UK. West, J., Bailey, I., Whithead, I. September 2009 Conference Paper Offshore Wind N/A Stakeholder Engagement
Weight-of-evidence evaluation in environmental assessment: Review of qualitative and quantitative approaches Linkov, I., et al. September 2009 Journal Article N/A N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
The Distribution of Breeding Birds around Upland Wind Farms Pearce-Higgins, J., et al. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds
Combining Vessel-Based Surveys and Tracking Data to Identify Key Marine Areas for Seabirds Louzao, M., et al. September 2009 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds
Effects of Hydrographic and Meteorological Factors on Seasonal Seabird Abundance in the Southern North Sea Garthe, S., et al. September 2009 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds
A Comparison of Offshore Wind Power Development in Europe and the US: Patterns and Drivers of Development Snyder, B., Kaiser, M. October 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
An Integrated Risk Framework for Gigawatt-Scale Deployments of Renewable Energy: The U.S. Wind Energy Case Ram, B. October 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Wave Power Potential along the Atlantic Coast of the Southeastern USA Defne, Z., Haas, K., Fritz, H. October 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave N/A N/A
Towers, Turbines, Power Lines, and Buildings-Steps Being Taken by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to Avoid or Minimize Take of Migratory Birds at these Structures Manville, A. October 2009 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Collision Risk of Birds with Modern Large Wind Turbines Krijgsveld, K., et al. October 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Wind Energy Development, Prescribed Fire and Migratory Land Birds in the Southeastern United States: Breeding, Stopover, and Wintering Habitat Relationships Brennan, L., Ballard, B., Kuvlesky, W. October 2009 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Range Management Practices to Reduce Wind Turbine Impacts on Burrowing Owls and Other Raptors in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California Smallwood, K., et al. October 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Post-Construction Avian Monitoring Study for the Shiloh I Wind Power Project Solano County, California Kerlinger, P., et al. October 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors
Port Elizabeth Wind Energy Facility Avifaunal and Bat Impact Assessment Strugnell, L., Smallie, J., Patterson-Abrolat, C. October 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Potential Impacts of Wind Farm Energy Development on Upland Game Birds: Questions and Concerns Brennan, L., et al. October 2009 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines
Proceedings of the Fourth International Partners in Flight Conference: Tundra to Tropics Rich, T., et al. October 2009 Conference Paper Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Environmental Assessment of Offshore Wind Power Generation near Rhode Island: Acoustic and Electromagnetic Effects on Marine Animals Miller, J., et al. October 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Preliminary Flora and Fauna Assessment - Penshurst Wind Farm McMahon, A., Marr, R. October 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats, Birds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl, Ecosystem, Terrestrial Mammals
Behavioral Responses of Beaked Whales and Other Cetaceans to Controlled Exposures of Simulated Sonar and Other Sounds Southall, B., et al. October 2009 Presentation N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Map-Based Repowering and Reorganization of a Wind Resource Area to Minimize Burrowing Owl and Other Bird Fatalities Smallwood, K., Neher, L., Bell, D. October 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Environmental Assessment of Offshore Wind Power Generation near Rhode Island: Acoustic and Electromagnetic Effects on Marine Animals [Presentation] Miller, J., et al. October 2009 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Real-Time Environmental Monitoring from a Wind Farm Platform in the Texas Hypoxia Zone Mullins, R., et al. October 2009 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Challenges and Solutions of Remote Sensing at Offshore Wind Energy Developments Kelly, T., West, T., Davenport, J. November 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats, Birds
High Definition Imagery for Surveying Seabirds and Marine Mammals: A Review of Recent Trials and Development of Protocols Thaxter, C., Burton, N. November 2009 Report N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals
Comparison of Visual and Digital Aerial Survey Results of Avian Abundance for Round 3, Norfolk Region Burt, L., Rexstad, E., Buckland, S. November 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Modelling Human Impacts on the Tasmanian Wedge-Tailed Eagle (Aquila audax fleayi) Bekessy, S., et al. November 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Spatial Planning of Offshore Wind Farms: A Windfall to Marine Environmental Protection? Punt, M., et al. November 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Status and Applications of Acoustic Mitigation and Monitoring Systems for Marine Mammals Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement November 2009 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
The Physics Of Geomagnetic-Field Transduction In Animals Winklhofer, M. November 2009 Journal Article N/A EMF Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Effects Of Ambient And Boat Noise On Hearing And Communication In Three Fish Species Living In A Marine Protected Area (Miramare, Italy) Codarin, A., et al. December 2009 Journal Article N/A Noise Fish
