Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressorssort descending Receptors
Wind Turbines as Overwintering Sites Attractive to an Invasive Lady Beetle, Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Dudek, K., Dudek, M., Tryjanowski, P. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction N/A
Echolocation activity of migratory bats at a wind energy facility: testing the feeding-attraction hypothesis to explain fatalities Reimer, J., Baerwald, E., Barlay, R. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction Bats
Resource Availability May Not Be a Useful Predictor of Migratory Bat Fatalities or Activity at Wind Turbines Bennett, V., Hale, A. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction Bats
Mating Behavior as a Possible Cause of Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines Cryan, P. April 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision Bats
Wind Turbines and Bats - A Pilot Study Ahlén, I. December 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision Bats, Birds, Passerines
When the Excrement Hits the Fan: Fecal Surveys Reveal Species-Specific Bat Activity at Wind Turbines Bennett, V., Hale, A., Williams, D. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision Bats
Best Management Practices for Bats in New Mexico Balistreri, M. January 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Aerial-Hawking Bats Can Glean Prey Items From Surfaces Similar to Wind Turbine Towers: Implications for Reducing Bat Fatalities at Wind Facilities Jarzombek, L. May 2016 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Bats
Surface Texture Discrimination by Bats: Implications for Reducing Bat Mortality at Wind Turbines Bienz, C. May 2016 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Bats
Surface Texture Differentiation Using Synthetic Bat Echolocation Calls: Implications for Reducing Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines Yuen, B. December 2015 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Bats
Evidence that Bats Perceive Wind Turbine Surfaces to be Water McAlexander, A. December 2013 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Bats
Bats, Bugs, and Wind Turbines - Is There a Connection? Cochran, C. May 2013 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Bats
Insect Attraction to Wind Turbines: Does Colour Play a Role? Long, C., Flint, J., Lepper, P. April 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Conservation Strategy Deuel Harvest North Wind Farm Deuel County, South Dakota Simon, S., Welch-Acosta, B. March 2019 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance Bats, Birds
Wind Farm Effects on Migratory Flight of Swans and Foraging Distribution at Their Stopover Site Moriguchi, S., et al. March 2019 Book Chapter Land-Based Wind Avoidance Shorebirds
Behavioral accommodation of nesting hawks to wind turbines Watson, J., Keren, I, Davies, R. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance Birds, Raptors
Do American Golden-Plovers (Pluvialis dominica) Avoid Wind-energy Turbines in Agricultural Fields in Indiana During Spring Migration? Homoya, W., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance Birds, Shorebirds
Estimating Potential Costs of Cumulative Barrier Effects on Migrating Raptors: A Case Study Using Global Positioning System Tracking in Japan Kikuchi, D., et al. March 2019 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance Birds, Raptors
Out of Sight of Wind Turbine-Reindeer Response to Wind Farms in Operation Skarin, A., Sandström, P, Alam, M. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance Terrestrial Mammals
Texturizing Wind Turbine Towers to Reduce Bat Mortality Bennett, V., Hale, A. July 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Bats
Evaluating a Novel Approach to Optimize Operational Minimization to Reduce Bat Fatalities at the Pinnacle Wind Farm, Mineral County, West Virginia, 2015 Schirmacher, M., et al. April 2018 Report Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Bats
Impact of wind turbines on bat activity: an ommited long-distance concern Barre, K., et al. February 2017 Presentation Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Canadian Estimate of Bird Mortality Due to Collisions and Direct Habitat Loss Associated with Wind Turbine Developments Zimmerling, J., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Bird and Bird Habitats: Guidelines for Wind Power Projects Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources December 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Testing the Effectiveness of an Experimental Acoustic Bat Deterrent at the Maple Ridge Wind Farm Horn, J., et al. June 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Upland Raptors and the Assessment of Wind Farm Impacts Madders, M., Whitfield, D. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Impacts on Wildlife and Government Responsibilities for Regulating Development and Protecting Wildlife Office, United States Government Accountability September 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
Wind Turbine Interactions with Birds and Bats: A Summary of Research Results and Remaining Questions National Wind Coordinating Committee November 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Ponnequin Wind Energy Project: Reference Site Avian Study Kerlinger, P., Curry, R., Ryder, R. April 2000 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Adverse Impacts of Wind Power Generation on Collision Behaviour of Birds and Anti-Predator Behaviour of Squirrels Kikuchi, R. March 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change, Noise Birds, Raptors, Nearfield Habitat, Terrestrial Mammals
The Effects of Wind Turbines on Antipredator Behavior in California Ground Squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) Rabin, L., Coss, R., Owings, D. August 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Noise Birds, Raptors, Ecosystem Processes, Terrestrial Mammals
Modeling the spatial effects of disturbance: a constructive critique to provide evidence of ecological thresholds Powell, L., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Differential Recovery of Habitat Use by Birds after Wind Farm Installation: A Multi-Year Comparison Farfan, M., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds
Negative Impact of Wind Energy Development on a Breeding Shorebird Assessed with a BACI Study Design Sansom, A., Pearce-Higgins, J., Douglas, D. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Shorebirds
Increased Flight Altitudes among Migrating Golden Eagles Suggest Turbine Avoidance at a Rocky Mountain Wind Installation Johnston, N., Bradley, J., Otter, K. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds
Behavior and Turbine Avoidance Rates of Eagles at Two Wind Farms in Tasmania, Australia Hull, C., Muir, S. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds
Is a Wind-Power Plant Acting as a Barrier for Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) Movements? Colman, J., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change N/A
Changes in the Abundance and Distribution of Upland Breeding Birds at an Operational Wind Farm Douglas, D., Bellamy, P., Pearce-Higgins, J. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Shorebirds
Avoidance Behavior by Prairie Grouse: Implications for Development of Wind Energy Pruett, C., Patten, M., Wolfe, D. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
It's Not Easy Being Green: Wind Energy and a Declining Grassland Bird Pruett, C., Patten, M., Wolfe, D. March 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Effects of Wind Turbines and Other Physical Elements on Field Utilization by Pink-Footed Geese (Anser brachyrhynchus): A Landscape Perspective Larsen, J., Madsen, J. December 2000 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
Wind turbines impact bat activity, leading to high losses of habitat use in a biodiversity hotspot Millon, L., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Bats
The Indirect Impacts of Wind Farms on Terrestrial Mammals: Insights from the Disturbance and Exclusion Effects on Wolves (Canis lupus) da Costa, G., et al. January 2018 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Terrestrial Mammals
Mammalian Mesocarnivore Visitation at Tortoise Burrows in a Wind Farm Agha, M., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Noise Reptiles, Terrestrial Mammals
Impact of substantial wind farms on the local and regional atmospheric boundary layer: Case study of Zhangbei wind power base in China Wang, Q., et al. September 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
The Iowa Atmospheric Observatory: Revealing the Unique Boundary Layer Characteristics of a Wind Farm Takle, E., Rajewski, D., Purdy, S. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Modelling the Effects of Wind Farming on the Local Weather Using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model Jawaheer, B., et al. January 2019 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Costs and consequences of wind turbine wake effects arising from uncoordinated wind energy development Lundquist, J., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Human Dimensions
Effects of wind farms on near-surface wind speed Xin, Z., et al. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow N/A
The Influence of Real‐World Wind Turbine Deployments on Local to Mesoscale Climate Pryor, S., Barthelmie, R., Shepherd, T. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
The VERTEX field campaign: observations of near-ground effects of wind turbine wakes Archer, C., et al. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow N/A
Meteorological and Hydrological Effect of Wind Farm in Arid Areas Yin, R., et al. January 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Changes in fluxes of heat, H2O, and CO2 caused by a large wind farm Rajewski, D., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Crop Wind Energy Experiment (CWEX): Observations of Surface-Layer, Boundary Layer, and Mesoscale Interactions with a Wind Farm Rajewski, D., et al. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Spatiotemporal Structure of Wind Farm-atmospheric Boundary Layer Interactions Cervarich, M., Roy, S., Zhou, L. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Further evidence of impacts of large-scale wind farms on land surface temperature Walsh-Thomas, J., et al. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Wind turbine impact on near-ground air temperature Moravec, D., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Detecting Wind Farm Impacts on Local Vegetation Growth in Texas and Illinois Using MODIS Vegetation Greenness Measurements Xia, G., Zhou, L. July 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Changes in Flow, Habitat Change N/A
Integrating Effects of Supplementary Feeding, Poisoning, Pollutant Ingestion and Wind Farms of Two Vulture Species in Spain using a Population Viability Analysis Garcia-Ripolles, C., Lopez, P. March 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Chemicals Birds, Raptors
Estimating the Potential Mortality of Griffon Vultures (Gyps fulvus) Due to Wind Energy Development on the Island of Crete (Greece) Xirouchakis, S., et al. March 2019 Book Chapter Land-Based Wind Collision Raptors
Testing efficacy of bird deterrents at wind turbine facilities: a pilot study in Nova Scotia, Canada Dorey, K., Dicky, S., Walker, T. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Evaluation of Wind‐Energy Survey Protocols for Migrating Eagle Detection Chabot, E., Slater, S. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Predicting Migratory Corridors of White Storks, Ciconia ciconia, to Enhance Sustainable Wind Energy Planning: A Data-Driven Agent-Based Model Oloo, F., Safi, K., Aryal, J. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Opportunistically collected data reveal habitat selection by migrating Whooping Cranes in the US Northern Plains Niemuth, N., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Mapping the global potential exposure of soaring birds to terrestrial wind energy expansion Santangeli, A., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Whooping Crane and Sandhill Crane Monitoring at Five Wind Energy Facilities Derby, C., Welsch, M., Thorn, T. January 2018 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Shorebirds
