Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting Annex IV and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and Annex IV metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date**sort ascending Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Valuation of Ecological and Amenity Impacts of an Offshore Windfarm as a Factor in Marine Planning Börger, T., Hooper, T., Austen, M. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics
Energy Systems and their Impacts on Marine Ecosystem Services Papathanasopoulou, E., et al. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Social Acceptance of On-Shore Wind Energy in Apulia Region (Southern Italy) Caporale, D., De Lucia, C. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Three Dimensional Tracking of a Wide-Ranging Marine Predator: Flight Heights and Vulnerability to Offshore Wind Farms Cleasby, I., et al. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Wind Turbines as Overwintering Sites Attractive to an Invasive Lady Beetle, Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Dudek, K., Dudek, M., Tryjanowski, P. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Impact of wind facilities on bats in the Neotropics Rodríguez-Durán, A., Feliciano-Robles, W. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
An Italian Proposal on the Monitoring of Underwater Noise: Relationship Between the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and Marine Spatial Planning Directive (MSP) Maccarrone, V., et al. December 2015 Journal Article N/A Noise Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Surface Texture Differentiation Using Synthetic Bat Echolocation Calls: Implications for Reducing Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines Yuen, B. December 2015 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Report on the Implications for European Sites Proposed Hornsea Offshore Wind Farm (Zone 4) - Project Two The Planning Inspectorate for England and Wales November 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Sound Science: Maintaining Numerical and Statistical Standards in the Pursuit of Noise Exposure Criteria for Marine Mammals Wright, A. November 2015 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Synopsis des internationalen Kenntnisstandes zum Einfluss der Windenergie auf Fledermäuse und Vögel und Spezifizierung für die Schweiz Muller, J., et al. November 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Passive Acoustic Monitoring the Diel, Lunar, Seasonal and Tidal Patterns in the Biosonar Activity of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in the Pearl River Estuary, China Wang, Z., et al. November 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Ökobilanzierung von Schweizer Windenergie Eymann, L., et al. November 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Socio-economics, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Likelihood of a Marine Vessel Accident from Wind Energy Development in the Atlantic Copping, A., et al. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Navigation
Integration of the Environmental Management Aspect in the Optimization of the Design and Planning of Energy Systems Theodosiou, G., Stylos, N., Koroneos, C. November 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Acoustic Indices for Biodiversity Assessments: Analyses of Bias Based on Simulated Bird Assemblages and Recommendations for Field Surveys Gasc, A., et al. November 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Ecosystem
Effects of Wind Farms on Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus) in Southern Spain Hernández-Pliego, J., et al. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Influence of Concrete Mix Design on CO2 Emissions for Large Wind Turbine Foundations Berndt, M. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change
Two-Dimensional Thermal Video Analysis of Offshore Bird and Bat Flight Matzner, S., Cullinan, V., Duberstein, C. November 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats, Birds
The Marine Spatial Classification and the Identification of Priority Conservation Areas (PCAs) for Marine Biodiversity Conservation - A Case Study of the Offshore China Hao, H., Bin, C., Jinlan, L. November 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Ecosystem
Statistical guidelines for assessing marine avian hotspots and coldspots: A case study on wind energy development in the U.S. Atlantic Ocean Zipkin, E., et al. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
NERC Knowledge Exchange: An Autonomous Device to Track Porpoise Movements in Tidal Rapids Macaulay, J., et al. November 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Marine Mammals
Challenges in Implementing Sustainable Marine Spatial Planning: The New Portuguese Legal Framework Case Santos, C., et al. November 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Does more wind energy influence the choice of location for wind power development? Assessing the cumulative effects of daily wind turbine encounters in Denmark Ladenburg, J. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Offshore wind farms in Southern Europe – Determining tourist preference and social acceptance Westerberg, V., Jacobsen, J., Lifran, R. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Recreation
A comparative assessment of proposed offshore wind power demonstration projects in the United States Bates, A., Firestone, J. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Life Cycle Assessment of Dernah (Libya) wind farm Al-Behadili, S., El-Osta, W. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Bat Activity at a Small Wind Turbine in the Baltic Sea Rydell, J., Wickman, A. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats
