Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Typessort descending Stressors Receptors
Burbo Bank Extension Offshore Wind Farm: Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Report Sørensen, T., et al. July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
East Anglia TWO Offshore Windfarm Scoping Report ScottishPower Renewables November 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Report on the Implications for European Sites Proposed Walney Extension Offshore Wind Farm The Planning Inspectorate for England and Wales April 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Report on the Implications for European Sites Proposed Burbo Bank Extension Offshore Wind Farm The Planning Inspectorate for England and Wales February 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Report on the Implications for European Sites Proposed Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Offshore Wind Farm UK Planning Inspectorate July 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Report on the Implications for European Sites Proposed Dogger Bank Teesside A & B Offshore Wind Farm The Planning Inspectorate for England and Wales December 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
East Anglia ONE North Offshore Windfarm Scoping Report ScottishPower Renewables November 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Report on the Implication for European Sites Proposed East Anglia ONE Offshore Windfarm The Planning Inspectorate for England and Wales November 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Report on the Implications for European Sites Proposed Hornsea Offshore Wind Farm (Zone 4) - Project One UK Planning Inspectorate March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Report on the Implications for European Sites Proposed Hornsea Offshore Wind Farm (Zone 4) - Project Two The Planning Inspectorate for England and Wales November 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Report on the Implications for European Sites Proposed Navitus Bay Wind Park UK Planning Inspectorate February 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Norfolk Boreas Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Report Royal Haskoning March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Norfolk Vanguard Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Report Royal Haskoning October 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Thanet Extension Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Impact Assessment Report to Inform Scoping Royal Haskoning December 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Triton Knoll Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Report Wilson, M., Ireland, P. July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Rampion Offshore Wind Farm - Scoping Report RSK Environment September 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Kentish Flats Offshore Wind Farm Extension Environmental Scoping Study Royal Haskoning October 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Hornsea Project Three Offshore Wind Farm RPS Group March 2018 Website Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
A Conceptual Model to Determine Vulnerability of Wildlife Populations to Offshore Wind Energy Development Goodale, M., Stenhouse, J. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics
Building a stakeholder's vision of an offshore wind-farm project: A group modeling approach Château, P., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Commercial Wind Lease Issuance and Site Characterization Activities on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Offshore New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement July 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Evaluating Digital VHF Technology to Monitor Shorebird and Seabird Use of Offshore Wind Energy Areas in the Western North Atlantic Loring, P. September 2016 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Taiwanese white dolphins and offshore wind farms Tougaard, J., Mikaelsen, M. December 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Cape Wind Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Diver Survey Woods Hole Group, Inc. July 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Revised Navigational Risk Assessment ESS Group, Inc. November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment, Navigation
Tern Observations Near Monomoy Island ESS Group December 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Analysis of Effects of Wind Turbine Generator Array for the Alternative Site of the Cape Wind Energy Project Swanson, C., Subbayya, S. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment
Simulation of Sediment Transport and Deposition from Cable Burial Operations for the Alternative Site of the Cape Wind Energy Project Swanson, C., Isaji, T. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment
Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Investigation of the Cape Wind Energy Project ESS Group August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Final Underwater Noise Analysis of Cape Wind Energy Project ESS Group January 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Long-tailed Duck Report, Winter 2005-2006 ESS Group September 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Fisheries Data Report South of Tuckernuck Area ESS Group September 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Fishing
Draft Fisheries Report of Cape Wind Energy Project ESS Group, Battelle September 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Fishing
Feasibility and LCA for a Wave Dragon platform with wind turbines Soerensen, H.C., et al. June 2016 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Collision Risk Model for "rufa" Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa) Interacting with a Proposed Offshore Wind Energy Facility in Nantucket Sound, Massachusetts Gordon, C., Nations, C. January 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Shorebirds
