Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Contentsort descending Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Draft Bat Monitoring Studies at the Fowler Ridge Wind Farm Benton County, Indiana: August 3 - October 12, 2016 Good, R., et al. January 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Searchlight Wind Energy Project Bird and Bat Conservation Strategy Tetra Tech November 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Tafila Region Wind Power Projects: Cumulative Effects Assessment International Finance Corporation January 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Physical Environment, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Criterion Wind Project Avian Protection Plan Young, D., Tidhar, D. March 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Wind Energy and Bat Conservation - A Review by the Canadian Wind Energy Association Barnes, R., Hill, M., Peters, K. August 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Avian and Bat Protection Plan for the Ocotillo Wind Energy Facility Ocotillo Express February 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Proposal to Permit Take Provided Under the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act Gould, R. April 2009 Report Wind Energy (General) N/A Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Joint SNCB Interim Displacement Advice Note Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), Natural England January 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Displacement Birds
Impacts on Biodiversity of Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources: The Example of Birds and Bats Hötker, H., Thomsen, K., Jeromin, H. January 2006 Report Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Impacts on Wildlife and Government Responsibilities for Regulating Development and Protecting Wildlife Office, United States Government Accountability September 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Testing sensitivity of metrics of seabird population response to offshore wind farm effects Cook, A., Robinson, R. April 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Impacts to Wildlife of Wind Energy Siting and Operation in the United States Allison, T., et al. September 2019 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Improving Methods for Estimating Fatality of Birds and Bats at Wind Energy Facilities Warren-Hicks, W., et al. February 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Bats, Birds
Evaluating and Assessing the Relative Effectiveness of Acoustic Deterrent Devices and other Non-Lethal Measures on Marine Mammals Coram, A., et al. October 2014 Report N/A Avoidance, Noise Marine Mammals
Interference of Flying Insects and Wind Parks Trieb, F. October 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision, Displacement N/A
Investigations of the Bird Collision Risk and the Responses of Harbour Porpoises in the Offshore Wind Farms Horns Rev, North Sea, and Nysted, Baltic Sea, in Denmark - Part I: Birds Blew, J., et al. January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Investigations of the Bird Collision Risk and the Responses of Harbour Porpoises in the Offshore Wind Farms Horns Rev, North Sea, and Nysted, Baltic Sea, in Denmark - Part II: Harbour porpoises Diederichs,A., Hennig, V., Nehls, G. January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Noise Birds, Marine Mammals
Good Practice Guide for Underwater Noise Measurement Robinson, S., Lepper, P., Hazelwood, R. March 2014 Report N/A Noise Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
The use of Acoustic Deterrents for the mitigation of injury to marine mammals during pile driving for offshore wind farm construction Sparling, C., et al. October 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Noise Marine Mammals
Use of Deterrent Devices and Improvements to Standard Mitigation during Piling Herschel, A., et al. October 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Noise Marine Mammals
Use of Deterrent Devices and Improvements to Standard Mitigation during Piling - Research Summary Herschel, A., et al. November 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Noise Marine Mammals
Joint Statutory Nature Conservation Bodies Position Statement: ORJIP Project 4, Stage 1 of Phase 2 Statutory Nature Conservation Bodies (SNCB) October 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Noise Marine Mammals
North East Scotland Salmon and Sea Trout Tracking Array: Interim Report River Dee Trust, Marine Scotland Science January 2019 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Pelagic Fish
Monitoring Guidance for Underwater Noise in European Seas, Part I Dekeling, R., et al. May 2013 Report N/A Noise N/A
Monitoring Guidance for Underwater Noise in European Seas, Part II: Monitoring Guidance Specifications Dekeling, R., et al. January 2014 Report N/A Noise N/A
Marine Scotland Policy Development for Marine Renewables and Offshore Wind Covering Marine Planning and Licensing Scottish Government January 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Identifying monitoring priorities for Population Consequences of Disturbance - Interim Report Booth, C., Plunkett, R., Harwood, J. November 2017 Report N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Feasibility of Sensor Development for Monitoring Marine Growth Yunnie, A., Vance, T., Ramsden, R. April 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Invertebrates
Feasibility of Predictive Mapping of Marine Growth Miller, R., Macleod, A. August 2015 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Invertebrates
Metocean Characterization Recommended Practices for U.S. Offshore Wind Energy Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) August 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Guidelines for Providing Benthic Habitat Survey Information for Renewable Energy Development on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) June 2019 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General) Habitat Change Invertebrates
A Review of the Potential Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy Development on Scotland's Marine Environment Aquatera June 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave N/A Ecosystem Processes
