Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressorssort descending Receptors
Re-Established Stony Reef Attracts Harbour Porpoises Phocoena phocoena Mikkelsen, L., et al. May 2013 Journal Article N/A Attraction Marine Mammals
Burbo Bank Extension Offshore Wind Farm Volume 2: ES Biological Environment DONG Energy March 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Worldwide Synthesis and Analysis of Existing Information Regarding Environmental Effects of Alternative Energy Uses on the Outer Continental Shelf Michel, J., et al. July 2007 Report Marine Energy (General), Ocean Current, OTEC, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Physical Environment, Reptiles, Human Dimensions
Assessing Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms: Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the Future Bailey, H., Brookes, K., Thompson, P. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Noise Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Marine Mammals
A framework to evaluate the environmental impact of OCEAN energy devices Mendoza, E., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Ocean Current, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Noise Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, Nearfield Habitat, Physical Environment, Environmental Impact Assessment
Effects of Marine Windfarms on the Distribution of Fish, Shellfish and Marine Mammals in the Horns Rev Area Hoffmann, E., et al. May 2000 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, EMF, Habitat Change, Noise Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
North Atlantic Right Whales (Eubalaena glacialis) Ignore Ships but Respond to Alerting Stimuli Nowacek, D., Johnson, M., Tyack, P. February 2004 Journal Article N/A Attraction, Collision, Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and Wind Farms: A Case Study in the Dutch North Sea Scheidat, M., et al. June 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Marine Mammals
Behavioral responses of minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) to experimental fishing gear in a coastal environment Kot, B., et al. February 2012 Journal Article N/A Avoidance Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Pathways of Effects for Offshore Renewable Energy in Canada Isaacman, L., Daborn, G. December 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Changes in Flow, Chemicals, Collision, Displacement, EMF, Habitat Change, Lighting, Noise Birds, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Physical Environment, Reptiles, Human Dimensions
Short-Term Effects of the Construction of Wind Turbines on Harbour Porpoises at Horns Reef Tougaard, J., et al. April 2003 Report Offshore Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change, Noise Marine Mammals
Impact of pile-driving on Hector's dolphin in Lyttelton Harbour, New Zealand Leunissen, E., Rayment, W., Dawson, S. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Soundscape of an Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) hotspot before windfarm construction in the Pearl River Estuary, China: Do dolphin engage in noise avoidance and passive eavesdropping behavior? Wang, Z., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Offshore Wind Avoidance, Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Predicting the impacts of anthropogenic disturbances on marine populations Nabe-Nielsen, J., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Noise Marine Mammals
Disturbance of harbour porpoises during construction of the first seven offshore wind farms in Germany Brandt, M., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Noise Marine Mammals
Responses of bottlenose dolphins and harbor porpoises to impact and vibration piling noise during harbor construction Graham, I., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Marine Protected Areas and Offshore Wind Farms Sanders, N., Haynes, T., Goriup, P. March 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Noise Marine Mammals
Avoidance of Wind Farms by Harbour Seals is Limited to Pile Driving Activities Russell, D., et al. May 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Marine mammals and windfarms: Effects of alpha ventus on harbour porpoises Dähne, M., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Noise Marine Mammals
Underwater construction and operational noise at alpha ventus Betke, K. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Noise Marine Mammals
A Survey of Acoustic Harassment Device (AHD) Use in the Bay of Fundy, NB, Canada Johnston, D., Woodley, T. January 1998 Journal Article N/A Avoidance, Noise Marine Mammals
