Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Titlesort descending Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
The integration of nature protection into environmental wind farm assessment procedures in Croatia Mazija, M., et al. May 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general N/A N/A
The interplay between economics, legislative power and social influence examined through a social-ecological framework for marine ecosystems services Martino, S., Tett, P., Kenter, J. February 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
The Iowa Atmospheric Observatory: Revealing the Unique Boundary Layer Characteristics of a Wind Farm Takle, E., Rajewski, D., Purdy, S. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
The Key Technologies and Development of Offshore Wind Farm in China Wu, J., Wang, Z., Wang, G. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
The large-scale impact of offshore wind farm structures on pelagic primary productivity in the southern North Sea Slavik, K., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
The Legal Framework for Offshore Wind Farms: A Critical Analysis of the Consents Process Gibson, E., Howsamn, P. August 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
The legislative regime for environment assessment and approval of offshore wind energy developments in England and Wales Wawryk, A. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal and Policy
The Lessons Learned from the Development of the Wind Energy Industry that Might be Applied to Marine Industry Renewables Garrad, A. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
The Life-Cycle Energy and Environmental Emissions of a Typical Offshore Wind Farm in China Yang, J., et al. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
The Likely Adverse Environmental Impacts of Renewable Energy Sources Abbasi, S., Abbasi, N. April 2000 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
The Local Fish Community, Indifferent to the Wind Farm? van Hal, R., Griffioen, B. October 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
The Magnetic Map of Hatchling Loggerhead Sea Turtles Lohmann, K., Putman, N., Lohmann, C. April 2012 Journal Article N/A EMF Sea Turtles
The Main Characteristics, Problems, and Prospects for Western European Coastal Seas Dauvin, J. February 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
The Mangrove Ecosystem Primavera, J., et al. January 2019 Book Chapter N/A N/A Ecosystem
The Marine Spatial Classification and the Identification of Priority Conservation Areas (PCAs) for Marine Biodiversity Conservation - A Case Study of the Offshore China Hao, H., Bin, C., Jinlan, L. November 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Ecosystem
The Measurement of the Underwater Radiated Noise from Marine Piling Including Characterisation of a "Soft Start" Period Robinson, S., Lepper, P., Ablitt, J. June 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
The mechanics of blue growth: Management of oceanic natural resource use with multiple, interacting sectors Klinger, D., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
The memory of place disruption, senses, and local opposition to Korean wind farms Kim, E., Chung, J. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
The MINOS Project: Ecological Assessments of Possible Impacts of Offshore Wind Energy Projects Kellermann, A., Eskildsen, K., Frank, B. January 2006 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Marine Mammals
The Mitigation of Impact and the Impact of Mitigation: An Ethical Perspective May, R. March 2019 Book Chapter Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
The Monitoring of the Wintering Geese in the "Sveti Nikola" Territory and the Kaliakra Region in Winter 2008/2009 Zehtindjiev, P., et al. January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
The Motus Wildlife Tracking System: a collaborative research network to enhance the understanding of wildlife movement Taylor, P., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A N/A
The Muillean Gaoithe and the Melin Wynt: Cultural sustainability and community owned wind energy schemes in Gaelic and Welsh speaking communities in the United Kingdom Haf, S., Parkhill, K. July 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Human Dimensions
The Multi-Use In Wind Farm Projects: More Conflicts Or A Win-Win Opportunity? Lacroix, D., Sylvain, P. August 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
The National Coastal Management Programme of South Africa Department of Environmental Affairs January 2014 Report N/A N/A Socio-economics
The Nature Of Scour Development And Scour Protection At Offshore Windfarm Foundations Whitehouse, R., et al. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
The Need for Integrated Assessment of Large-Scale Offshore Wind Farm Development Kannen, A., et al. January 2005 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
The New Hampshire and Southern Maine Ocean Uses Atlas National Marine Protected Areas Center August 2011 Website N/A N/A Socio-economics
The New Mode of Marine Planning in the UK: Aspirations and Challenges Scarff, G., Fitzsimmons, C., Gray, T. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
The New Noise Mitigation System 'Hydro Sound Dampers': History of Development with Several Hydro Sound and Vibration Measurements Burns, B., et al. November 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
The New Zealand Falcon and Wind Farms: A Risk Assessment Framework Seaton, R., Barea, L. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
The Number and Distribution of Marine Mammals in the Fall of Warness, Orkney July 2005 - July 2006 Duck, C., et al. August 2006 Report N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
The Offshore Wind Power Debate: Views from Cape Cod Kempton, W., et al. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics
The Offshore-Ring: A New System Design for the Open Ocean Aquaculture of Macroalgae Buck, B., Buchholz, C. October 2004 Journal Article N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Socio-economics
