Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptorssort descending
Avian interactions with renewable energy infrastructure: An update Smith, J., Dwyer, J. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Observation of Sandhill Cranes' (Grus canadensis) Flight Behavior in Heavy Fog Kirsch, E., et al. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Nocturnal migrants do not incur higher collision risk at wind turbines than diurnally active species Welcker, J., et al. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Opportunistically collected data reveal habitat selection by migrating Whooping Cranes in the US Northern Plains Niemuth, N., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Mapping the global potential exposure of soaring birds to terrestrial wind energy expansion Santangeli, A., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Scavenger removal of bird carcasses at simulated wind turbines: Does carcass type matter? DeVault, T., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Testing for errors in estimating bird mortality rates at wind farms and power lines Farfan, M., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Predicting bird collisions with wind turbines: Comparison of the new empirical Flux Collision Model with the SOSS Band model Kleyheeg-Hartman, J., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Assessment of Diurnal Wind Turbine Collision Risk for Grassland Birds on the Southern Great Plains Wulff, S., Butler, M., Ballard, W. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Assessing bird avoidance of high-contrast lights using a choice test approach: implications for reducing human-induced avian mortality Goller, B., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general Lighting Birds
Improving estimation of flight altitude in wildlife telemetry studies Poessel, S., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Estimation of bird fatalities caused by wind turbines in Turkey Arikan, K., Turan, S. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Bird collisions at an offshore platform in the North Sea Hüppop, O., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Minimal effects of wind turbines on the distribution of wintering farmland birds Devereux, C., Denny, M., Whittingham, M. October 2008 Journal Article Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Attraction of nocturnally migrating birds to artificial light: The influence of colour, intensity and blinking mode under different cloud cover conditions Rebke, M., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Lighting Birds
Via Pontica-Myth and Reality for Birds and Wind Turbines Manev, T., Zehtindjiev, P. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Effect of wind turbines on bird abundance: A national scale analysis based on fixed effects models Miao, R., et al. September 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Effect of anthropogenic light on bird movement, habitat selection, and distribution: A systematic map protocol Adams, C., et al. June 2019 Journal Article N/A Lighting Birds
A Comparison of Nocturnal Call Counts of Migrating Birds and Reflectivity Measurements on Doppler Radar Farnsworth, A., Gauthreaux, S. Jr., Blaricom, D. January 2004 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Adjustments of Wingbeat Frequency and Air Speed to Air Density in Free-Flying Migratory Birds Schmaljohann, H., Liechti, F. August 2009 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Aerial Survey of Seabirds: The Advent of Digital Methods Buckland, S., et al. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Assessing the Impact of Marine Wind Farms on Birds through Movement Modelling Masden, E., et al. May 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Assessing the Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds Drewitt, A., Langston, R. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Assessing Vulnerability of Marine Bird Populations to Offshore Wind Farms Furness, R., Wade, H., Masden, E. April 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Automatic Identification of Bird Targets with Radar via Patterns Produced by Wing Flapping Zaugg, S., et al. September 2008 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Bird Disturbance: Improving the Quality and Utility of Disturbance Research Hill, D., et al. January 1997 Journal Article N/A Static Device Birds
Birds and Wind Projects Across the Pond: A UK Perspective Rowena, H., Langston, W. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Collision Effects of Wind-power Generators and Other Obstacles on Birds Drewitt, A., Langston, R. June 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Evaluating the Statistical Power of Detecting Changes in the Abundance of Seabirds at Sea Maclean, I., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Green Light For Nocturnally Migrating Birds Poot, H., et al. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Lighting Birds
The Effects of Light Characteristics on Avian Mortality at Lighthouses Jones, J., Francis, C. November 2003 Journal Article N/A Lighting Birds
Map of Bird Sensitivities to Wind Farms in Scotland: A Tool to Aid Planning and Conservation Bright, J., et al. September 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Modeling Carcass Removal Time for Avian Mortality Assessment in Wind Farms Using Survival Analysis Bispo, R., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Monitoring Bird Migration with a Fixed-Beam Radar and a Thermal-Imaging Camera Gauthreaux, S. Jr., Livingston, J. May 2006 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Night Migrant Fatalities And Obstruction Lighting At Wind Turbines In North America Kerlinger, P., et al. December 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Lighting Birds
