Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressorssort descending Receptors
Avian and Bat Protection Plan: AWA Goodhue Wind Project Westwood Professional Services December 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Bird Mortality in Two Dutch Wind Farms: Effects of Location, Spatial Design and Interactions with Powerlines Brenninkmeijer, A., Klop, E. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Bird species of concern at wind farms in New Zealand Powlesland, R. September 2009 Book Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Conflicts Between Birds and On-Shore Wind Farms Zwart, M., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Direct Mortality of Birds from Anthropogenic Causes Loss, S., Will, T., Marra, P. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Estimating habitat loss due to wind turbine avoidance by bats: Implications for European siting guidance Barre, K., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats
Future Directions in Conservation Research on Petrels and Shearwaters Rodríguez, A., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Guidelines for Reducing Impacts to Wildlife from Wind Energy Development in Arizona Arizona Game and Fish Department October 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Habitat Use, Disturbance and Collision Risks for Bewick's Swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii Wintering Near a Wind Farm in the Netherlands Fijn, R., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
Best Management Practices for siting, developing, operating, and monitoring renewable energy in the Intermountain West: A Conservationist's Guide Jones, A. March 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Avian and Bat Protection Plan for the Ocotillo Wind Energy Facility Ocotillo Express February 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Impacts of onshore wind energy production on birds and bats: recommendations for future life cycle impact assessment developments Laranjeiro, T., May, R., Verones, F. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
The Impacts of Small and Medium Wind Turbines on Bats Moyle, A. July 2016 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats
Impacts to Birds and Bats Due to Collisions and Electrocutions from Some Tall Structures in the United States: Wires, Towers, Turbines, and Solar Arrays - State of the Art in Addressing the Problems Manville, A. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Impacts to Wildlife of Wind Energy Siting and Operation in the United States Allison, T., et al. September 2019 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Best Management Practices for Bats in New Mexico Balistreri, M. January 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Draft Black Oak & Getty Wind Avian and Bat Protection Plan Black Oak Wind, Getty Wind Company February 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Grande Prairie Wind Farm Bird and Bat Conservation Strategy Stantec Consulting Services May 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Bat fatalities at two wind farms in Tasmania, Australia: bat characteristics, and spatial and temporal patterns Hull, C., Cawthen, L. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Aerial-Hawking Bats Can Glean Prey Items From Surfaces Similar to Wind Turbine Towers: Implications for Reducing Bat Fatalities at Wind Facilities Jarzombek, L. May 2016 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Bats
Surface Texture Discrimination by Bats: Implications for Reducing Bat Mortality at Wind Turbines Bienz, C. May 2016 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Bats
Bats, Bugs, and Wind Turbines - Is There a Connection? Cochran, C. May 2013 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Bats
Red Kite Mammen, K., Mammen, U., Resetaritz, A. April 2017 Book Chapter Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Assessing Risk to Birds from Industrial Wind Energy Development via Paired Resource Selection Models Miller, T., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Avian and Bat Protection Plan: Iberdrola Renewables Iberdrola Renewables October 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
Avian, Bat and Habitat Cumulative Impacts Associated with Wind Energy Development in the Columbia Plateau Ecoregion Of Eastern Washington and Oregon Johnson, G., Erickson, W. May 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
Big Blue Wind Energy Project Avian and Bat Protection Plan Western Ecosystems Technology Inc (WEST) January 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats
Bird and Bird Habitats: Guidelines for Wind Power Projects Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources December 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Canadian Estimate of Bird Mortality Due to Collisions and Direct Habitat Loss Associated with Wind Turbine Developments Zimmerling, J., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Greater impacts of wind farms on bird populations during construction than subsequent operation: results of a multi-site and multi-species analysis Pearce-Higgins, J., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Impacts on Wildlife and Government Responsibilities for Regulating Development and Protecting Wildlife Office, United States Government Accountability September 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Ponnequin Wind Energy Project: Reference Site Avian Study Kerlinger, P., Curry, R., Ryder, R. April 2000 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
An Assessment of the Impacts of Green Mountain Power Corporation's Wind Power Facility on Breeding and Migrating Birds in Searsburg, Vermont: July 1996-July 1998 Kerlinger, P. March 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Bird Migration Monitoring in the AES Geo Power Wind Park Territory, Kaliakra Region, in Autumn 2012, and Analysis of Potential Impact after Three Years' Operation Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, D. November 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Griffon Vulture Mortality at Wind Farms in Southern Spain: Distribution of Fatalities and Active Mitigation Measures de Lucas, M., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Negative Impact of Wind Energy Development on a Breeding Shorebird Assessed with a BACI Study Design Sansom, A., Pearce-Higgins, J., Douglas, D. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Shorebirds