Evaluation of Lighting Schemes for Offshore Wind Facilities and Impacts to Local Environments Orr, T., Herz, S., Oakley, D. August 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Lighting N/A
Determining Night-Time Distribution of Long-Tailed Ducks Using Satellite Telemetry Allison, T., Perkins, S., Perry, M. March 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Quantifying avian avoidance of offshore wind turbines: Current evidence and key knowledge gaps Aonghais, S., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Exploitation of Offshore Wind Energy Lüdeke, J. January 2018 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
National Offshore Wind Strategy: Facilitating the Development of the Offshore Wind Industry in the United States Gilman, P., et al. September 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
The sustainable worldwide offshore wind energy potential: A systematic review Keivanpour, S., Ramudhin, A., Kadi, D. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
A portfolio model for siting offshore wind farms with economic and environmental objectives Cranmer, A., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics
The factors affecting stakeholders' acceptance of offshore wind farms along the western coast of Taiwan: Evidence from stakeholders' perceptions Chen, J., et al. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
The potential of offshore windfarms to act as marine protected areas – A systematic review of current evidence Ashley, M., Mangi, S., Rodwell, L. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Short-term effects of fishery exclusion in offshore wind farms on macrofaunal communities in the Belgian part of the North Sea Coates, D., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Swimming Behavior of Roach (Rutilus rutilus) and Three-spined Stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in Response to Wind Power Noise and Single-tone Frequencies Andersson, M., et al. December 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Emissions from corrosion protection systems of offshore wind farms: Evaluation of the potential impact on the marine environment Kirchgeorg, T., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals N/A
First in situ evidence of wakes in the far field behind offshore wind farms Platis, A., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Farfield Environment
Measuring sensitivity of two OSPAR indicators for a coastal food web model under offshore wind farm construction Raoux, A., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Estimating Seabird Flight Height using LiDAR Cook, A., et al. August 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Environmental Impacts and Economics of Offshore Wind Energy Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Fisheries, the environment and offshore wind farms: location, location, location Johnson, M., Rodmell, D. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Fishing
NEPA Review of Offshore Wind Farms: Ensuring Emission Reduction Benefits Outweigh Visual Impacts Bisbee, D. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Final Environmental Assessment LEEDCo Project Icebreaker Lake Erie, City of Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, Ohio Parker, R., et al. September 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Appendix I Aquatic Ecological Resource Characterization and Impact Assessment LimnoTech January 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Appendix J WEST NEXRAD Analysis: Assessment of Nocturnal Bird Migration Activity from Weather Radar Data for the Proposed Icebreaker Wind Energy Facility, Lake Erie, Ohio Nations, C., Gordon, C. January 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Appendix K Tetra Tech Bird Survey Report: Spring - Fall 2010 Avian and Bat Studies Report Lake Erie Wind Power Study Svedlow, A., Gilpatrick, L., McIlvain, D. July 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Appendix L-1 WEST Summary of Risks to Birds and Bats Gordon, C., Erickson, W. November 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Appendix L-2 WEST Bird and Bat Annual Report 2018 Gordon, C., et al. February 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Appendix M-1 Biological Assessment for Project Icebreaker EDR, D.P.C. September 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Appendix E-1 LimnoTech Report - Results of 2016 Aquatic Sampling LimnoTech March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Appendix E-2 LimnoTech Report - Results of 2017 Aquatic Sampling LimnoTech February 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Offshore Wind Energy: Understanding Impacts on Great Lakes Fishery and Other Aquatic Resources GLWC, GLC March 2013 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Appendix O Summary of Current Information Related to Electromagnetic Field Impacts on Fish and LEEDCo Proposed Transmission Cable Verhamme, E., Daley, J., Peterson, G. June 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Fish
East Anglia THREE: Preliminary Environmental Information Report (PEIR) Royal Haskoning May 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
The social dynamics of turbine tourism and recreation: Introducing a mixed-method approach to the study of the first U.S. offshore wind farm Smith, H., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Recreation
Cumulative Adverse Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Development on Wildlife [Thesis] Goodale, M. September 2018 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Methodologies for measuring and assessing potential changes in marine mammal behaviour, abundance or distribution arising from the construction, operation and decommissioning of offshore windfarms Diederichs, A., et al. June 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