Radar Monitoring of Migrating Pink-Footed Geese: Behavioural Responses to Offshore Wind Farm Development Plonczkier, P., Simms, I. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Remote Sensing Image Data and Automated Analysis to Describe Marine Bird Distributions and Abundances Groom, G., et al. March 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Remote Techniques for Counting and Estimating the Number of Bird-Wind Turbine Collisions at Sea: A Review Desholm, M., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Seabird Aggregative Patterns: A New Tool for Offshore Wind Energy Risk Assessment Christel, I., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Spatial Factors Affecting Statistical Power in Testing Marine Fauna Displacement Lapeña, B., et al. October 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Understanding Bird Collisions With Man-made Objects: A Sensory Ecology Approach Martin, G. March 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Using a Shore Bird (Red Knot) Fitted with Geolocators to Evaluate a Conceptual Risk Model Focusing on Offshore Wind Burger, J., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Wingbeat Frequency of Birds in Steady Cruising Flight: New Data and Improved Predictions Pennycuick, C. March 1996 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Individual Consistency in the Foraging Behaviour of Northern Gannets: Implications for Interactions with Offshore Renewable Energy Developments Soanes, L., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Soaring Migratory Birds Avoid Wind Farm in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Southern Mexico Villegas-Patraca, R., Cabrera-Cruz, S., Herrera-Alsina, L. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Bird Migration Flight Altitudes Studied by a Network of Operational Weather Radars Dokter, A., et al. June 2010 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Bird Radar Validation in the Field by Time-Referencing Line-Transect Surveys Dokter, A., et al. September 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Comparing Transect Survey and WSR-88D Radar Methods for Monitoring Daily Changes in Stopover Migrant Communities Fischer, R., et al. February 2012 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
A Spatial Conservation Prioritization Approach for Protecting Marine Birds Given Proposed Offshore Wind Energy Development Winiarski, K., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Modelling the Spatial Concentrations of Bird Migration to Assess Conflicts with Wind Turbines Liechti, F., Guélat, J., Komenda-Zehnder, S. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Renewable Energy Developments in an Uncertain World: The Case of Offshore Wind and Birds in the UK Masden, E., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Mapping Seabird Sensitivity to Offshore Wind Farms Bradbury, G., et al. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Great Skua (Stercorarius skua) Movements at Sea in Relation to Marine Renewable Energy Developments Wade, H., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Mitigating Wind-Turbine Induced Avian Mortality: Sensory, Aerodynamic and Cognitive Constraints and Options May, R., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Understanding Bird Collisions at Wind Farms: An Updated Review on the Causes and Possible Mitigation Strategies Marques, A., et al. November 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Habitat Use and Selection of Black Scoters in Southern New England and Siting of Offshore Wind Energy Facilities Loring, P., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Symbiotic Offshore Energy Harvesting and Storage Systems Slocum, A. September 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Predicting Spatial Patterns of Eagle Migration using a Mesoscale Atmospheric Model: A Case Study Associated with a Mountain-Ridge Wind Development Ainslie, B., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Preliminary survey of avifauna around wind farm of Jangi region, Kutch District, Gujarat, India Ali, A., et al. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Estimating the Indirect Impact of Wind Farms on Breeding Bird Assemblages: A Case Study in the Central Apennines Battisti, C., et al. August 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Predicting and Mapping Potential Whooping Crane Stopover Habitat to Guide Site Selection for Wind Energy Projects Belaire, J., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Wind Turbine Fatalities Approach a Level of Concern in a Raptor Population Bellebaum, J., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Effect of Wind Turbine Proximity on Nesting Success in Shrub-nesting Birds Bennett, V., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Experimental Evidence for the Effects of Chronic Anthropogenic Noise on Abundance of Greater Sage-Grouse at Leks Blickley, J., Blackwood, D., Patricelli, G. May 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Birds
Experimental Chronic Noise Is Related to Elevated Fecal Corticosteroid Metabolites in Lekking Male Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) Blickley, J., et al. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Birds
Optimizing Wind Power Generation while Minimizing Wildlife Impacts in an Urban Area Bohrer, G., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Spatial Overlap of Wind Farms on Peatland with Sensitive Areas for Birds Bright, J., et al. September 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