Reduced Breeding Success in White-Tailed Eagles at Smøla windfarm, Western Norway, is Caused by Mortality and Displacement Dahl, E., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Environmental and Ecological Impacts of Wind Energy on Humans: Public Health Issues Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Collision, EMF, Lighting, Noise Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
The Impacts of Small and Medium Wind Turbines on Bats Moyle, A. July 2016 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Using Stakeholder Input to Develop a Comparative Risk Assessment for Wildlife from the Life Cycles of Six Electrical Generation Fuels Zillioux, E., et al. July 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment, Stakeholder Engagement
Strategic Health Impact Assessment on Wind Energy Development in Oregon Joshi, S., et al. March 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change, Noise Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
No Evidence for Displacement of Wintering Red-breasted Geese Branta ruficollis (Pallas, 1769) (Anseriformes) at a Wind Farms Area in Northeast Bulgaria: Long-term Monitoring Results Zahtindjiev, P., et al. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement Birds, Waterfowl
Raptor Displacement Due to the Construction of a Wind Farm: Preliminary Results After the First 2 Years Since the Construction Campedelli, T., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement N/A
Post-construction Avian and Bat Fatality Monitoring and Grassland Bird Displacement Surveys at the Judith Gap Wind Energy Project, Wheatland County, Montana TRC Environmental Corporation January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Protocol for Investigating Displacement Effects of Wind Facilities on Grassland Songbirds Erickson, W., et al. February 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement Bats, Birds, Passerines
A long‐term assessment of raptor displacement at a wind farm Dohm, R., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement Birds, Raptors
Wind turbines cause functional habitat loss for migratory soaring birds Marques, A.,, et al. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement Raptors
Large-scale citizen science improves assessment of risk posed by wind farms to bats in southern Scotland Newson, S., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement Bats
An Analysis of Displacement from Wind Turbines in a Wintering Grassland Bird Community Stevens, T., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Habitat Utilization in White-Tailed Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) and the Displacement Impact of the Smøla Wind-Power Plant May, R., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Interpreting failure to reject the null hypothesis of displacement from wind turbines in three species of grassland birds: Response to Johnson (2016) Hale, A. July 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Passerines
No Evidence of Displacement due to Wind Turbines in Breeding Grassland Songbirds Hale, A., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Behavioural and Environmental Correlates of Soaring-Bird Mortality at On-Shore Wind Turbines Barrios, L., Rodríguez, A. February 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Red bat fatality: Geographic extents through deuterium and niche models Murtaugh, R., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Review of Raptor Sections of the Bluestone Wind Avian Risk Assessment Miller, T. March 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Patterns of Bat Fatalities at Wind Energy Facilities in North America Arnett, E., et al. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Understanding Wind Energy Impacts to Bats and Testing Reduction Strategies in South Texas Weaver, S. August 2019 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
A Synthesis of Operational Mitigation Studies to Reduce Bat Fatalities at Wind Energy Facilities in North America Arnett, E., et al. March 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Joint Fact Finding and Stakeholder Consensus Building at the Altamont Wind Resource Area in California Bartlett, G. July 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Discrimination Between Parametric Survival Models for Removal Times of Bird Carcasses in Scavenger Removal Trials at Wind Turbines Sites Bispo, R., et al. January 2013 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
The BIO-acoustic feature extraction and classification of bat echolocation calls Mirzaei, G., et al. May 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Fuzzy Clustering in Avian Infrared Imagery Application Mirzaei, G., et al. June 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Overview of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Avian Research Program Sinclair, K., Morrison, M. June 1997 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Proceedings of the National Avian - Wind Power Planning Meeting LGL April 1995 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Thresholds for Bats Killed by Wind Turbines Arnett, E., Barclay, R., Hein, C. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Bat Fatality at a Wind Energy Facility in the Western Cape, South Africa Aronson, J., Thomas, A., Jordaan, S. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Geographic Variation in Activity and Fatality of Migratory Bats at Wind Energy Facilities Baerwald, E., Barclay, R. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Applying Research to Conservation: Science-Based Strategies Can Save Bats at Wind Farms Baerwald, E., Barclay, R. June 2014 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
A Large-Scale Mitigation Experiment to Reduce Bat Fatalities at Wind Energy Facilities Baerwald, E., et al. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
A New Stochastic Dynamic Tool to Improve the Accuracy of Mortality Estimates for Bats Killed at Wind Farms Bastos, R., Santos, M., Cabral, J. November 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats

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