Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressorssort descending Receptors
Assessing spring direct mortality to avifauna from wind energy facilities in the Dakotas Graff, B., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Bat fatalities at wind farms in Taiwan Chou, C., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Nocturnal migrants do not incur higher collision risk at wind turbines than diurnally active species Welcker, J., et al. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
A balanced solution to the cumulative threat of industrialized wind farm development on cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus) in south-eastern Europe Vasilakis, D., Whitfield, D., Kati, V. February 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Species composition and mortality of bats at the Osorio Wind Farm, southern Brazil Barros, M., de Magalhaes, R., Rui, A. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Predicting bird collisions with wind turbines: Comparison of the new empirical Flux Collision Model with the SOSS Band model Kleyheeg-Hartman, J., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Assessment of Diurnal Wind Turbine Collision Risk for Grassland Birds on the Southern Great Plains Wulff, S., Butler, M., Ballard, W. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Estimation of bird fatalities caused by wind turbines in Turkey Arikan, K., Turan, S. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Assessing Bird and Bat Mortality at the Forward Energy Center Grodsky, S., Drake, D. August 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Empirical Evidence for Factors Affecting Searcher Efficiency and Scavenging Rates at a Coastal, Terrestrial Wind-Power Facility Peters, K., Mizrahi, D., Allen, M. December 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Quantifying the Demographic Cost of Human-Related Mortality to a Raptor Population Hunt, W., et al. February 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Ultrasonic Bat Deterrent Technology Kinzie, K. June 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Carcass Age and Searcher Identity Affect Morphological Assessment of Sex of Bats Nelson, D., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Reconciling endangered species conservation with wind farm development: Cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus) in south-eastern Europe Vasilakis, D., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Assess risk of individual turbines to Golden Eagles Miller, T. March 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Wind turbines in high quality habitat cause disproportionate increases in collision mortality of the white-tailed eagle Heuck, C., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Machine learning applied to wind turbine blades impact detection Hu, C., Albertani, R. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Red Aviation Lights on Wind Turbines do not Increase Bat-Turbine Collisions Hale, A., Bennett, V. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Lighting Bats
Acoustic Monitoring Techniques for Avian Detection and Classification Mirzaei, G., et al. November 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Birds
Preliminary Field Test Results of an Acoustic Deterrent with the Potential to Reduce Bat Mortality from Wind Turbines Szewczak, J., Arnett, E. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Bats
Wind Power and the Local Environment - No Free Lunches Plowden, B. March 1992 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Report of the IWG on Wind Turbines and Bat Populations 2012 Rodrigues, L. May 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Report of the IWG on Wind Turbines and Bat Populations 2013 Rodrigues, L. April 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Status of Avian Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sinclair, K. June 2001 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Patterns of activity and fatality of migratory bats at a wind energy facility in Alberta, Canada Baerwald, E., Barclay, R. July 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Optimizing Wind Power Generation while Minimizing Wildlife Impacts in an Urban Area Bohrer, G., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
The prosecutor's vulture: inconsistent MBTA prosecution, its clash with wind farms, and how to fix it Brunner, S. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Mortality at wind-farms is positively related to large-scale distribution and aggregation in griffon vultures Carrete, M., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
White-Tailed Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) at the Smøla Wind-Power Plant, Central Norway, Lack Behavioral Flight Responses to Wind Turbines Dahl, E., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Have we all gone batty? The need for a better balance between the conservation of protected species and the development of clean renewable energy Householder, L. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Socio-economics, Climate Change
A new method to determine bird and bat fatality at wind energy turbines from carcass searches Korner-Nievergelt, F., et al. December 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Putting Aeolus to work without the death toll: federal wind farm siting guidelines can mitigate avian and Chiropteran mortality Mensing, B. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