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 10: Marine Water and Sediment Quality Page, C. March 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Physical Environment, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 12: Marine and Intertidal Ecology Lewis, J. March 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem Processes, Sediment Transport, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Standard Investigation of the Impacts of Offshore Wind Turbines on the Marine Environment (StUK4) Bundesamt fur Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie (BSH) October 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Hornsea Offshore Wind Farm Project One: Reports - Habitat Regulations Assessment Report: Information to Support the Appropriate Assessment for Project One RPS Group July 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
How the Belgian Wind Farm Business Made us Discover the Challenging Environment of Marine Sand Dunes Bolle, A., Mathys, M., Haerens, P. April 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Physical Environment
Hermosa West Wind Energy Project: Draft Environmental Impact Statement Western Area Power Administration September 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Effect of the Horns Rev 1 Offshore Wind Farm on Fish Communities: Follow-up Seven Years after Construction Stenberg, C., et al. December 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish
Pathways of Effects for Offshore Renewable Energy in Canada Isaacman, L., Daborn, G. December 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Inch Cape Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement Inch Cape Offshore June 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Information for Appropriate Assessment APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions
A Preliminary Review of the Impact of Placing Portions of an Extra-High Voltage Transmission Line Beneath the Chesapeake Bay & Other Waters Community & Environmental Defense Service February 2011 Report N/A EMF, Habitat Change N/A
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Appropriate Assessment Information Review APS Group Scotland January 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
An Assessment of the Conservation Importance of Species and Habitats Identified During a Series of Recent Research Cruises around Scotland Moore, C., Roberts, J. January 2011 Report N/A N/A Ecosystem Processes, Invertebrates
Examples of State and International Guidance for Duration and Intensity of Pre-Construction and Post-Construction Monitoring US Fish and Wildlife Service January 2011 Report Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Wind Turbine Interactions with Birds, Bats, and their Habitats: A Summary of Research Results and Priority Questions National Wind Coordinating Collaborative March 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Developing New Ground Truthing Techniques for Seabed Mapping Foster-Smith, R., et al. February 2010 Report N/A N/A Physical Environment
A Further Review of Sediment Monitoring Data Carroll, B., et al. March 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Physical Environment, Sediment Transport
Lynn and Inner Dowsing Hydrographic Monitoring Survey Emu December 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem Processes, Invertebrates
Kentish Flats Offshore Wind Farm Turbine Foundation Faunal Colonisation Diving Survey Emu November 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates
Measurement and Interpretation of Underwater Noise During Construction and Operation of Offshore Windfarms in UK Waters Nedwell, J., et al. December 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Investigation of the Cape Wind Energy Project ESS Group August 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem Processes
Effects of the Nysted Offshore Wind Farm on Harbour Porpoises Tougaard, J., et al. July 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Vegetation Types and Valuable Habitats at the Islets Sandholmene in Rost Municipality, Nordland County - Impact Assessment in Relation to Planned Construction of Wind Power Station Bjerke, J. March 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Ecosystem Processes
Concerted Action for Offshore Wind Energy Deployment (COD): Overview of Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Energy Roth, E., Verhoef, L., Dingenouts, M. September 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Strategic Environmental Assessment Area 8 - Contamination of Water and Sediments Voisey, C., Tyrrell, D., Rowlatt, S March 2004 Report N/A N/A Physical Environment
Cape Wind Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Diver Survey Woods Hole Group, Inc. July 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
A Framework for Net Environmental Benefit Analysis for Remediation or Restoration of Petroleum-Contaminated Sites Efroymson, R., Nicolette, J., Suter II, G. January 2003 Report N/A Chemicals Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Gunfleet Sands Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement GE Wind Energy January 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
A Case Study on the Effects of Underwater Noise During the Construction of Large Offshore Wind Farms Mason, T., Barham, R., Nedwell, J. November 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
A Review Of The Records Of Giant Squid In The North-Eastern Atlantic And Severe Injuries In Architeuthis Dux Stranded After Acoustic Explorations Guerra, A., González, A., Rocha, F. September 2004 Conference Paper N/A Noise Benthic Invertebrates