Marine Renewable Energy: Potential Benefits to Biodiversity? An Urgent Call for Research Inger, R., et al. December 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Wind Turbine Sound and Health Effects: An Expert Panel Review Colby, W., et al. December 2009 Report Wind Energy general Noise Socio-economics
Basic Mechanisms in Pinniped Vision Hanke, F., et al. December 2009 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Geographic Variation in Activity and Fatality of Migratory Bats at Wind Energy Facilities Baerwald, E., Barclay, R. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Large Scale Risk-Assessment of Wind-Farms on Population Viability of a Globally Endangered Long-Lived Raptor Carrete, M., et al. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Causes of Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines: Hypotheses and Predictions Cryan, P., Barclay, R. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
What is the Impact of Wind Farms on Birds? A Case Study in Southern Spain Farfan, M., et al. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Pre- and Post-Construction Studies of Conflicts Between Birds and Wind Turbines in Coastal Norway (Bird Wind): Progress Report 2009 Bevanger, K., et al. December 2009 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
2009 Spring, Summer, and Fall Avian and Bat Surveys Stantec Consulting December 2009 Report N/A N/A Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Differences in bat activity in relation to bat detector height: implications for bat surveys at proposed windfarm sites Collins, J., Jones, G. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Life cycle energy and greenhouse emissions analysis of wind turbines and the effect of size on energy yield Crawford, R. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Acoustic Masking In Marine Ecosystems: Intuitions, Analysis, And Implication Clark, C., et al. December 2009 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Studying The Behaviour And Sensory Ecology Of Marine Mammals Using Acoustic Recording Tags: A Review Johnson, M., Soto, N., Madsen, P. December 2009 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals
The Effect of Signal Duration on the Underwater Hearing Thresholds of Two Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) for Single Tonal Signals Between 0.2 and 40 kHz Kastelein, R., et al. December 2009 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Lynn and Inner Dowsing Hydrographic Monitoring Survey Emu December 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Behavior of Scandinavian Bats During Migration and Foraging at Sea Ahlén, I., Baagøe, H., Bach, L. December 2009 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Development of Underwater Flora and Fauna Communities on Hard Substrates of the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee Lengkeek, W., Bouma, S. December 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem
Post‐Construction Bat and Bird Fatality Study at the Blue Sky Green Field Wind Energy Center, Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin: July 21, 2008 – October 31, 2008 and March 15, 2009 – June 4, 2009 Gruver, J., et al. December 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Benthic Cover Data NOAA Coastal Services Center January 2010 Website N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Click Communication in Harbour Porpoises Phocoena phocoena Clausen, K., et al. January 2010 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Preliminary Assessment of the Conservation Importance of Benthic Species and Habitats off the West Coast of Orkney and in the Pentland Firth in Relation to the Development of Renewable Energy Schemes Moore, C. January 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Cumulative Impact Assessments and Bird/Wind Farm Interactions: Developing a Conceptual Framework Masden, E., et al. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Farfield Environment
Mandibular Fractures in Short-Finned Pilot Whales, Globicephala macrorhynchus Oremland, M., et al. January 2010 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Marine Renewable Energy Legislation for Nova Scotia Nova Scotia Department of Energy January 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Marine Wind Farms: Seabirds, White-Tailed Eagles, Eurasian Eagle-Owl and Waders - A Screening of Potential Conflict Areas Christensen-Dalsgaard, S., et al. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Meta-Analysis of Net Energy Return for Wind Power Systems Kubiszewski, I., Cleveland, C., Endres, P. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics
Ocean Renewable Energy's Potential Role In Supplying Future Electrical Energy Needs Thresher, R., Musial, W. January 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general N/A Socio-economics
Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: Early Environmental Impact Assessment and Spatio-Temporal Variability Degraer, S., Brabant, R., Rumes, B. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Options and Opportunities for Marine Fisheries Mitigation Associated with Windfarms Blyth-Skyrme, R. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish, Socio-economics
Potential Climatic Impacts And Reliability Of Very Large-scale Wind Farms Wang, C., Prinn, G. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Review of Migratory Routes and Behaviour of Atlantic Salmon, Sea Trout and European Eel in Scotland's Coastal Environment: Implications for the Development of Marine Renewables Malcolm, I., Godfrey, J., Youngson, A. January 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Weighing Natural Variability and Anthropogenic Impacts: A Case Study of Demersal Fish and Epibenthic Communities in the Belgian Part of the North Sea De Backer, A., et al. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Towards a Spatially Explicit Risk Assessment for Marine Management: Assessing the Vulnerability of Fish to Aggregate Extraction Stelzenmüller, V., Ellis, J., Rogers, S. January 2010 Journal Article N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