Investigations into the effects of pile driving at the offshore wind farm Horns Rev II and the FINO III research platform Brandt, M., Diederichs, A., Nehls, G. July 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Do man-made structures and water depth affect the diel rhythms in click recordings of harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena)? Brandt, M., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals
Potential Interaction Analysis of Offshore Wind Energy Areas and Breeding Avian Species on the US Mid-Atlantic Coast Wisman, J. September 2018 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Effects of larger turbines for the offshore wind farm at Krieger's Flak, Sweden. Assessment of impact on marine mammals Tougaard, J., Mikaelsen, M. October 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Cool Rationalities and Hot Air: A Rhetorical Approach to Understanding Debates on Renewable Energy Barry, J., Ellis, G., Robinson, C. May 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Nocturnal flight activity of northern gannets Morus bassanus and implications for modelling collision risk at offshore wind farms Furness, R., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Offshore Windfarms Severinsen, G. January 2018 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Co-location of passive gear fisheries in offshore wind farms in the German EEZ of the North Sea: A first socio-economic scoping Stelzenmüller, V., et al. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Fishing
The potential influence of Robin Rigg Wind Farm on the abundance of adult and juvenile Atlantic salmon Thorley, J. February 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Underwater noise levels of pile-driving in a New Zealand harbour, and the potential impacts on endangered Hector's dolphins Leunissen, E., Dawson, S. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Pelagic effects of offshore wind farm foundations in the stratified North Sea Floeter, J., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment, Fish
Structure-Borne Wave Radiation by Impact and Vibratory Piling in Offshore Installations: From Sound Prediction to Auditory Damage Tsouvalas, A., Metrikine, A. August 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Effect of pile-driving sounds on harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) hearing Kastelein, R., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Swimming Speed of a Harbor Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) During Playbacks of Offshore Pile Driving Sounds Kastelein, R., Van de Voorde, S., Jennings, N. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Telemetry for migratory bats - a feasibility study Lagerveld, S., et al. February 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats
Bat Flight Analysis around Wind Turbines - A Feasibility Study Lagerveld, S., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats
Investigations of the Bird Collision Risk and the Responses of Harbour Porpoises in the Offshore Wind Farms Horns Rev, North Sea, and Nysted, Baltic Sea, in Denmark - Part II: Harbour porpoises Diederichs,A., Hennig, V., Nehls, G. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals
Current situation of offshore development in Germany and environmentally sound expansion of offshore wind energy van Leusen, S. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Conservation features: Sensitive species and habitats in the German Exclusive Economic Zone Krause, J. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Effects of the alpha ventus offshore test site on pelagic fish Krägefsky, S. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Fish
Effects of the alpha ventus offshore test site on distribution patterns, behaviour and flight heights of seabirds Mendel, B., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Marine habitat modelling for harbour porpoises in the German Bight Skov, H., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
Noise mitigation systems and low-noise installation technologies Verfuß, T. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Cumulative impacts of offshore windfarms Damian, H., Merck, T. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment
A first approach to deal with cumulative effects on birds and bats of offshore wind farms and other human activities in the Southern North Sea Leopold, M., et al. January 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Seabirds
Iteration cycle: Dealing with peaks in counts of birds following active fishing vessels when assessing cumulative effects of offshore wind farms and other human activities in the Southern North Sea Leopold, M., et al. March 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
2nd Iteration: Effect of turbine capacity on collision numbers for three large gull species, based on revised density data, when assessing cumulative effects of offshore wind farms on birds in the southern North Sea van der Wal, J., et al. May 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Do migrating birds avoid offshore wind turbines? A method to investigate and analyze reactions of diurnally migrating birds to offshore wind farms Aumuller, R., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Effects of offshore wind farms on birds: "Cuisinarts of the sky" or just tilting at windmills? Tingley, M. March 2003 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Seabirds
Micrometeorological impacts of offshore wind farms as seen in observations and simulations Siedersleben, S., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment
Environmental benefits of leaving offshore infrastructure in the ocean Fowler, A., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device N/A
Consideration of scales in offshore wind environmental impact assessments Ryan, K., Danylchuk, A., Jordaan, A. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment

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