Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Contentsort descending Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Permitting and Leasing for Marine Offshore Wind Energy Projects Thaler, J. January 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
The Effects of Wind Power on Human Interests - A Synthesis Henningsson, M., et al. January 2013 Report Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Review and Evaluation of the Eastern Scotian Shelf Integrated Management (ESSIM) Initiative McCuaig, J., Herbert, G. January 2013 Report N/A N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
The Turning Point for Atlantic Offshore Wind Energy: Time for Action to Create Jobs, Reduce Pollution, Protect Wildlife, and Secure America's Energy Future Bowes, C., Allegro, J. September 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Maine Deepwater Offshore Wind Report University of Maine, Rockefeller Brothers Fund September 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Harnessing our Ocean Wealth: An Integrated Marine Plan for Ireland Government of Ireland July 2012 Report N/A N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Phase 2 - Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia including the Outer Bay of Fundy Tidal Energy Project Site - Mi’kmaq Ecological Knowledge Study Moore, D., Hodder, C. May 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Ireland Offshore Renewable Energy Strategic Action Plan 2012 - 2020 UK Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment March 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Tiree Onshore Scenario Mapping Ironside Farrar March 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Wave and Tidal Energy in the UK: State of the Industry Report Adams, J., Valpy, B., Krohn, D. March 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Scotland's Renewables Routemap Short Life Task Force On Streamlining Energy Development Licensing and Consents The Scottish Government February 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
South West Marine Energy Park Prospectus Southwest Marine Energy Park Coalition January 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
East Inshore and East Offshore Marine Plan Areas Evidence and Issues: Overview Report Marine Management Organisation January 2012 Report N/A N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Strategisk konsekv ensutredning for landbasert vindkraft. En evaluering av regionale planer for vindkraft May, R. December 2011 Report Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management Policy Guide Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management October 2011 Report N/A N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
ORECCA European Offshore Renewable Energy Roadmap Jeffrey, H., Sedgwick, J. September 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Maine Coastal Plan Maine State Planning Office May 2011 Report N/A N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Blue Seas - Green Energy: A Sectoral Marine Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters (The Plan) APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Blue Seas - Green Energy: A Sectoral Marine Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters (Post Adoption Statement) APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Marine Spatial Planning, Social & Economic Data
Economic Assessment of Short Term Options for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Costs and Benefits to Other Marine Users and Interests APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Pre-Screening Review of the Medium Term Options APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Proposed Approach for the Screening and Assessment of the Short and Medium Term Options APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal & Policy
UK Marine Policy Statement HM Government March 2011 Report N/A N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Sustainable Development for Welsh Seas: Our Approach to Marine Planning in Wales Welsh Assembly Government February 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Appropriate Assessment Information Review APS Group Scotland January 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal & Policy
First update of the Integrated Management Plan for the Marine Environment of the Barents Sea-Lofoten Area Norwegian Ministry of Climate and Environment January 2011 Report N/A N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Summary on Seal Monitoring 1999-2005 around Nysted and Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farms Teilmann, J., et al. November 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Harbour Porpoises on Horns Reef Effects of the Horns Reef Wind Farm Jakob, T., et al. November 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Bird Movements and Behaviors in the Gulf Coast Region: Relation to Potential Wind-Energy Developments Morrison, M. June 2006 Report Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Benthic Communities at Horns Rev Before, During and After Construction of Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm: Final Report Vattenfall May 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Physical Environment
Final Results of Bird Studies at the Offshore Wind Farms at Nysted and Horns Rev, Denmark Petersen, I., et al. January 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Gwynt y Môr Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement RWE Group November 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
A Conservation Plan for Bats in Wyoming Hester, S., Grenier, M. September 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
The State of Rhode Island Coastal Resources Management Program Goldman Law Offices December 2010 Report N/A N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
New Zealand Coastal Policy Statement 2010 New Zealand Department of Conservation November 2010 Report N/A N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Rhode Island Ocean Special Area Management Plan: Ocean SAMP - Volume 1 Rhode Island Coastal Resources Management Council October 2010 Report N/A N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
The Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters Pre-Screening for Appropriate Assessment Halcrow Group June 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
The Potential Health Impact of Wind Turbines Chief Medical Officer of Heath of Ontario May 2010 Report Wind Energy (General) Noise Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
An Introduction to Socio-Economic Assessment within a Marine Strategy Framework Turner, R., et al. March 2010 Report N/A N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Marine Renewable Energy Legislation for Nova Scotia Nova Scotia Department of Energy January 2010 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Analyzing Coastal and Marine Changes – Offshore Wind Farming as a Case Study Lange, M., et al. January 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Wind Turbine Sound and Health Effects: An Expert Panel Review Colby, W., et al. December 2009 Report Wind Energy (General) Noise Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
An Integrated Risk Framework for Gigawatt-Scale Deployments of Renewable Energy: The U.S. Wind Energy Case Ram, B. October 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Cumulative Impacts of Wave Energy In Oregon: A Literature and Research Review Aquatera, Parametrix April 2010 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave N/A Physical Environment, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Cumulative Impacts of Wave Energy In Oregon: Data Atlas Parametrix, Aquatera April 2010 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave N/A Physical Environment, Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Phase 1 - Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia including the Fundy Tidal Energy Demonstration Project Site - Mi’kmaq Ecological Knowledge Study Moore, D., Hodder, G. August 2009 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Social & Economic Data
Case Study: The Royal Norwegian Navy Underwater Acoustic Noise Measurement of Vessels Brüel & Kjær January 2009 Report N/A Noise N/A
Bird Mortality at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: March 1998 - September 2001 Smallwood, K., Thelander, C. August 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Relationships between Bats and Wind Turbines in Pennsylvania and West Virginia: An Assessment of Fatality Search Protocols, Patterns of Fatality, and Behavioral Interactions with Wind Turbines Arnett, E., et al. June 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Surveys of Hard Bottom Communities on Foundations in Nysted Offshore Wind Farm and Schönheiders Pulle in 2004 Birklund, J. May 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates
The Ecosystem Consequences of Sediment Disturbance Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) March 2005 Report Marine Energy (General) Habitat Change Invertebrates, Physical Environment
Snefjord vindpark: Vurdering av konsekvenser for landskap, flora, fauna, friluftsliv, kulturminner og reindriftsnæring Tombre, I., et al. February 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change N/A
Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm: Offshore ES Description of the Biological Baseline Environment Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Greater Gabbard Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement Greater Gabbard Offshore Winds January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
The Impact of Offshore Wind Farms on Bird Life in Southern Kalmar Sound, Sweden Pettersson, J. January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
The Development of Marine Based Wind Energy Generation and Inshore Fisheries in UK Waters: Are They Compatible? Rodmell, D., Johnson, M. January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Seabed Morphology Off Southern Long Island: Studies of Artificial Reefs and Implications for Wind Farms Flood, R. January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Physical Environment
Wind Turbine Interactions with Birds and Bats: A Summary of Research Results and Remaining Questions National Wind Coordinating Committee November 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Avian Monitoring and Risk Assessment at the Tehachapi Pass Wind Resource Area: Period of Performance: October 2, 1996 - May 27, 1998 Anderson, R., et al. September 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Biology and Video Surveys of North Hoyle Wind Turbines 11th-13th August 2004 Bunker, F. August 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish, Invertebrates
A Preliminary Assessment of Potential Avian Interactions at Four Proposed Wind Energy Facilities on Vandenberg Air Force Base, California: Period of Performance: November 2001 - May 2002 BioResource Consultants August 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Development of the Fouling Community on Turbine Foundations and Scour Protections in Nysted Offshore Wind Farm Birklund, J., Petersen, A June 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish, Invertebrates
Infauna Monitoring Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm: Annual Status Report 2003 Bech, M., Leonhard, S., Pedersen, J. May 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates
Investigations of Birds During Construction and Operation of Nysted Offshore Wind Farm at Rødsand Kahlert, J., et al. January 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds
Birds and Wind Farms in Ireland: A Review of Potential Issues and Impact Assessment Percival, S. December 2003 Report Wind Energy (General) N/A Birds
Environmental Impact of the ATOC/Pioneer Seamount Submarine Cable Kogan, I., et al. November 2003 Report N/A Habitat Change Physical Environment
Windfarms and Birds: An Analysis of the Effects of Windfarms on Birds, and Guidance on Environmental Assessment Criteria and Site Selection Issues Langston, R., Pullan, J. September 2003 Report Wind Energy (General) N/A Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Base-Line Investigations of Birds in Relation to an Offshore Wind Farm at Rødsand: Results and Conclusions, 2002 Desholm, M., et al. September 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance Birds