Behavior and Turbine Avoidance Rates of Eagles at Two Wind Farms in Tasmania, Australia Hull, C., Muir, S. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds
Is a Wind-Power Plant Acting as a Barrier for Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) Movements? Colman, J., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change N/A
Avoidance Behavior by Prairie Grouse: Implications for Development of Wind Energy Pruett, C., Patten, M., Wolfe, D. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Effects of Wind Turbines and Other Physical Elements on Field Utilization by Pink-Footed Geese (Anser brachyrhynchus): A Landscape Perspective Larsen, J., Madsen, J. December 2000 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
Wind turbines impact bat activity, leading to high losses of habitat use in a biodiversity hotspot Millon, L., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Bats
The Indirect Impacts of Wind Farms on Terrestrial Mammals: Insights from the Disturbance and Exclusion Effects on Wolves (Canis lupus) da Costa, G., et al. January 2018 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Terrestrial Mammals
Summer Distribution of Semi-Domesticated Reindeer Relative to a New Wind-Power Plant Colman, J., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change N/A
The Distribution of Breeding Birds around Upland Wind Farms Pearce-Higgins, J., et al. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds
It's Not Easy Being Green: Wind Energy and a Declining Grassland Bird Pruett, C., Patten, M., Wolfe, D. March 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Reduced Breeding Success in White-Tailed Eagles at Smøla windfarm, Western Norway, is Caused by Mortality and Displacement Dahl, E., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Avian Collision Threat Assessment at 'Bhambarwadi Wind Farm Plateau' in Northern Western Ghats, India Pande, S., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Direct human-caused mortality of birds: improving quantification of magnitude and assessment of population impact Loss, S., Will, T., Marra, P. September 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Repowering Smøla Wind-Power Plant: An Assessment of Avian Conflicts Dahl, E., et al. June 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Study of the Wildlife of Jhimpir Wind Corridor, District Thatta, Sindh and Development of Bird Monitoring Strategy in the Area Ghalib, S., et al. November 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Using Species Distribution Modelling to Predict Bat Fatality Risk at Wind Farms Santos, H., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Topography drives migratory flight altitude of golden eagles: implications for on-shore wind energy development Katzner, T., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Synthesis of Wind Energy Development and Potential Impacts on Wildlife in the Pacific Northwest, Oregon and Washington Mockrin, M., Gravenmier, R. July 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change N/A
Using Stakeholder Input to Develop a Comparative Risk Assessment for Wildlife from the Life Cycles of Six Electrical Generation Fuels Zillioux, E., et al. July 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment, Stakeholder Engagement
Pre-Wind Energy Development Assessment of the Avian Community in the Central Texas Panhandle Wulf, S. December 2010 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Map-Based Repowering and Reorganization of a Wind Resource Area to Minimize Burrowing Owl and Other Bird Fatalities Smallwood, K., Neher, L., Bell, D. October 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Towers, Turbines, Power Lines, and Buildings-Steps Being Taken by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to Avoid or Minimize Take of Migratory Birds at these Structures Manville, A. October 2009 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
On-Shore Bird and Bat Pre- and Post-Construction Monitoring Protocol for Commercial Wind Energy Facilities in Ohio: An Addendum to the Ohio Department of Natural Resources Voluntary Cooperative Agreement Ohio Department of Natural Resources May 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Impact of Wind Power Plants on Black Grouse, Lyrurus tetrix in Alpine Regions Zeiler, H., Grunschachner-Berger, V. March 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Wind Power Company Compliance with Mitigation Plans in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Smallwood, K. April 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Determination of Raptor Migratory Pathways over a Large Landscape Seeland, H. April 2010 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Biglow Canyon Wind Farm: Wildlife Monitoring and Mitigation Plan Portland General Electric Company, Oregon Department of Energy May 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
Ecological Effects of Wind-Energy Development National Resource Council August 2007 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change N/A
Resident Golden Eagle Ranging Behaviour Before and After Construction of a Windfarm in Argyll Walker, D., et al. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
National Wind Technology Center Site Environmental Assessment: Bird and Bat Use and Fatalities - Final Report Schmidt, E., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Synthesis and Comparison of Baseline Avian and Bat Use, Raptor Nesting and Mortality Information from Proposed and Existing Wind Developments Erickson, W., et al. December 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Avian/Wind Turbine Interactions: A Short Summary of Research Results and Remaining Questions National Wind Coordinating Committee September 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Monitoring of Seasonal Bird Activity and Mortality on Unit 2 at the Buffalo Ridge Windplant, Minnesota Higgins, K., Dieter, C., Usgaard, R. January 1995 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