Environmental Risk Evaluation System - An Approach to Ranking Risk of Ocean Energy Development on Coastal and Estuarine Environments Copping, A., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow, Chemicals, Collision Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Proceedings of the Effects of Oil on Wildlife: Research, Rehabilitation, and General Concerns Massey, J. January 2007 Conference Paper N/A Chemicals Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Guide to the OCS Alternative Energy Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) US Deparment of the Interior, Minerals Management Service October 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Hydrodynamics of a Ship/Whale Collision Silber, G., Slutsky, J., Bettridge, S. May 2010 Journal Article N/A Collision Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Has Designating and Protecting Critical Habitat had an Impact on Endangered North Atlantic Right Whale Ship Strike Mortality? Mullen, K., Peterson, M., Todd, S. November 2013 Journal Article N/A Collision Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Monitoring of Marine Mammal Strandings Along French Coasts Reveals the Importance of Ship Strikes on Large Cetaceans: A Challenge for the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive Peltier, H., et al. July 2019 Journal Article N/A Collision Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Mechanics of the Right Whale Mandible: Full Scale Testing and Finite Element Analysis Tsukrov, I., et al. June 2009 Journal Article N/A Collision Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Risk of whale encounters with offshore renewable energy mooring lines and electrical cables Copping, A., Grear, M., Sanders, G. April 2018 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Entrapment Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Towards a Numerical Model to Simulate the Observed Displacement of Harbour Porpoises Phocoena phocoena Due to Pile Driving in Belgian Waters Haelters, J., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement, Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Request for advice about the displacement of marine mammals around operational offshore windfarms Alcock, P. October 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement, Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Short-Term Disturbance by a Commercial Two-Dimensional Seismic Survey does Not Lead to Long-Term Displacement of Harbour Porpoises Thompson, P., et al. November 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement, Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
The Influence of Underwater Data Transmission Sounds on the Displacement Behaviour of Captive Harbour Seals (Phoca vitulina) Kastelein, R., et al. April 2005 Journal Article N/A Displacement, Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Absolute Probability Estimates of Lethal Vessel Strikes to North Atlantic Right Whales in Roseway Basin, Scotian Shelf van der Hoop, J., Vanderlaan, A., Taggart, C. April 2012 Journal Article N/A Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Socio-economics, Navigation
Gross and Histologic Evidence of Sharp and Blunt Trauma in North Atlantic Right Whales (Eubalaena glacialis) Killed by Vessels Campbell-Malone, R., et al. March 2008 Journal Article N/A Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Socio-economics, Navigation
Large Whale Ship Strike Database Jensen, A., Silber, G. January 2004 Report N/A Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Methods Used During Gross Necropsy to Determine Watercraft-Related Mortality in the Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) Lightsey, J., et al. September 2006 Journal Article N/A Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
Using Ship Speed and Mass to Describe Potential Collision Severity with Whales: An Application of the Ship Traffic, Energy and Environment Model (STEEM) Wang, C., et al. January 2007 Report N/A Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Vessel Collisions with Whales: The Probability of Lethal Injury Based on Vessel Speed Vanderlaan, A., Taggart, C. January 2007 Journal Article N/A Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Socio-economics, Navigation
Argyll Array Windfarm Basking Shark Draft Chapter for Environmental Statement Booth, C., King, S., Lacey, C. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
Animal Reactions to Oncoming Vehicles: A Conceptual Review Lima, S., et al. January 2015 Journal Article N/A Dynamic Device Birds, Marine Mammals
Criteria and Case Definitions for Serious Injury and Death of Pinnipeds and Cetaceans Caused by Anthropogenic Trauma Moore, M., et al. April 2013 Journal Article N/A Dynamic Device, Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Minimizing wildlife impacts for offshore wind energy development: Winning tradeoffs for seabirds in space and cetaceans in time Best, B., Halpin, P. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Offshore Wind Farms and Marine Mammals: Impacts and Methodologies for Assessing Impacts Evans, P. February 2008 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Effects of EMFs from Undersea Power Cables on Elasmobranchs and other Marine Species Normandeau Associates, et al. May 2011 Report N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals
The Physics Of Geomagnetic-Field Transduction In Animals Winklhofer, M. November 2009 Journal Article N/A EMF Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