Onshore Environmental Impact Statement for Lincs, Docking Shoal, and Race Bank OSW Farms Centrica Energy June 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change N/A
Short-Term Effects of the Construction of Wind Turbines on Harbour Porpoises at Horns Reef Tougaard, J., et al. April 2003 Report Offshore Wind Avoidance, Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
National Wind Technology Center Site Environmental Assessment: Bird and Bat Use and Fatalities - Final Report Schmidt, E., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Synthesis and Comparison of Baseline Avian and Bat Use, Raptor Nesting and Mortality Information from Proposed and Existing Wind Developments Erickson, W., et al. December 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Avian/Wind Turbine Interactions: A Short Summary of Research Results and Remaining Questions National Wind Coordinating Committee September 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Burbo Offshore Wind Farm Volume 2: ES Biological Environment The University of Liverpool Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies September 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals
Baseline Avian Use and Behavior at the CARES Wind Plant Site, Klickitat County, Washington: Final Report Erickson, W., et al. December 1999 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Avian Risk and Fatality Protocol Morrison, M. November 1998 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Avian Use of Norris Hill Wind Resource Area, Montana Harmata, A., Podruzny, K., Zelenak, J. July 1998 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Impact Assessment of an Off-shore Wind Park on Sea Ducks Guillemette, M., Larsen, J., Clausager, I. March 1998 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change, Noise Birds, Waterfowl
Development of a Practical Modeling Framework for Estimating the Impact of Wind Technology on Bird Populations Morrison, M., Pollack, K. November 1997 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
A Population Study of Golden Eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Second-Year Progress Report Predatory Bird Research Group July 1997 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Monitoring of Seasonal Bird Activity and Mortality on Unit 2 at the Buffalo Ridge Windplant, Minnesota Higgins, K., Dieter, C., Usgaard, R. January 1995 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
U.S. Geological Survey energy and wildlife research annual report for 2019 Khalil, M. September 2019 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Fish, Terrestrial Mammals
Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Wind Power Guidelines Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife April 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Integrated Management of the Marine Environment of the Norwegian Sea Norwegian Ministry of Climate and Environment January 2009 Report N/A N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Our Seas - A Shared Resource High Level Marine Objectives HM Government January 2009 Report N/A N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
State of the Nation's de Facto Marine Protected Areas Grober-Dunsmore, R., et al. May 2008 Report Marine Energy (General) N/A Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Impacts to Marine Fisheries Habitat from Nonfishing Activities in the Northeastern United States Johnson, M., et al. February 2008 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Case Study: European Offshore Wind Farms - A Survey for the Analysis of the Experiences and Lessons Learnt by Developers of Offshore Wind Farms Gerdes, G., Tiedemann, A., Zeelenberg, S. January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Intersectoral Assessment of Impacts on Seabirds: Baseline Report for a Comprehensive Environmental Management Plan for the Norwegian Sea Christensen-Dalsgaard, S., et al. January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Review of the Reef Effects of Offshore Wind Farm Structures and their Potential for Enhancement and Mitigation UK Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Fish, Invertebrates, Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Community Profiles for West Coast and North Pacific Fisheries Northwest Fisheries Science Center November 2007 Report N/A N/A Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Delivering Community Benefits from Wind Energy Development: A Toolkit Hassan, G., Capener, P. May 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Eastern Scotian Shelf Integrated Ocean Management Plan Fisheries and Oceans Canada January 2007 Report N/A N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Revised Navigational Risk Assessment ESS Group, Inc. November 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Navigation
Offshore Wind Farms and the Environment: Danish Experiences from Horns Rev and Nysted Danish Energy Authority November 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Draft Guidelines for the Review and Evaluation of Potential Natural Resources Impacts from Utility-Scale Wind Energy Facilities in Vermont Agency of Natural Resources April 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Valuing the Shoreline - Guideline for Socio-Economic Analyses Persson, M., et al. January 2006 Report N/A N/A Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Charting Progress: An Integrated Assessment of the State of UK Seas UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs March 2005 Report N/A N/A Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
A Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Fish & Shellfish Resources with Respect to Proposed Offshore Wind Farms in the Eastern Irish Sea Lockwood, S. March 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Invertebrates, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
The Environmental Case for Wind Power in New Jersey Ridlington, E., Rusch, E. March 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind N/A Human Dimensions, Climate Change

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