The Birds of Blyth Harbour Still, D., et al. June 1994 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Home Range and Resource Selection by GPS-Monitored Adult Golden Eagles in the Columbia Plateau Ecoregion: Implications for Wind Power Development Watson, J., Duff, A., Davies, R. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
An Analytical Impact Assessment Framework for Wildlife to Inform the Siting and Permitting of Wind Energy Facilities Schwartz, J. January 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
An Analysis of Displacement from Wind Turbines in a Wintering Grassland Bird Community Stevens, T., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Impacts of Wind Turbines on the Population and Nest Site Selection of the Montagu’s Harrier in the Hellweg Börde, North Rhine-Westphalia Joest, R., Griesenbrock, B., Illner, H. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Effect of wind energy development on breeding duck densities in the Prairie Pothole Region Loesch, C., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
Changes in the Abundance and Distribution of Upland Breeding Birds at an Operational Wind Farm Douglas, D., Bellamy, P., Pearce-Higgins, J. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Shorebirds
Effects of Wind Turbines on Area Use and Behaviour of Semi-Domestic Reindeer in Enclosures Flydal, K., et al. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Terrestrial Mammals
Wind Power and the Local Environment - No Free Lunches Plowden, B. March 1992 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Report of the IWG on Wind Turbines and Bat Populations 2012 Rodrigues, L. May 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Report of the IWG on Wind Turbines and Bat Populations 2013 Rodrigues, L. April 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Status of Avian Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sinclair, K. June 2001 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Patterns of activity and fatality of migratory bats at a wind energy facility in Alberta, Canada Baerwald, E., Barclay, R. July 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Optimizing Wind Power Generation while Minimizing Wildlife Impacts in an Urban Area Bohrer, G., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
The prosecutor's vulture: inconsistent MBTA prosecution, its clash with wind farms, and how to fix it Brunner, S. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Mortality at wind-farms is positively related to large-scale distribution and aggregation in griffon vultures Carrete, M., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
White-Tailed Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) at the Smøla Wind-Power Plant, Central Norway, Lack Behavioral Flight Responses to Wind Turbines Dahl, E., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Have we all gone batty? The need for a better balance between the conservation of protected species and the development of clean renewable energy Householder, L. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Socio-economics, Climate Change
A new method to determine bird and bat fatality at wind energy turbines from carcass searches Korner-Nievergelt, F., et al. December 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Putting Aeolus to work without the death toll: federal wind farm siting guidelines can mitigate avian and Chiropteran mortality Mensing, B. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
Some Clouds Have a Silver Lining: Paradoxes of Anthropogenic Perturbations from Study Cases on Long-Lived Social Birds Oro, D., Jimenez, J., Curco, A. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Regional-Scale Modelling of the Cumulative Impact of Wind Farms on Bats Roscioni, F., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Wind Farms Threaten Southern Africa's Cliff-Nesting Vultures Rushworth, I., Kruger, S. May 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Using echolocation monitoring to model bat occupancy and inform mitigations at wind energy facilities Weller, T., Baldwin, J. November 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Vogels en windturbines (Birds and windturbines) Winkelman, J. January 1987 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Patterns of Pre-Construction Bat Activity at a Proposed Wind Facility in South-Central Pennsylvania Arnett, E., Hayes, J., Huso, M. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Development of a Comprehensive Conservation Strategy for the North Shore Region of Minnesota in the Context of Future Wind Power Development Peterson, A., Niemi, G. December 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Patterns of Pre-Construction Bat Activity Determined Using Acoustic Monitoring at a Proposed Wind Facility in South-Central Wisconsin Redell, D., et al. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Historical Challenges of Wind Energy/Wildlife Interactions: How This May Affect Distributed Wind Sinclair, K. August 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Final Site-Wide Environmental Assessment Department of Energy's National Wind Technology Center Golden, Colorado at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory National Renewable Energy Laboratory May 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Guidelines for Conducting Bird and Bat Studies at Commercial Wind Energy Projects New York State Department of Environmental Conservation June 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the National Avian - Wind Power Planning Meeting IV RESOLVE May 2001 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors

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