Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Titlesort ascending Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Eastern Pipistrelle (Perimyotis subflavus) Species Guidance Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources September 2013 Report N/A N/A Bats
East Inshore and East Offshore Marine Plans Marine Management Organisation April 2014 Report N/A N/A Socio-economics
East Inshore and East Offshore Marine Plan Areas Evidence and Issues: Overview Report Marine Management Organisation January 2012 Report N/A N/A Socio-economics
East Anglia TWO Offshore Windfarm Scoping Report ScottishPower Renewables November 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
East Anglia THREE: Preliminary Environmental Information Report (PEIR) Royal Haskoning May 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
East Anglia ONE Offshore Windfarm: Environmental Statement Environmental Resource Management November 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
East Anglia ONE North Offshore Windfarm Scoping Report ScottishPower Renewables November 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Early Development of the Subtidal Marine Biofouling on a Concrete Offshore Windmill Foundation on the Thornton Bank (Southern North Sea): First Monitoring Results Kerckhof, F., et al. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Eagles and Wind Energy: Identifying Research Priorities Allison, T. May 2012 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds, Raptors
Eagle Take Minimization System Petr, R., Knag, J., Laufer, E. March 2018 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds, Raptors
Eagle Owl and Wind Power development at Karmøy, Western Norway Rov, N., Jacobsen, K. March 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance: Module 1 Land-based Wind Energy US Fish and Wildlife Service April 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Dønnesfjord Windpark, Hasvik Municipality: Impact Assessment, Evaluation of Natural Environment Jacobsen, K., Borg, L., Johnsen, T. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment, Terrestrial Mammals
Dynamics of Scour Pits and Scour Protection - Synthesis Report and Recommendations Whitehouse, R., Harris, J., Rees, J. January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Dynamic Measurements of Pile Deflections as a Source of Underwater Sound Emissions during Impact Driving of Offshore Pile Foundations Kuhn, C., et al. November 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
DTBird System Pilot Installation in Sweden. Possibilities for Bird Monitoring Systems around Wind Farms. Experiences from Sweden's First DTBird Installation Litsgård, F., et al. December 2016 Report Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Draft Recovery Plan for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica) National Marine Fisheries Service January 2013 Report N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Draft Guidelines for the Review and Evaluation of Potential Natural Resources Impacts from Utility-Scale Wind Energy Facilities in Vermont Agency of Natural Resources April 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Draft Guidance for Assessing the Effects of Anthropogenic Sound on Marine Mammals: Acoustic Threshold Levels for Onset of Permanent and Temporary Threshold Shifts National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration December 2013 Report N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement for Procurement of Offshore Wind New York State Department of Public Service, Ecology and Environment, Inc. February 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Draft Fisheries Report of Cape Wind Energy Project ESS Group, Battelle September 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Fishing
Draft Black Oak & Getty Wind Avian and Bat Protection Plan Black Oak Wind, Getty Wind Company February 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Draft Bat Monitoring Studies at the Fowler Ridge Wind Farm Benton County, Indiana: August 3 - Octoboer 12, 2016 Good, R., et al. January 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Draft Avian and Bat Post-Construction Monitoring Plan: Raleigh Wind Farm, Invenergy Canada Dillon Consulting April 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Doppler Lidar-Based Wind-Profile Measurement System for Offshore Wind Energy and Other Marine Boundary Layer Applications Pichugina, Y., et al. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Dogs as a Tool to Improve Bird-Strike Mortality Estimates at Wind Farms Paula, J., et al. September 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 29: Noise and Vibration Wigham, S. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 22: Socio-Economics Beeden, D. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 15: Commercial Fisheries Brown & May Marine March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 14: Marine Mammals Mackey, B., Keenan, G. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 13: Fish and Shellfish Ecology Brown & May Marine March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 12: Marine and Intertidal Ecology Lewis, J. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 11: Marine and Coastal Ornithology Thornton, P. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 10: Marine Water and Sediment Quality Page, C. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Does the Wind Power Industry Threaten Marbled Murrelets or Do Marbled Murrelets Threaten the Wind Power Industry? Cooper, J., Beauchesne, S. March 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Does more wind energy influence the choice of location for wind power development? Assessing the cumulative effects of daily wind turbine encounters in Denmark Ladenburg, J. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Dodging the blades: new insights into three-dimensional space use of offshore wind farms by lesser black-backed gulls Larus fuscus Thaxter, C., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds, Seabirds