GIS-Based Environmental Assessment of Wind Energy Systems for Spatial Planning: A Case Study from Western Turkey Aydin, N., Kentel, E., Duzgun, S. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Best Management Practices for Bats in New Mexico Balistreri, M. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Underwater Noise Produced by the Piling Activities During the Construction of the Belwind Offshore Wind Farm (Bligh Bank, Belgian Marine Waters) Norro, A., et al. January 2010 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Monitoring of Hydrodynamic and Morphological Changes at the C-Power and Belwind Offshore Windfarm Sites - A Synthesis Van den Eynde, D., et al. January 2010 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Dønnesfjord Windpark, Hasvik Municipality: Impact Assessment, Evaluation of Natural Environment Jacobsen, K., Borg, L., Johnsen, T. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment, Terrestrial Mammals
Saint Nikola Wind Farm: 2010 Breeding Bird Survey Zehtindjiev, P. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Bird migration monitoring in the AES Geo Power Wind Park territory, Kaliakra region, in autumn 2010 Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, D. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Passerines
Incidence and Management of Live and Injured Bats at Wind Energy Facilities Klug, B., Baerwald, E. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Use of forest edges by bats in a managed pine forest landscape Morris, A., Miller, D., Kalcounis-Rueppell, M. January 2010 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Conservation and management issues for the Dadia-Lefkimi-Soufli Forest National Park Catsadorakis, G., et al. January 2010 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Landscape externalities from onshore wind power Meyerhoff, J., Ohl, C., Hartje, V. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Analyzing Coastal and Marine Changes – Offshore Wind Farming as a Case Study Lange, M., et al. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Socio-economics
A study of White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla movements and mortality at a wind farm in Norway Nygård, T., et al. January 2010 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Aversiveness of Sounds in Phocid Seals: Psycho-Physiological Factors, Learning Processes and Motivation Götz, T., Janik, V. January 2010 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Impacts Of Wind Farms On Surface Air Temperatures Traiteur, J., Roy, S. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Farfield Environment
Mitigation of Underwater Pile Driving Noise During Offshore Construction: Final Report Stokes, A., et al. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
The Effects of Landscape Modifications on the Long-Term Persistence of Animal Populations Nabe-Nielsen, J., et al. January 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
General Models of the Spatial Distribution of Porpoises Require Representative Data and Parsimony: Comment on Skov & Thomsen (2008) Tougaard, J., Wisz, M. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
Offshore Wind Farms and Birds: Round 3 Zones, Extensions to Round 1 & Round 2 Sites & Scottish Territorial Waters Langston, R. February 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Offshore Wind Power Policy and Planning in Sweden Söderholm, P., Pettersson, M. February 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Risk Formulation For The Sonic Effects Of Offshore Wind Farms On Fish In The EU Region Kikuchi, R. February 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Final Environmental Impact Report for the SMUD Solano Wind Project Phase 3 Sacramento Municipal Utility District February 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Expansion of Hitra Wind-Power Plant - Consequences Related to Wildlife Except Birds Veiberg, V., Pedersen, H. February 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Interim Golden Eagle Technical Guidance: Inventory and Monitoring Protocols; and Other Recommendations in Support of Golden Eagle Management and Permit Issuance Pagel, J., Whittington, D., Allen, G. February 2010 Report N/A N/A Birds, Raptors
Distance Software: Design and Analysis of Distance Sampling Surveys for Estimating Population Size Thomas, L., et al. February 2010 Journal Article N/A N/A Farfield Environment
Using Habitat Models to Identify Suitable Sites for Marine Protected Areas for Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) Embling, C., et al. February 2010 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Steel forests or smoke stacks: the politics of visualisation in the Cape Wind controversy Phadke, R. February 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Bat Acoustic Studies for the Pleasant Ridge Wind Resource Area - Livingston County, Illinois - Final Report July 15 - October 21, 2009 Good, R., et al. February 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Exposure to Seismic Survey Alters Blue Whale Acoustic Communication Di Iorio, L., Clark, C. February 2010 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Developing New Ground Truthing Techniques for Seabed Mapping Foster-Smith, R., et al. February 2010 Report N/A N/A Nearfield Habitat
An Introduction to Socio-Economic Assessment within a Marine Strategy Framework Turner, R., et al. March 2010 Report N/A N/A Socio-economics
A Further Review of Sediment Monitoring Data Carroll, B., et al. March 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Assessing the Potential Impact of Wind Turbines on the Endangered Galapagos Petrel Pterodroma phaeopygia at San Cristóbal Island, Galapagos Cruz-Delgado, F., Wiedenfeld, D., Gonzalez, J. March 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds

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