COWRIE 1.5 The Potential Effects of Electromagnetic Fields Generated by Sub-Sea Power Cables Associated with Offshore Wind Farm Developments on Electrically and Magnetically Sensitive Marine Organisms - A Review Gill, A., et al. July 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals
Compatibility of Magnetic Imprinting and Secular Variation Putman, N., Lohmann, K. July 2008 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Evidence that Fin Whales Respond to the Geomagnetic Field During Migration Walker, M., et al. July 1992 Journal Article N/A EMF Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Effects of EMFs from Underwater Power Cables on Elasmobranchs and Other Marine Species Tricas, T., Gill, A. May 2011 Report N/A EMF Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Environmental Assessment of Offshore Wind Power Generation near Rhode Island: Acoustic and Electromagnetic Effects on Marine Animals Miller, J., et al. October 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
The Impact of Offshore Wind Farms on the Marine Environment Steen, H., et al. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Static Device Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Review Report 2005: The Danish Offshore Wind Farm Demonstration Project: Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farms Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring DONG Energy, Vattenfall November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Ormonde Offshore Wind Farm 2010 Construction Environmental Monitoring Report Saunders, S. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Noise Birds, Waterfowl, Marine Mammals
Whale Entanglements With Submarine Telecommunication Cables Wood, M., Carter, L. October 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy (General) Entrapment Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Whales entangled in deep sea cables Heezen, B. January 1957 Journal Article N/A Entrapment Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Humpback Whales and Floating Offshore Wind Farm Animation Grear, M., et al. November 2018 Video Offshore Wind Entrapment Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Humpback Whale Encounter with Offshore Wind Mooring Lines and Inter-Array Cables Copping, A., Grear, M. October 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Entrapment Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Assessment of Entanglement Risk to Marine Megafauna due to Offshore Renewable Energy Mooring Systems Harnois, V., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Entrapment Marine Mammals
Understanding the Potential for Marine Megafauna Entanglement Risk from Marine Renewable Energy Developments Benjamins, S., et al. January 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Entrapment Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Modeling Wildlife Densities and Habitat Use Across Temporal and Spatial Scales on the Mid-Atlantic Continental Shelf: Annual Report for the First Budget Period Williams, K. April 2013 Report Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Getting it Right for the North Atlantic Right Whale (Eubalaena glacialis): A Last Opportunity for Effective Marine Spatial Planning? Petruny, L., Wright, A., Smith, C. August 2014 Journal Article N/A Habitat Change Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning, Navigation
Marine Mammals Trace Anthropogenic Structures at Sea Russell, D., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Negative Long Term Effects on Harbour Porpoises from a Large Scale Offshore Wind Farm in the Baltic - Evidence of Slow Recovery Teilmann, J., Carstensen, J. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Porpoises North of Sprogø Before, During and After Construction of an Offshore Wind Farm Tougaard, J., Carstensen, J. February 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Marine Mammals
A Characterization of Marine Mammals and Turtles in the Mid and North Atlantic Areas of the US Outer Continental Shelf Cetacean and Turtle Assessment Program June 1981 Report N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Reptiles
A Review and Inventory of Fixed Autonomous Recorders for Passive Acoustic Monitoring of Marine Mammals Sousa-Lima, R., et al. March 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals
A Review of Killer Whale Interactions with Other Marine Mammals: Predation to Co-existence Jefferson, T., Stacey, P., Baird, R. December 1991 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Abundance and Behaviour of Cetaceans and Basking Sharks in the Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Evans, P., Baines, M., Coppock, J. January 2011 Report N/A N/A Fish, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
An Evaluation of the Relationship Between Small Cetacean Tag Design and Attachment Durations: A Bioengineering Approach Hanson, M. May 2001 Thesis N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Analysis of Marine Environmental Monitoring Plan Data from the Robin Rigg Offshore Wind Farm, Scotland (Operational Year 1) Walls, R., et al. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Approaches to Marine Mammal Monitoring at Marine Renewable Energy Developments Macleod, K., et al. August 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