Sensitivity of the Mussel Mytilus edulis to Substrate-Borne Vibration in Relation to Anthropogenically Generated Noise Roberts, L., et al. October 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Benthic Invertebrates
Developing an automated risk management tool to minimize bird and bat mortality at wind facilities Willmott, J., Forcey, G., Hooton, L. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines: Investigating the Causes and Consequences Cryan, P. October 2015 Website Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Another Blown in the Wind: Bats and the Licensing of Wind Farms in Brazil Valença, R., Bernard, E. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Dim ultraviolet light as a means of deterring activity by the Hawaiian hoary bat Lasiurus cinereus semotus Gorresen, P., et al. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Wales' Marine Evidence Report Welsh Government October 2015 Report N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
Evaluation and Comparison of the Levelized Cost of Tidal, Wave, and Offshore Wind Energy Astariz, S., Vazquez, A., Iglesias, G. October 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Challenges, Insights and Perspectives Associated with using Social-Ecological Science for Marine Conservation Leenhardt, P., et al. October 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Socio-economics
An Interim Framework for Assessing the Population Consequences of Disturbance King, S., et al. October 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Ecosystem
A Unifying Framework for the Underlying Mechanisms of Avian Avoidance of Wind Turbines May, R. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general Static Device Birds
Strategic Planning to Reduce Conflicts for Offshore Wind Development in Taiwan: A Social Marketing Perspective Chen, J., Liu, H., Chuang, C. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Wildlife Densities and Habitat Use Across Temporal and Spatial Scales on the Mid-Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (2012-2014) Williams, K., et al. October 2015 Report N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Impacts of Anthropogenic Noise on Marine Life: Publication Patterns, New Discoveries, and Future Directions in Research and Management Williams, R., et al. October 2015 Journal Article N/A Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Benthic Monitoring and Sampling Design and Effort to Detect Spatial Changes: A Case Study using Data from Offshore Wind Farm Sites Franco, A., Quintino, V., Elliott, M. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Wind Farm Construction Impacts Reindeer Migration and Movement Corridors Skarin, A., et al. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Marine Mammals: A Review of Temporary Threshold Shift Studies from 1996 to 2015 Finneran, J. September 2015 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Noise in the Sea and Its Impacts on Marine Organisms Peng, C., Zhao, X., Liu, G. September 2015 Journal Article N/A Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Monitoring Bat Activity at the Dutch EEZ in 2014 Lagerveld, S., Poerink, B., de Vries, P. September 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats
Combining Offshore Wind and Wave Energy Extraction: An Environmental Perspective Rumes, B., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Hybrid Wave and Offshore Wind Farms: a Comparative Case Study of Co-located Layouts [Conference Paper] Astariz, S., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Continuation Implementation Masterplan Wind at Sea Ministry of Economic Affairs (Rijksoverheid), Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment (Rijkwaterstaat) September 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Bats, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Good practice during Wind Farm construction Scottish Renewables, et al. September 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Behavior of Largemouth Bass and Pallid Sturgeon in an Experimental Pond Setting Bevelhimer, M., Cada, G., Scherelis, C. September 2015 Report N/A EMF Fish
Developing an Avian Collision Risk Model to Incorporate Variability and Uncertainty Masden, E. September 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Towards a Cumulative Collision Risk Assessment of Local and Migrating Birds in North Sea Offshore Wind Farms Brabant, R., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Seabirds
Combining Wave Energy with Wind and Solar: Short-Term Forecasting Reikard, G., Robertson, B., Bidlot, J. September 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Improving Australia's Renewable Energy Project Policy and Planning: A Multiple Stakeholder Analysis Martin, N., Rice, J. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Assessment of Entanglement Risk to Marine Megafauna due to Offshore Renewable Energy Mooring Systems Harnois, V., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals
Symbiotic Offshore Energy Harvesting and Storage Systems Slocum, A. September 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Impacts of Wind Energy on Environment: A Review Wang, S., Wang, S. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