The Perception of Weak Electric D.C. Currents by the European Eel (Anguilla anguilla) Enger, P., Kristensen, L., Sand, O. July 1976 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
The Physics Of Geomagnetic-Field Transduction In Animals Winklhofer, M. November 2009 Journal Article N/A EMF Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
The Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters Pre-Screening for Appropriate Assessment Halcrow Group June 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
The politics of Estonia's offshore wind energy programme: Discourse, power and marine spatial planning Tafon, R., Howarth, D., Griggs, S. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-Economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
The politics of evidence: Conflicting social commitments and environmental priorities in the debate over wind energy and public health Taylor, J., Klenk, N. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise Socio-economics
The Possible Effects of Wind Energy on Illinois Birds and Bats Illinois Department of Natural Resources June 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors, Waterfowl
The possible impact of wind power generators on flying birds Mead, C. January 1982 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
The post-normal politics and science of wind power planning: Evidence from a Danish near-shore wind farm tender Johansen, K., Upham, P. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-Economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
The Potential Compatibility of Offshore Wind Power and Fisheries: An Example using Bluefin Tuna in the Adriatic Sea Fayram, A., Risi, A. May 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish, Socio-economics
The Potential Distribution of the Red Kite in Germany Heuck, C., et al. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
The Potential Effects of Electromagnetic Fields Generated by Cabling Between Offshore Wind Turbines upon Elasmobranch Fishes Gill, A., Taylor, H. September 2001 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Fish
The Potential Effects on Birds arising from the Onshore Infrastructure of the Proposed Greater Gabbard Offshore Wind Farm Burton, N., et al. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
The Potential for Cooperative Management of Elasmobranchs and Offshore Renewable Energy Development in UK Waters Gill, A., Kimber, J. October 2005 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
The Potential for Electricity Generation from On-Shore Wind Energy Under the Constraints of Nature Conservation: A Case Study for Two Regions in Germany Krewitt, W., Nitsch, J. August 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
The Potential Health Impact of Wind Turbines Chief Medical Officer of Heath of Ontario May 2010 Report Wind Energy general Noise Socio-economics
The potential influence of Robin Rigg Wind Farm on the abundance of adult and juvenile Atlantic salmon Thorley, J. February 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
The Potential of Offshore Wind Farms to Act as Marine Protected Areas Ashley, M., Mangi, S., Rodwell, L. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
The potential of offshore windfarms to act as marine protected areas – A systematic review of current evidence Ashley, M., Mangi, S., Rodwell, L. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
The precautionary principle and wind-farm planning: data scarcity does not imply absence of effects Carrete, M., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors
The proportion of flatfish recruitment in the North Sea potentially affected by offshore windfarms Barbut, L., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
The prosecutor's vulture: inconsistent MBTA prosecution, its clash with wind farms, and how to fix it Brunner, S. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
The Relation Between Birds and Wind Turbines and Other Aerial Obstacles - A Literature Survey Nygård, T., Bevanger, K., Reitan, O. November 2008 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
The Relative Vulnerability of Migratory Bird Species to Offshore Wind Energy Projects on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf: An Assessment Method and Database Willmott, J., Forcey, G., Kent, A. August 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
The Remote Environmental Assessment Laboratory's Acoustic Library: An Archive for Studying Soundscape Ecology Kasten, E., et al. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Birds
The return of the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) to northern Germany: Modelling the past to predict the future Kruger, O., Grunkorn, T., Struwe-Juhl, B. March 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
The Rhode Island Ocean Special Area Management Plan 2008-2015: From Inception through Implementation Smythe, T., Andrescavage, N., Fox, C. January 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
The Role of Adaptive Management in the Wind Energy Industry Copping, A., et al. March 2019 Book Chapter Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
The Role of Islands in the Migration of Bats Across Lake Erie and Lake Ontario: Lasiurus borealis, Lasiurus cinereus and Perimyotis subflavus Thorne, T. January 2015 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
The role of maritime spatial planning on the advance of blue energy in the European Union García, P., Sanabria, J., Ruiz, J. January 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
The Role of the DPSIR Approach and Conceptual Models in Marine Environmental Management: An Example for Offshore Wind Power Elliott, M. June 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
The Scientific Validity of Criticisms made by the RSPB of Metrics used to Assess Population Level Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on Seabirds Cook, A., Robinson, R. November 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