Assessment of the Environmental Impact of Offshore Wind-Farms OSPAR Commission January 2008 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Call and Component Evaluation for Improved Performance of Recognition of Killer Whale Individuals Nichols, N., et al. September 2010 Conference Paper N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Click Communication in Harbour Porpoises Phocoena phocoena Clausen, K., et al. January 2010 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Concerted Action for Offshore Wind Energy Deployment (COD): Overview of Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Energy Roth, E., Verhoef, L., Dingenouts, M. September 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Danish Offshore Wind Key Environmental Issues - A Follow-up Danish Energy Agency, et al. February 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Declining Survival Probability Threatens the North Atlantic Right Whale Caswell, H., Fujiwara, M., Brault, S. March 1999 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Design and Implementation of a Marine Animal Alert System to Support Marine Renewable Energy Deng, Z., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Echolocation in Marine Mammals Au, W., Hastings, M. January 2008 Book Chapter N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Ecological Research on Offshore Wind Farms: International Exchange of Experiences - Part A Zucco, C., et al. January 2006 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Effects from the Construction of Nysted Offshore Wind Farm on Seals in Rødsand Seal Sanctuary Based on Remote Video Monitoring Edrén, S., et al. June 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Effects of Wind Farms on Harbour Porpoise Behavior and Population Dynamics Nabe-Nielsen, J., et al. September 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Effects of the Nysted Offshore Wind Farm on Harbour Porpoises Tougaard, J., et al. July 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Estimated Field Metabolic Rates and Prey Requirements of Resident Killer Whales Noren, D. January 2011 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Evidence for Infanticide in Bottlenose Dolphins: An Explanation for Violent Interactions with Harbour Porpoises? Patterson, I., et al. July 1998 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Factors Influencing the Diving Behaviour of Fish Eating Killer Whales: Sex Differences and Diel and Interannual Variation in Diving Rates Baird, R., Hanson, M., Dill, L. April 2005 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
From Echolocation Clicks to Animal Density - Acoustic Sampling of Harbor Porpoises with Static Dataloggers Kyhn, L., et al. January 2012 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals
High Definition Imagery for Surveying Seabirds and Marine Mammals: A Review of Recent Trials and Development of Protocols Thaxter, C., Burton, N. November 2009 Report N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals
Localization of Southern Resident Killer Whales Using Two Star Arrays to Support Marine Renewable Energy Ren, H., et al. October 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Mandibular Fractures in Short-Finned Pilot Whales, Globicephala macrorhynchus Oremland, M., et al. January 2010 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Mid-Atlantic Marine Wildlife Surveys, Modeling, and Data: Workshop to Establish Coordination & Communication Brown-Saracino, J., Smith, C., Gilman, P. July 2013 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Modelling Harbour Porpoise Seasonal Density as a Function of the German Bight Environment: Implications for Management Gilles, A., et al. August 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
North Atlantic Right Whale Distribution and Seasonal Occurrence in Nearshore Waters off New Jersey, USA, and Implications for Management Whitt, A., Dudzinski, K., Laliberté, J. March 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Offshore Wind Farms and the Environment: Danish Experiences from Horns Rev and Nysted Danish Energy Authority November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary: Marine Mammals List National Marine Sanctuaries July 2004 Website N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Real-Time Monitoring for Beluga Whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in the Eagle River, Alaska using a PAMBuoy Detection System Gillespie, D., et al. May 2013 Report N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Potential Impacts of Ocean Energy Development on Marine Mammals in Oregon Davis, A. December 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Draft Recovery Plan for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica) National Marine Fisheries Service January 2013 Report N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Robin Rigg Offshore Wind Farm Marine Environmental Monitoring Plan (MEMP): Ecological Analysis Data Wells, R., Shenton, S. November 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Fish, Marine Mammals

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