Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Titlesort ascending Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Technical Guidance for Assessing the Effects of Anthropogenic Sound on Marine Mammal Hearing: Underwater Acoustic Thresholds for Onset of Permanent and Temporary Threshold Shifts National Marine Fisheries Service July 2016 Report N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Taming Hurricanes with Arrays of Offshore Wind Turbines Jacobson, M., Archer, C., Kempton, W. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Taiwanese white dolphins and offshore wind farms Tougaard, J., Mikaelsen, M. December 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Tafila Region Wind Power Projects: Cumulative Effects Assessment International Finance Corporation January 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Farfield Environment
TADS Investigations of Avian Collision Risk at Nysted Offshore Wind Farm Desholm, M. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Sørfjord Windpark, Tysfjord Municipality: Impact Assessment, Evaluation of Natural Environment Jacobsen, K., Arnesen, G., Johnsen, T. April 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Synthesis of Wind Energy Development and Potential Impacts on Wildlife in the Pacific Northwest, Oregon and Washington Mockrin, M., Gravenmier, R. July 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Synthesis and Comparison of Baseline Avian and Bat Use, Raptor Nesting and Mortality Information from Proposed and Existing Wind Developments Erickson, W., et al. December 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors, Waterfowl
Synopsis des internationalen Kenntnisstandes zum Einfluss der Windenergie auf Fledermäuse und Vögel und Spezifizierung für die Schweiz Muller, J., et al. November 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Symposium Sound Solutions Report The North Sea Foundation February 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Symbiotic Offshore Energy Harvesting and Storage Systems Slocum, A. September 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Swimming Speed, Respiration Rate, and Estimated Cost of Transport in Adult Killer Whales Williams, R., Noren, D. April 2009 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Swimming Speed of a Harbor Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) During Playbacks of Offshore Pile Driving Sounds Kastelein, R., Van de Voorde, S., Jennings, N. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Swimming Behavior of Roach (Rutilus rutilus) and Three-spined Stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in Response to Wind Power Noise and Single-tone Frequencies Andersson, M., et al. December 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Swimming behavior of roach (rutilus rutilus) and three-spined stickleback (gasterosteus aculeatus) in response to wind power noise and single-tone frequencies Andersson, M., et al. December 2007 Journal Article Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Sveti Nikola Wind Farm Bat Monitoring Report 2011 RSK Environment July 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Sveti Nikola Wind Farm 2010 Bat Surveys Report RSK Environment July 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Sustainably reconciling offshore renewable energy with Natura 2000 sites: An interim adaptive management framework Le Lièvre, C. June 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Sustainable Siting Process in Large Wind Farms Case Study in Crete Tsoutsos, T., et al. March 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
Sustainable Seas Ko ngā moana whakauka: National Science Challenge Hall, J., et al. July 2015 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Sustainable renewable energy planning and wind farming optimization from a biodiversity perspective Dhunny, A., et al. October 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change, Marine Spatial Planning
Sustainable energy in Africa: A comprehensive data andpolicies review Mandelli, S., et al. September 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Sustainable Development for Welsh Seas: Our Approach to Marine Planning in Wales Welsh Assembly Government February 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Sustainable Decommissioning of an Offshore Wind Farm Topham, E., McMillan, D. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Sustainability and tourism: the effect of the United States’ first offshore wind farm on the vacation rental market Carr-Harris, A., Lang, C. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Surveys of Hard Bottom Communities on Foundations in Nysted Offshore Wind Farm and Schönheiders Pulle in 2004 Birklund, J. May 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Survey of Possible Operational Impacts on Bats by Wind Facilities in Southern Germany Brinkmann, R., Schauer-Weisshahn, H. January 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Survey of Beached Birds and Mammals: Sao Jãcinto - Torreira (Portugal) - March 2014 to March 2015 van Nus, T., Moreira, P. May 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Marine Mammals
Survey of Bat Mortalities at a Wind-Energy Facility in North Dakota Bicknell, L., Gilliam, E. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Survey Methods for Use in Assessment the Impacts of Onshore Wind Farms on Bird Communities Scottish Natural Heritage November 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Surface Texture Discrimination by Bats: Implications for Reducing Bat Mortality at Wind Turbines Bienz, C. May 2016 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Surface Texture Differentiation Using Synthetic Bat Echolocation Calls: Implications for Reducing Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines Yuen, B. December 2015 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Supplement to the Phase I Avian Risk Assessment and Breeding Bird Study for the Deerfield Wind Project, Bennington County, Vermont Kerlinger, P. January 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Passerines