Assessment of the Environmental Impact of Offshore Wind-Farms OSPAR Commission January 2008 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Call and Component Evaluation for Improved Performance of Recognition of Killer Whale Individuals Nichols, N., et al. September 2010 Conference Paper N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Conference on Wind Energy and Wildlife Impacts 2011: Proceedings May, R., Bevanger, K. May 2011 Conference Paper Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Developing an Instrumentation Package for in-Water Testing of Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Devices Nelson, E. August 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Development of a New Underwater Piling Noise Mitigation System - Using Hydro Sound Dampers (HSD) Kuhn, C., et al. July 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Is a German Harbour Porpoise Much More Sensitive than a British One? Comparative Analyses of Mandatory Measures for the Protection of Harbour Porposes (Phocoena phocoena) During Offshore Wind Farm Ramming in Germany, Denmark and the UK Luedeke, J. December 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Life Cycle Assessment of a 150 MW Offshore Wind Turbine Farm at Nysted/Roedsand, Denmark Properzi, S., Herk-Hansen, H. July 2001 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Localization of Southern Resident Killer Whales Using Two Star Arrays to Support Marine Renewable Energy Ren, H., et al. October 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Model for Underwater Noise Radiated by Submerged Wind Turbine Towers Hay, T., et al. June 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Offshore Wind Farms and their Impact on Fish Abundance and Community Structure Stenberg, C., et al. September 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
On the Prediction of Pile Driving Induced Underwater Sound Pressure Levels Over Long Ranges Lippert, T., et al. July 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Farfield Environment
Review of Literature and Studies on Electro Magnetic Fields (EMF) Generated by Undersea Power Cables and Associated Influence on Marine Organisms Switzer, T., Meggitt, D. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF N/A
Small Scale Distribution of Fish in Offshore Wind Farms Hansen, K., Stenberg, C., Møller, P. September 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
The Effects of Noise on the Aquatic Environment Walmsley, D. August 2007 Conference Paper N/A Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals
The Measurement of the Underwater Radiated Noise from Marine Piling Including Characterisation of a "Soft Start" Period Robinson, S., Lepper, P., Ablitt, J. June 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Turbine Height as a Management Tool for Collision Risk to Birds at Offshore Wind Farms Davies, I., Band, B. September 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Underwater Noise Generated from Marine Piling Robinson, S., Theobald, P., Lepper, P. January 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
WT-Bird: Bird Collision Recording for Offshore Wind Farms Wiggelinkhuizen, E., et al. November 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Mitigation of Low-Frequency Underwater Anthropogenic Noise using Stationary Encapsulated Gas Bubbles Lee, K., Wochner, M., Wilson, P. November 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Long-Term Datasets on Marine Mammals: Learning from the Past to Manage the Future European Cetacean Society March 2011 Conference Paper N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Detection of Infrasound in Fish and Behavioral Responses to Intense Infrasound in Juvenile Salmonids and European Silver Eels: A Minireview Sand, O., et al. January 2001 Conference Paper N/A Noise Fish
Potential Impacts from a Worst Case Discharge from an United States Offshore Wind Farm Gunter, T. January 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals N/A
Effective Mitigation of Underwater Piling Noise Karl-Heinz, E. February 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Post-Construction Results from The North Hoyle Offshore Wind Farm May, J. September 2005 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Marine Mammals
Design and Initial Component Tests of an Integrated Avian and Bat Collision Detection System for Offshore Wind Turbines Flowers, J., et al. April 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
The New Noise Mitigation System 'Hydro Sound Dampers': History of Development with Several Hydro Sound and Vibration Measurements Burns, B., et al. November 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
New Achievements in Underwater Noise Modelling for Offshore Pile Driving Trimoreau, B., et al. November 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
New Hydro Sound Dampers to Reduce Piling Underwater Noise Elmer, K., Savery, J. November 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Dynamic Measurements of Pile Deflections as a Source of Underwater Sound Emissions during Impact Driving of Offshore Pile Foundations Kuhn, C., et al. November 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Hydro Sound Measurements during the Installation of Large Diameter Offshore Piles using Combinations of Independent Noise Mitigation Systems Burns, B., et al. November 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Responses of Harbour Porpoises to Pile Driving on a Temporal and Spatial Scale Braasch, A., Joost, M., Ketzer, C. February 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Measured and Calculated Characteristics of Wind Turbine Noise Greene, G. February 1981 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
A crane movement model parameterized using portable radar for evaluating response to wind energy development Kirsch, E., Diehl, R., Suarez, M. July 2010 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Shorebirds
Ultrasonic noise emissions from wind turbines: Potential effects on bat species Long, C., Lepper, P., Flint, J. July 2011 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Bats
The BIO-acoustic feature extraction and classification of bat echolocation calls Mirzaei, G., et al. May 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Acoustic Monitoring Techniques for Avian Detection and Classification Mirzaei, G., et al. November 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Birds
Quantification of Bird Migration Using Doppler Weather Surveillance Radars (NEXRAD) Mirzaei, G., et al. April 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Fuzzy Clustering in Avian Infrared Imagery Application Mirzaei, G., et al. June 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds

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