Do You Hear What I See? Vocalization Relative to Visual Detection Rates of Hawaiian Hoary Bats (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) Gorresen, P., et al. September 2017 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Do you hear what I hear? Implications of detector selection for acoustic monitoring of bats Adams, A., et al. September 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Bats
Do Windmill Parks Function as a Refugium? Derweduwen, J., et al. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
Do wind turbines impact plant community properties in mountain region? Pătru-Stupariu, I., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change N/A
Do tidal stream energy projects offer more value than offshore wind farms? A case study in the United Kingdom Lamy, J., Azevedo, I. February 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Do Terrestrial Animals Avoid Areas Close to Turbines in Functioning Wind Farms in Agricultural Landscapes? Łopucki, R., Klich, D., Gielarek, S. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
Do migrating birds avoid offshore wind turbines? A method to investigate and analyze reactions of diurnally migrating birds to offshore wind farms Aumuller, R., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Do Marine Mammals Experience Stress Related to Anthropogenic Noise? Wright, A., et al. January 2007 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Do man-made structures and water depth affect the diel rhythms in click recordings of harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena)? Brandt, M., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals
Do human activity and infrastructure disturb domesticated reindeer? The need for the reindeer’s perspective Skarin, A., Åhman, B. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance Terrestrial Mammals
Do Habitat Characteristics Determine Mortality Risk for Bats at Wind Farms? Modelling Susceptible Species Activity Patterns and Anticipating Possible Mortality Events Ferreira, D., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Do Black-naped Hares Lepus nigricollis (Mammalia: Lagomorpha: Leporidae) have synanthropic association with wind farms? Anoop, V., Arun, P., Jaypal, R. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Terrestrial Mammals
Do birds in flight respond to (ultra)violet lighting? May, R., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Do American Golden-Plovers (Pluvialis dominica) Avoid Wind-energy Turbines in Agricultural Fields in Indiana During Spring Migration? Homoya, W., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance Birds, Shorebirds
Diversity of Demersal and Megafaunal Assemblages Inhabiting Sandbanks of the Irish Sea Atalah, J., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Diversity of Bats in the Soutpansberg and Blouberg Mountains of Northern South Africa: Complementarity of Acoustic and Non-Acoustic Survey Methods Taylor, P., et al. April 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Diurnal and nocturnal ranging behaviour by moorland-breeding Short-eared Owls Asio flammeus in Scotland Calladine, J., Morrison, N. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Disturbance of harbour porpoises during construction of the first seven offshore wind farms in Germany Brandt, M., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Noise Marine Mammals
Disturbance Effects on the Harbour Porpoise Population in the North Sea (DEPONS): Status report on model development van Beest, F., et al. February 2015 Report Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Disturbance affects biotic community composition at desert wind farms Keehne, J., Feldman, C. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change N/A
Distribution, Nesting Activities, and Age-Class of Territorial Pairs of Golden Eagles at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California, 2014-16 Kolar, P., Wiens, J. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Distribution of Harbour Seals in the German Bight in Relation to Offshore Wind Power Plants Adelung, D., et al. January 2006 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Distribution and Behaviour of Common Scoter Melanitta nigra Relative to Prey Resources and Environmental Parameters Kaiser, M., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl, Ecosystem
Distances Between Breeding Sites and White-Tailed Sea Eagles Found Dead Near Wind Turbines in Schleswig-Holstein Grunkorn, T., Nehls, G. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Distance Software: Design and Analysis of Distance Sampling Surveys for Estimating Population Size Thomas, L., et al. February 2010 Journal Article N/A N/A Farfield Environment
Distance Sampling to Estimate the Abundance of Birds with Sector and Radial Radar Detection Methods Ma, X. January 2011 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds
Disruption to Place Attachment and the Protection of Restorative Environments: A Wind Energy Case Study Devine-Wright, P., Howes, Y. September 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Disruption to Benthic Habitats by Moorings of Wave Energy Installations: A Modelling Case Study and Implications for Overall Ecosystem Functioning Krivtsov, V., Linfoot, B. October 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Displacement of seabirds by an offshore wind farm in the North Sea Welcker, J., Nehls, G. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Discrimination Between Parametric Survival Models for Removal Times of Bird Carcasses in Scavenger Removal Trials at Wind Turbines Sites Bispo, R., et al. January 2013 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Discovery of Sound in the Sea University of Rhode Island January 2013 Website N/A Noise N/A