Summer-Fall 2006 Bat Detector Survey and Two-year Summary at the Proposed Deerfield Wind Project in Searsburg and Readsboro, Vermont Stantec Consulting January 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Summer Distribution of Semi-Domesticated Reindeer Relative to a New Wind-Power Plant Colman, J., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device N/A
Summer 2006 Indiana Bat Surveys at the Proposed Clayton Wind Project in Clayton, New York Stantec Consulting November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Summer 2005 Breeding Birds Surveys at the Proposed Top Notch Wind Project in Fairfield and Norway, New York Stantec Consulting December 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Summary on Seal Monitoring 1999-2005 around Nysted and Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farms Teilmann, J., et al. November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Summary on Harbour Porpoise Monitoring 1999-2006 around Nysted and Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farms Teilmann, J., Tougaard, J., Carstensen, J. November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals
Summary of Wind Turbine Impacts on Bats - Assessment of a Conflict Bach, L., Rahmel, U. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Summary of Post-Construction Monitoring at Wind Projects Relevant to Minnesota, Identification of Data Gaps, and Recommendations for Further Research Regarding Wind-Energy Development in Minnesota Poulton, V. December 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Summary of Environment Impact of Renewable Energy Resources Zhu, J., Cheung, K. December 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Birds, Fish
Succession and Seasonal Dynamics of the Epifauna Community on Offshore Wind Farm Foundations and their Role as Stepping Stones for Non-Indigenous Species Mesel, I., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Investigation of the Cape Wind Energy Project ESS Group August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Studying wind energy/bird interactions: A guidance document. Metrics and methods for determining or monitoring potential impacts on birds at existing and proposed wind energy sites Anderson, R., et al. January 1999 Book Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Studying Wind Energy/Bird Interactions: A Guidance Document Anderson, R., et al. December 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Studying The Behaviour And Sensory Ecology Of Marine Mammals Using Acoustic Recording Tags: A Review Johnson, M., Soto, N., Madsen, P. December 2009 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals
Studying Marine Mammal Cognition in the Wild: A Review of Four Decades of Playback Experiments Deecke, V. January 2006 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals
Study on the Marine Growth Effect on the Dynamic Response of Offshore Wind Turbines Shi, W., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Study on Australian Energy Policy, Socio-Economic, and Environment Issues Azad, A., et al. December 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change
Study of the Wildlife of Jhimpir Wind Corridor, District Thatta, Sindh and Development of Bird Monitoring Strategy in the Area Ghalib, S., et al. November 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Study and Application of Underwater Noise Impact in Coastal Region off Western Taiwan Cheng, Y., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Structure-Borne Wave Radiation by Impact and Vibratory Piling in Offshore Installations: From Sound Prediction to Auditory Damage Tsouvalas, A., Metrikine, A. August 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Stressor Analysis Approaches for Endangered Species Assessments Salatas, J., et al. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Strengthening the Role of Science in Marine Governance through Environmental Impact Assessment: A Case Study of the Marine Renewable Energy Industry Wright, G. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Strategy of Approach Demersal Fish Fauna Grift, R., Tien, N. May 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Strategisk konsekv ensutredning for landbasert vindkraft. En evaluering av regionale planer for vindkraft May, R. December 2011 Report Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics
Strategic Sectoral Planning for Offshore Renewable Energy in Scotland Davies, I., Pratt, D. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA License Conditions Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) August 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Underwater Noise Pattenden, A., Thomsen, F., Walker, R. January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Marine Mammals Philpott, E., Tollit, D., Mackey, B. August 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Fish Walker, R., et al. July 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Birds Budgey, R., Ormston, C. August 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Benthic Ecology Walker, R., et al. August 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Strategic Planning to Reduce Conflicts for Offshore Wind Development in Taiwan: A Social Marketing Perspective Chen, J., Liu, H., Chuang, C. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Strategic Joint Industry Project No.1: Bird avoidance behavior and collision impact monitoring at Offshore Windfarms Marine Scotland, et al. December 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Strategic Impact Management of Wind Power Projects Lima, F., Ferreira, P., Vieira, F. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