Some Clouds Have a Silver Lining: Paradoxes of Anthropogenic Perturbations from Study Cases on Long-Lived Social Birds Oro, D., Jimenez, J., Curco, A. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Regional-Scale Modelling of the Cumulative Impact of Wind Farms on Bats Roscioni, F., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Wind Farms Threaten Southern Africa's Cliff-Nesting Vultures Rushworth, I., Kruger, S. May 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Using echolocation monitoring to model bat occupancy and inform mitigations at wind energy facilities Weller, T., Baldwin, J. November 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Vogels en windturbines (Birds and windturbines) Winkelman, J. January 1987 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Patterns of Pre-Construction Bat Activity at a Proposed Wind Facility in South-Central Pennsylvania Arnett, E., Hayes, J., Huso, M. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Development of a Comprehensive Conservation Strategy for the North Shore Region of Minnesota in the Context of Future Wind Power Development Peterson, A., Niemi, G. December 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Patterns of Pre-Construction Bat Activity Determined Using Acoustic Monitoring at a Proposed Wind Facility in South-Central Wisconsin Redell, D., et al. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Historical Challenges of Wind Energy/Wildlife Interactions: How This May Affect Distributed Wind Sinclair, K. August 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Final Site-Wide Environmental Assessment Department of Energy's National Wind Technology Center Golden, Colorado at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory National Renewable Energy Laboratory May 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Guidelines for Conducting Bird and Bat Studies at Commercial Wind Energy Projects New York State Department of Environmental Conservation June 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the National Avian - Wind Power Planning Meeting IV RESOLVE May 2001 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
New Zealand Falcon Monitoring and Risk Assessment, Hurunui Wind Farm Meridian Energy January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Problematic Wildlife: A Cross-Disciplinary Approach Angelici, F. January 2016 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Prioritizing Avian Species for Their Risk of Population Level Consequences from Wind Energy Development Beston, J., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Wind Energy Development: Methods for Assessing Risks to Birds and Bats Pre-Construction Katzner, T., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Minimal effects of wind turbines on the distribution of wintering farmland birds Devereux, C., Denny, M., Whittingham, M. October 2008 Journal Article Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Wind Energy's Impact on Aviation, Radar, and Telecommunications Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind EMF Socio-economics, Navigation
Assessment of Electromagnetic Interference Effects of the Solano Windfarm: Final Report Sengupta, D., Ferris, J., Senior, T. November 1981 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind EMF Human Dimensions, Navigation
Nonlocal Inadvertent Weather Modification Associated with Wind Farms in the Central United States Lauridsen, M., Ancell, B. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Turtles and Culverts, and Alternative Energy Development: An Unreported but Potentially Significant Mortality Threat to the Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) Lovich, J., et al. July 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Entrapment, Habitat Change Reptiles
Potential impacts of energy development on shrublands in western North America Pocewicz, A., Copeland, H., Kiesecker, J. December 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change N/A
Interim Guidelines to Avoid and Minimize Wildlife Impacts from Wind Turbines US Fish and Wildlife Service May 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Maiden Wind Farm Benton County, Washington Final SEPA Environmental Impact Statement and Final NEPA Environmental Impact Statement Bonneville Power Administration, Benton County, Washington January 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Do wind turbines impact plant community properties in mountain region? Pătru-Stupariu, I., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change N/A
Geographic context affects the landscape change and fragmentation caused by wind energy facilities Diffendorfer, J., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change N/A
Columbian sharp‐tailed grouse nesting ecology: wind energy and habitat Proett, M., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Disturbance affects biotic community composition at desert wind farms Keehne, J., Feldman, C. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change N/A
Predator attack rates and anti-predator behavior of side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) at Southern California wind farms, USA Keehn, J., Feldman, C. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Reptiles
An approach for evaluating changes in land-use from energy sprawl and other anthropogenic activities with implications for biotic resource management Wolaver, B., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Reptiles
The association of windmills with conservation of pollinating insects and wild plants in homogeneous farmland of western Poland Pustkowiak, S., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes
Vegetation Cover Change of Çeşme Alaçatı Wind Power Plant Using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) Balik, G., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes
Detecting Wind Farm Impacts on Local Vegetation Growth in Texas and Illinois Using MODIS Vegetation Greenness Measurements Xia, G., Zhou, L. July 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes
Analysis of the Overlap between Priority Greater Sage-Grouse Habitats and Existing and Potential Energy Development Across the West: Final Report LeBeau, C., Fruhwirth, J., Boehrs, J. October 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
A Historical Perspective of Wind-Wildlife Challenges: How this May Affect Distributed Wind Sinclair, K. July 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Avian and Bat Survey Protocols For Large Wind Energy Conversion Systems in Minnesota Mixon, K., et al. June 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Short-Term Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Greater Sage-Grouse Fitness LeBeau, C., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Black Bears (Ursus americanus) as a Novel Potential Predator of Agassiz's Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) at a California Wind Energy Facility Lovich, J., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Reptiles, Terrestrial Mammals