Directional Behaviour of Transplanted Stationary and Migratory Forms of the Eel, Anguilla anguilla, in a Circular Tank Tesch, F., Lelek, A. January 1973 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Direct Mortality of Birds from Anthropogenic Causes Loss, S., Will, T., Marra, P. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Direct human-caused mortality of birds: improving quantification of magnitude and assessment of population impact Loss, S., Will, T., Marra, P. September 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Dim ultraviolet light as a means of deterring activity by the Hawaiian hoary bat Lasiurus cinereus semotus Gorresen, P., et al. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Differentiating Between Underwater Construction Noise of Monopile and Jacket Foundations for Offshore Windmills: A Case Study from the Belgian Part of the North Sea Norro, A., Rumes, B., Degraer, S. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Differential Recovery of Habitat Use by Birds after Wind Farm Installation: A Multi-Year Comparison Farfan, M., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement Birds
Differential Mortality of Birds Killed at Wind Farms in Northern Portugal Morinha, F., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Differences in bat activity in relation to bat detector height: implications for bat surveys at proposed windfarm sites Collins, J., Jones, G. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Diet of the Endangered Indiana Bat (Myotis sodalis) on the Northern Edge of Its Range Kurta, A., Whitaker, J. Jr. January 1998 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
Diel Variation in Feeding and Movement Patterns of Juvenile Atlantic Cod at Offshore Wind Farms Reubens, J., et al. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Did the Pile Driving during the Construction of the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee, the Netherlands, Impact Porpoises? Leopold, M., Camphuysen, K. February 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Did the Pile Driving during the Construction of the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee, the Netherlands, Impact Local Seabirds? Leopold, M., Camphuysen, K. August 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Birds, Seabirds
Diablo Winds Wildlife Monitoring Progress Report, March 2005 - February 2006 Western Ecosystems Technology Inc (WEST) April 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Developments in understanding of red-throated diver responses to offshore wind farms in marine Special Protection Areas Allen, S., et al. January 2020 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Development of Underwater Flora and Fauna Communities on Hard Substrates of the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee Lengkeek, W., Bouma, S. December 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem
Development of the Fouling Community on Turbine Foundations and Scour Protections in Nysted Offshore Wind Farm Birklund, J., Petersen, A June 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Development of Spatial Information Layers for Commercial Fishing and Shellfishing in UK Waters to Support Strategic Siting of Offshore Windfarms Dunstone, D. March 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Socio-economics
Development of Regulatory Requirements for Wind Turbines in Alberta DeGagne, D., Lewis, A. June 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Development of Offshore Renewable Energy in Scotland's Seas: Research Implementation Strategy Scottish Government September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Development of Noise Mitigation Measures in Offshore Wind Farm Construction Koschinski, S., Lüdemann, K. February 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Development of cumulative impact assessment guidelines for offshore wind farms and evaluation of use in project making Durning, B., Broderick, M. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Development of an air bubble curtain to reduce underwater noise of percussive piling Würsig, B., Greene, C., Jefferson, T. February 2000 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Development of a Practical Modeling Framework for Estimating the Impact of Wind Technology on Bird Populations Morrison, M., Pollack, K. November 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Development of a New Underwater Piling Noise Mitigation System - Using Hydro Sound Dampers (HSD) Kuhn, C., et al. July 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Development of a Geographic Information System-Based Decision Support Tool for Evaluating Windfarm Sitings in Great Lakes Aquatic Habitats Wehrly, K., et al. July 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Development of a Cost-Effective System to Monitor Wind Turbines for Bird and Bat Collisions. Phase 1: Sensor System Feasibility Study Pandey, A., Hermence, J., Harness, R. March 2007 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Development of a Cost-Effective System to Monitor Wind Turbines for Bird and Bat Collisions Phase I: Sensor System Feasibility Study Pandey, A., Hermence, J., Harness, R. March 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Development of a Cost Minimizing Strategy to Mitigate Bird Mortalities in a Wind Farm Singh, K. May 2012 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Development of a Comprehensive Conservation Strategy for the North Shore Region of Minnesota in the Context of Future Wind Power Development Peterson, A., Niemi, G. December 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Development by Design: Mitigating Wind Development's Impacts on Wildlife in Kansas Obermeyer, B., et al. October 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
Development and application of a low-cost rapid assessment system for coastal benthic habitats Benjamin, C., et al. September 2019 Journal Article N/A N/A Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Developing offshore wind farm siting criteria by using an international Delphi method Ho, L., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning

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