The prosecutor's vulture: inconsistent MBTA prosecution, its clash with wind farms, and how to fix it Brunner, S. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Post-Construction Avian Mortality Monitoring at Project West Wind Bull, L., Fuller, S., Sim, D. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Diurnal and nocturnal ranging behaviour by moorland-breeding Short-eared Owls Asio flammeus in Scotland Calladine, J., Morrison, N. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Wind Farm Location and Environmental Impact Clarke, A. January 1989 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise, Static Device Birds
Common Raven Occurrence in Relation to Energy Transmission Line Corridors Transiting Human-Altered Sagebrush Steppe Coates, P., et al. December 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
The Influence of Group Size and Social Interactions on Collision Risk with Obstacles Croft, S., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
White-Tailed Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) at the Smøla Wind-Power Plant, Central Norway, Lack Behavioral Flight Responses to Wind Turbines Dahl, E., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Using Wind Tunnels to Predict Bird Mortality in Wind Farms: The Case of Griffon Vultures de Lucas, M., Ferrer, M., Janss, G. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
A Bird and Small Mammal BACI and IG Design Studies in a Wind Farm in Malpica (Spain) de Lucas, M., Janss, G., Ferrer, M. December 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Measuring the Insecurity Index of species in networks of protected areas using species distribution modeling and fuzzy logic: The case of raptors in Andalusia Diaz-Gomez, D., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Estimating the Ability of Birds to Sustain Additional Human-Caused Mortalities Using a Simple Decision Rule and Allometric Relationships Dillingham, P., Fletcher, D. July 2008 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
Upland Land use Predicts Population Decline in a Globally Near-Threatened Wader Douglas, D., et al. February 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Modelled Sensitivity of Avian Collision Rate at Wind Turbines Varies with Number of Hours of Flight Activity Input Data Douglas, D., et al. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
A Comprehensive Analysis of Small-Passerine Fatalities from Collision with Turbines at Wind Energy Facilities Erickson, W., et al. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Hidden Markov Models for Estimating Animal Mortality from Anthropogenic Hazards Etterson, M. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Wind Turbines and Migratory Birds: Avoiding a Collision Between the Energy Industry and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act Evans, R. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Collision Risk and Micro-Avoidance Rates of Birds with Wind Turbines in Flanders Everaert, J. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Is Male-Biased Collision Mortality of Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) in Florida Associated with Flock Behavior Folk, M., Dellinger, T., Leone, E. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Nest Survival of Red-Winged Blackbirds in Agricultural Areas Developed for Wind Energy Gillespie, M., Dinsmore, S. December 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Bird Mortality at a Wind-Energy Facility near a Wetland of International Importance Grodsky, S., Jennelle, C., Drake, D. November 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
The Effects of a Large-Scale Wind Farm on Breeding Season Survival of Female Mallards and Blue-Winged Teal in the Prairie Pothole Region Gue, C., et al. August 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
No Evidence of Displacement due to Wind Turbines in Breeding Grassland Songbirds Hale, A., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Wind Turbines do Not Negatively Affect Nest Success in the Dickcissel (Spiza americana) Hatchett, W., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
A Preliminary Overview of Monitoring for Raptors in Sweden Hellstrom, P., Helander, B. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
The Potential Distribution of the Red Kite in Germany Heuck, C., et al. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Evidence of Negative Effects of Anthropogenic Structures on Wildlife: A Review of Grouse Survival and Behaviour Hovick, T., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Behavior and Turbine Avoidance Rates of Eagles at Two Wind Farms in Tasmania, Australia Hull, C., Muir, S. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Avian Collisions at Two Wind Farms in Tasmania, Australia: Taxonomic and Ecological Characteristics of Colliders Versus Non-Colliders Hull, C., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
A Comment on Novel Scavenger Removal Trials Increase Wind Turbine-Caused Avian Fatality Estimates Huso, M., Erickson, W. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Flight Paths of Migrating Golden Eagles and the Risk Associated with Wind Energy Development in the Rocky Mountains Johnson, N., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Increased Flight Altitudes among Migrating Golden Eagles Suggest Turbine Avoidance at a Rocky Mountain Wind Installation Johnston, N., Bradley, J., Otter, K. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
The Remote Environmental Assessment Laboratory's Acoustic Library: An Archive for Studying Soundscape Ecology Kasten, E., et al. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Birds
Topography drives migratory flight altitude of golden eagles: implications for on-shore wind energy development Katzner, T., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds

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