Land cover and topography affect the land transformation caused by wind facilities Diffendorfer, J., Compton, R. February 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change N/A
Evaluating Greater Sage-Grouse Seasonal Space Use Relative to Leks: Implications for Surface Use Designations in Sagebrush Ecosystems Coates, P., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
An Analysis about Wind Farm Construction Based on the Perspective of the Development of Ecological Environment Bai, Z. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change N/A
Influence of Wind Turbines on Presence of Willet, Marbled Godwit, Wilson's Phalarope and Black Tern on Wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota and South Dakota Niemuth, N., et al. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Is there Room for All of Us? Renewable Energy and Xerospermophilus mohavensis Inman, R., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Terrestrial Mammals
Bird and Bat Responses to Wind Energy Development in Iowa Gillespie, M. January 2013 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Characterising the Impacts of Emerging Energy Development on Wildlife, with an Eye Towards Mitigation Northrup, J., Wittemyer, G. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
A Preliminary Overview of Monitoring for Raptors in Sweden Hellstrom, P., Helander, B. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Avian and Bat Protection Plan Including Bird and Bat Conservation Strategies and an Eagle Conservation Plan: New Era Wind Project Westwood Professional Services November 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Bird-Community Shifts in Relation to Wind Farms: A Case Study Comparing a Wind Farm, Croplands, and Secondary Forests in Southern Mexico Villegas-Patraca, R., et al. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Ecosystem Processes
Nesting Success of Scissor-Tailed Flycatchers (Tyrannus forficatus) at a Wind Farm in Northern Texas Rubenstahl, T., Hale, A., Karsten, K. June 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Passerines
Avian and Bat Protection Plan for the Buckeye Wind Power Project Stantec Consulting Services June 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Nesting Ecology of a Population of Gopherus agassizii at a Utility-Scale Wind Energy Facility in Southern California Ennen, J., et al. June 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Reptiles
Effects of wind energy production on growth, demography, and survivorship of a desert tortoise population in Southern California with comparisons to natural populations Lovich, J., et al. June 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Reptiles
Long-Term Post-Fire Effects on Spatial Ecology and Reproductive Output of Female Agassiz's Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) at a Wind Energy Facility near Palm Springs, California, USA Lovich, J., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Reptiles
The Impacts of Roads and other Infrastructure on Mammal and Bird Populations: A Meta-Analysis Benitez-Lopez, A., Alkemade, R., Verweij, P. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
Environment and Siting: Supporting Research on Impacts to Birds, Bats and Habitats from Wind Development National Renewable Energy Laboratory June 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change N/A
Birds, Wind and the Making of Wind Power Landscapes in Aude, Southern France Nadaï, A., Labussiere, O. March 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Predicting the trends of vertebrate species richness as a response to wind farms installation in mountain ecosystems of northwest Portugal Santos, M., et al. March 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes
Expansion of Hitra Wind-Power Plant - Consequences Related to Wildlife Except Birds Veiberg, V., Pedersen, H. February 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Terrestrial Mammals
Dønnesfjord Windpark, Hasvik Municipality: Impact Assessment, Evaluation of Natural Environment Jacobsen, K., Borg, L., Johnsen, T. January 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Preliminary Flora and Fauna Assessment - Penshurst Wind Farm McMahon, A., Marr, R. October 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change N/A
Modelling Human Impacts on the Tasmanian Wedge-Tailed Eagle (Aquila audax fleayi) Bekessy, S., et al. November 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Potential Impacts of Wind Farm Energy Development on Upland Game Birds: Questions and Concerns Brennan, L., et al. October 2009 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Wind Energy Development, Prescribed Fire and Migratory Land Birds in the Southeastern United States: Breeding, Stopover, and Wintering Habitat Relationships Brennan, L., Ballard, B., Kuvlesky, W. October 2009 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Land-Use Requirements of Modern Wind Power Plants in the United States Denholm, P., et al. August 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Physical Environment
Sage-Grouse and Wind Energy: Biology, Habits, and Potential Effects from Development Becker, J., et al. July 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Wind Power Plants and the Conservation of Birds and Bats in Spain: A Geographical Assessment Telleria, J. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Overlap Between Wind Power Plants and Griffon Vultures Gyps fulvus in Spain Telleria, J. May 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Whooping Cranes and Wind Development - An Issue Paper US Fish and Wildlife Service April 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Shorebirds

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