The Shipping Industry and Marine Spatial Planning Patraiko, D., Holthus, P. November 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
The Significance of Parameter Uncertainties for the Prediction of Offshore Pile Driving Noise Lippert, T., von Estorff, O. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
The Social Acceptance of Wind Energy: Where We Stand and the Path Ahead Ellis, G., Ferraro, G. January 2016 Report Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
The social dynamics of turbine tourism and recreation: Introducing a mixed-method approach to the study of the first U.S. offshore wind farm Smith, H., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Recreation
The song of Skylarks Alauda arvensis indicates the deterioration of an acoustic environment resulting from wind farm start‐up Szymanski, P., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
The Spanish approach to marine spatial planning. Marine Strategy Framework Directive vs. EU Integrated Maritime Policy Suárez de Vivero, J., Rodríguez Mateos, M. January 2012 Journal Article N/A N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
The State of Rhode Island Coastal Resources Management Program Goldman Law Offices December 2010 Report N/A N/A Socio-economics
The State of Rhode Island's Pioneering Marine Spatial Plan Olsen, S., McCann, J., Fugate, G. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
The State of the Birds United States of America 2009 North American Bird Conservation Initiative January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
The State of the UK's Birds 2011 Eaton M., et al. November 2011 Report N/A N/A Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Shorebirds
The sustainable worldwide offshore wind energy potential: A systematic review Keivanpour, S., Ramudhin, A., Kadi, D. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
The Theory of Sound Rayleigh, J. April 1877 Book N/A Noise N/A
The Trend of Golden Eagle Territory Occupancy in the Vicinity of the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: 2005 Survey Hunt, G., Hunt, T. June 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
The Turbulent Wake of a Monopile Foundation Rogan, C., et al. August 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal N/A
The Turning Point for Atlantic Offshore Wind Energy: Time for Action to Create Jobs, Reduce Pollution, Protect Wildlife, and Secure America's Energy Future Bowes, C., Allegro, J. September 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
The UK National Ecosystem Assessment Follow-on. Work package Report 6: shared, plural and cultural values of ecosystems Kenter, J., et al. January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Human Dimensions
The UK Offshore Wind Power Programme: A Sea-Change in UK Energy Policy? Toke, D. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
The use of 'ecological risk' for assessing effects of human activities: an example including eutrophication and offshore wind farm construction in the North Sea Nunneri, C., et al. October 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics
The Use of an Unsupervised Learning Approach for Characterizing Latent Behaviors in Accelerometer Data Chimienti, M., et al. February 2016 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds
The utility of point count surveys to predict wildlife interactions with wind energy facilities: An example focused on golden eagles Sur, M., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
The Vindication of Don Quixote: The Impact of Noise and Visual Pollution from Wind Turbines Jensen, C., Panduro, T., Lundhede, T. November 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
The vulnerability of wind power to climate change in Brazil Pereira de Lucena, A., et al. May 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change
The Wheel in the Sky Keeps on Turnin': The Migratory Bird Treaty Act and its Impact on Wind Development Ballard, R. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Socio-economics
The wind energy (r)evolution: A short review of a long history Kaldellis, J., Zafirakis, D. July 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device N/A
Thermal Animal Detection System (TADS): Development of a Method for Estimating Collision Frequency of Migrating Birds at Offshore Wind Turbines Desholm, M. January 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Thinking Globally and Siting Locally - Renewable Energy and Biodiversity in a Rapidly Warming World Allison, T., Root, T., Frumhoff, P. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Climate Change
Thirty Years of North American Wind Energy Acceptance Research: What have we Learned? Rand, J., Hoen, B. June 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Threats From Industrial Wind Turbines to Ontario’s Wildlife and Biodiversity Stelling, K., Petrie, S. January 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Threats to Sandy Beach Ecosystems: A Review Defeo, O., et al. January 2009 Journal Article N/A Energy Removal Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Threats to Seamount Ecosystems and Their Management Rogers, A. January 2019 Book Chapter N/A N/A N/A
Three Dimensional Tracking of a Wide-Ranging Marine Predator: Flight Heights and Vulnerability to Offshore Wind Farms Cleasby, I., et al. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Three-dimensional mapping of the benthic invertebrates biophony with a compact four-hydrophones array Gervaise, C., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Threshold for Onset of Injury in Chinook Salmon from Exposure to Impulsive Pile Driving Sounds Halvorsen, M., et al. June 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Thresholds for Bats Killed by Wind Turbines Arnett, E., Barclay, R., Hein, C. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Tidal Energy: The Benthic Effects of an Operational Tidal Stream Turbine O'Carroll, J., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Benthic Invertebrates

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