Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers.


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Title Author* Date**sort descending Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
The Effects of Aero-Generators on Moorland Bird Populations in the Orkney Islands, Scotland Meek, E., et al. January 1993 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement Birds, Seabirds
Birds and Offshore Wind Farms: A Hot Topic in Marine Ecology Exo, K., Hüppop, O., Garthe, S. April 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Behavioural and Environmental Correlates of Soaring-Bird Mortality at On-Shore Wind Turbines Barrios, L., Rodríguez, A. February 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors
Bird Migration Studies and Potential Collision Risk with Offshore Wind Turbines Hüppop, O., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Passerines
The Effect of Avoidance Rates on Bird Mortality Predictions Made by Wind Turbine Collision Risk Models Chamberlain, D., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Assessing the Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds Drewitt, A., Langston, R. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Information Needs to Support Environmental Impact Assessments of the Effects of European Marine Offshore Wind Farms on Birds Fox, A., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Effects of Wind Turbines on Flight Behaviour of Wintering Common Eiders: Implications for Habitat Use and Collision Risk Larsen, J., Guillemette, M. April 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Seabirds
Ecological Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Bats: Questions, Research Needs, and Hypotheses Kunz, T., et al. August 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Bats
Collision Effects of Wind-power Generators and Other Obstacles on Birds Drewitt, A., Langston, R. June 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Contextualizing Avian Mortality: A Preliminary Appraisal of Bird and Bat Fatalities from Wind, Fossil-Fuel, and Nuclear Electricity Sovacool, B. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Bats, Birds
Influence of Behavior on Bird Mortality in Wind Energy Developments Smallwood, K., Rugge, L., Morrison, M. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Waterfowl
What is the Impact of Wind Farms on Birds? A Case Study in Southern Spain Farfan, M., et al. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement Birds
Bats are not birds and other problems with Sovacool's (2009) analysis of animal fatalities due to electricity generation Willis, C., et al. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision, Displacement Bats, Birds
Effects of Weather on Avian Migration at Proposed Ridgeline Wind Energy Sites Thomas, P., et al. May 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors
Dogs as a Tool to Improve Bird-Strike Mortality Estimates at Wind Farms Paula, J., et al. September 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement Birds
Effects of wind farms and food scarcity on a large scavenging bird species following an epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy Martinez-Abrain, A., et al. November 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors, Ecosystem Processes
Reduced Breeding Success in White-Tailed Eagles at Smøla windfarm, Western Norway, is Caused by Mortality and Displacement Dahl, E., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Habitat Use, Disturbance and Collision Risks for Bewick's Swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii Wintering Near a Wind Farm in the Netherlands Fijn, R., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
Weak Relationship Between Risk Assessment Studies and Recorded Mortality in Wind Farms Ferrer, M., et al. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors
Greater impacts of wind farms on bird populations during construction than subsequent operation: results of a multi-site and multi-species analysis Pearce-Higgins, J., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Research Priorities for Wind Energy and Migratory Wildlife Piorkowski, M., et al. April 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Bats, Birds
Direct human-caused mortality of birds: improving quantification of magnitude and assessment of population impact Loss, S., Will, T., Marra, P. September 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
An Overview of Monitoring for Raptors in Bulgaria Spasov, S., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement Birds
The avian and wildlife costs of fossil fuels and nuclear power Sovacool, B. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement Bats, Birds
A synthesis of human-related avian mortality in Canada Calvert, A., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Canadian Estimate of Bird Mortality Due to Collisions and Direct Habitat Loss Associated with Wind Turbine Developments Zimmerling, J., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Avian Collision Threat Assessment at 'Bhambarwadi Wind Farm Plateau' in Northern Western Ghats, India Pande, S., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Habitat Utilization in White-Tailed Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) and the Displacement Impact of the Smøla Wind-Power Plant May, R., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Bird Mortality at a Wind-Energy Facility near a Wetland of International Importance Grodsky, S., Jennelle, C., Drake, D. November 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Assessing Risk to Birds from Industrial Wind Energy Development via Paired Resource Selection Models Miller, T., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Differential Mortality of Birds Killed at Wind Farms in Northern Portugal Morinha, F., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Mapping Seabird Sensitivity to Offshore Wind Farms Bradbury, G., et al. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Assessing Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms: Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the Future Bailey, H., Brookes, K., Thompson, P. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Noise Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Marine Mammals
A Special Purpose: The Migratory Bird Treaty Act and Wind Energy Rose, R. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Behavior of Bats at Wind Turbines Cryan, P., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Changes in Flow, Collision, Displacement Bats
Nest Survival of Red-Winged Blackbirds in Agricultural Areas Developed for Wind Energy Gillespie, M., Dinsmore, S. December 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement Birds, Passerines
Reproductive output of Hen Harriers Circus cyaneus in relation to wind turbine proximity Fernandez-Bellon, D., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors
Environmental Risk Evaluation System - An Approach to Ranking Risk of Ocean Energy Development on Coastal and Estuarine Environments Copping, A., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Changes in Flow, Chemicals, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
How to Mitigate Impacts of Wind Farms on Bats? A Review of Potential Conservation Measures in the European Context Peste, F., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Bats
Ecological Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds: Questions, Hypotheses, and Research Needs Wang, S., Wang, S., Smith, P. April 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Direct Mortality of Birds from Anthropogenic Causes Loss, S., Will, T., Marra, P. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Avian Collision Risk Models for Wind Energy Impact Assessments Masden, E., Cook, A. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
A Theoretical Approach to Estimating Bird Risk of Collision with Wind Turbines Where Empirical Flight Activity Data Are Lacking Furness, R., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Collision, Displacement Birds
Do Terrestrial Animals Avoid Areas Close to Turbines in Functioning Wind Farms in Agricultural Landscapes? Łopucki, R., Klich, D., Gielarek, S. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
Bird and Bat Species' Global Vulnerability to Collision Mortality at Wind Farms Revealed Through a Trait-Based Assessment Thaxter, C., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Bats, Birds
The energy landscape predicts flight height and wind turbine collision hazard in three species of large soaring raptor Peron, G., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors
Impacts of onshore wind energy production on birds and bats: recommendations for future life cycle impact assessment developments Laranjeiro, T., May, R., Verones, F. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Combining radar and direct observation to estimate pelican collision risk at a proposed wind farm on the Cape west coast, South Africa Jenkins, A., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Waterfowl
Estimating habitat loss due to wind turbine avoidance by bats: Implications for European siting guidance Barre, K., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats
Collision and displacement vulnerability to offshore wind energy infrastructure among marine birds of the Pacific Outer Continental Shelf Kelsey, E., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Effectiveness of a mitigation measure for the lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) in wind farms in Spain Pescador, M., Ramírez, J., Peris, S. February 2019 Journal Article Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Future Directions in Conservation Research on Petrels and Shearwaters Rodríguez, A., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
The impact of wind energy facilities on grouse: a systematic review Coppes, J., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
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