Strategic Impact Assessment of Offshore Windpower in Norway - Impacts on Seabirds Lorensten, S., et al. March 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Strategic Health Impact Assessment on Wind Energy Development in Oregon Joshi, S., et al. March 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Socio-economics
Strategic Environmental Assessment Area 8 - Contamination of Water and Sediments Voisey, C., Tyrrell, D., Rowlatt, S March 2004 Report N/A Chemicals Nearfield Habitat
Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) for Wind Energy Planning: Lessons from the United Kingdom and Germany Phylip-Jones, J., Fischer, T. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Storm effects on intertidal invertebrates: increased beta diversity of few individuals and species Corte, G., et al. May 2017 Journal Article N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Socio-economics, Climate Change
Stereo-Optic High Definition Imaging: A New Technology to Understand Bird and Bat Avoidance of Wind Turbines Adams, E., et al. July 2017 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
Steel forests or smoke stacks: the politics of visualisation in the Cape Wind controversy Phadke, R. February 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Statutory Nature Conservation Agency Protocol for Minimising the Risk of Injury to Marine Mammals from Piling Noise Joint Nature Conservation Committee August 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Status of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Avian Research Program Sinclair, K. June 1999 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Status of Marine Mammals in Korea Song, K. April 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Status of herpatofaunal diversity of Ramagiri east and west reserve forests of Ananthapuramu district, Andhra Pradesh Subramanyam, B., Khan, I., Kumari, K. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Status of Avian Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sinclair, K. June 2001 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Status and Trends for the World’s Kelp Forests Wernberg, T., et al. January 2019 Book Chapter N/A N/A Ecosystem
Status and Applications of Acoustic Mitigation and Monitoring Systems for Marine Mammals Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement November 2009 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Statistical Modelling of Seabird and Cetacean Data: Literature Review Oedekoven, C., et al. May 2014 Report N/A N/A Birds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Statistical Modelling of Seabird and Cetacean Data: Guidance Document Mackenzie, M., et al. October 2013 Report N/A N/A Birds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Statistical Modeling of North Atlantic Right Whale Migration along the Mid-Atlantic Region of the Eastern Seaboard of the United States Firestone, J., et al. January 2008 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Statistical guidelines for assessing marine avian hotspots and coldspots: A case study on wind energy development in the U.S. Atlantic Ocean Zipkin, E., et al. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Stateline Wind Project Wildlife Monitoring Final Report: July 2001 - December 2003 Erickson, W., et al. December 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors
Stateline Wind Project Wildlife Monitoring Annual Report: Results for the Period July 2001 - December 2002 Erickson, W., et al. May 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
State of Washington Bat Conservation Plan Hayes, G., Wiles, G. June 2013 Report N/A N/A Bats
State of the World's Raptors: Distributions, Threats, and Conservation Recommendations McClure, C., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
State of the Science: An Assessment of Research on the Ecological Impacts of Wind Energy in the Great Lakes Region Hinderer, J., et al. October 2011 Workshop Article Wind Energy general N/A Ecosystem
State of the Nation's de Facto Marine Protected Areas Grober-Dunsmore, R., et al. May 2008 Report Marine Energy general N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics
Standard Metrics and Methods for Conducting Avian/Wind Energy Interaction Studies Anderson, R., et al. January 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Standard Investigation of the Impacts of Offshore Wind Turbines on the Marine Environment (StUK4) Bundesamt fur Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie (BSH) October 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Standard Investigation of the Impacts of Offshore Wind Turbines on the Marine Environment (StUK3) Bellebaum, J., et al. February 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Standard for Measurement and Monitoring of Underwater Noise, Part II: Procedures for Measuring Underwater Noise in Connection with Offshore Wind Farm Licensing de Jong, C., Ainslie, M., Blacquière, G. September 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Standard for Measurement and Monitoring of Underwater Noise, Part I: Physical Quantities and their Units Ainslie, M. September 2011 Report N/A Noise N/A
Stakeholders or Subject Matter Experts, who Should be consulted? Alberts, D. April 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Stakeholder Priorities in Wind Energy Lantz, E. May 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Stakeholder Perspectives on the Value of Marine Spatial Planning Towards Advancing Offshore Wind in the U.S. Ryan, K., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Stakeholder Perceptions of the Wave Hub Development in Cornwall, UK. West, J., Bailey, I., Whithead, I. September 2009 Conference Paper Offshore Wind N/A Stakeholder Engagement

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