A Quantitative-Based Evaluation of the Environmental Impact and Sustainability of a Proposed Onshore Wind Farm in the United Kingdom Phillips, J. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Succession and Seasonal Dynamics of the Epifauna Community on Offshore Wind Farm Foundations and their Role as Stepping Stones for Non-Indigenous Species Mesel, I., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Comparison of Manual and Semi-Automatic Underwater Imagery Analyses for Monitoring of Benthic Hard-Bottom Organisms at Offshore Renewable Energy Installations Saskov, A., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Offshore Wind Park Monitoring Programmes, Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the Future Lindeboom, H., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Rapid Macrobenthic Recovery after Dredging Activities in an Offshore Wind Farm in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Coates, D., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates
Seabird Avoidance and Attraction at an Offshore Wind Farm in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Vanermen, N., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Equivocal Effects of Offshore Wind Farms in Belgium on Soft Substrate Epibenthos and Fish Assemblages Vandendriessche, S., Derweduwen, J., Hostens, K. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Assessing Seabird Displacement at Offshore Wind Farms: Power Ranges of a Monitoring and Data Handling Protocol Vanermen, N., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Toward Wind Farm Monitoring Optimization: Assessment of Ecological Zones from Marine Landscapes using Machine Learning Algorithms Grilli, A., Shumchenia, E. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Hearing Thresholds of a Harbor Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) for Playbacks of Seal Scarer Signals, and Effects of the Signals on Behavior Kastelein, R., et al. September 2015 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Landscape-scale distribution and density of raptor populations wintering in anthropogenic-dominated desert landscapes Duerr, A., et al. September 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Raptors
NYSERDA Environmental Research Program Plan Research Area 4: Marine Wind and Wildlife New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) September 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Effect of exposure duration to pile driving sounds on temporary hearing threshold shift in harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) Kastelein, R., et al. September 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Going with the flow: Tidal influence on the occurrence of the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in the Marsdiep area, The Netherlands IJsseldijk, L., et al. September 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals
Managing coexistence for bats and wind turbines Alvarez-Castaneda, T., Lidicker, W. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
How anthropogenic noise affects foraging Luo, J., Siemers, B., Koselj, K. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general Noise Bats
Hearing Thresholds of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) for Playbacks of Seal Scarer Signals, and Effects of the Signals on Behavior Kastelein, R., et al. September 2015 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Towards a Numerical Model to Simulate the Observed Displacement of Harbour Porpoises Phocoena phocoena Due to Pile Driving in Belgian Waters Haelters, J., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Final progress report of a 12 month pre - construction bat monitoring study for the Proposed Waaihoek Wind Energy Facility near Utrecht, KwaZulu-Natal Kruger, C. August 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
An Analytical Model for the Underwater Sound Pressure Waveforms Radiated when an Offshore Pile is Driven Hall, M. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Impulsive Sounds Change European Seabass Swimming Patterns: Influence of Pulse Repetition Interval Neo, Y., et al. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Landscapes for Energy and Wildlife: Conservation Prioritization for Golden Eagles across Large Spatial Scales Tack, J., Fedy, B. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Key Seabird Areas in Southern New England Identified Using a Community Occupancy Model Flanders, N., et al. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Foundation Damping and the Dynamics of Offshore Wind Turbine Monopiles Carswell, W., et al. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Evaluation of the Impact of Wind Farms on Birds: The Case Study of Lebanon Al Zohbi, G., Hendrick, P., Bouillard, P. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Leading Edge Erosion of Coated Wind Turbine Blades: Review of Coating Life Models Slot, H., et al. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals N/A
Using Spatial Analyses of Bearded Vulture Movements in Southern Africa to Inform Wind Turbine Placement Reid, T., et al. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Attitudes and Perceptions of Fishermen on the Island of Ireland Towards the Development of Marine Renewable Energy Projects Reilly, K., O'Hagan, A., Dalton, G. August 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Turbines and Terrestrial Vertebrates: Variation in Tortoise Survivorship Between a Wind Energy Facility and an Adjacent Undisturbed Wildland Area in the Desert Southwest (USA) Agha, M., et al. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Co-Creation of Individual-Based Models by Practitioners and Modellers to Inform Environmental Decision-Making Wood, K., Stillman, R., Goss-Custard, J. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
Consolidating the State of Knowledge: A Synoptical Review of Wind Energy's Wildlife Effects Schuster, E., Bulling, L., Köppel, J. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds, Marine Mammals
Improving knowledge exchange among scientists and decision-makers to facilitate the adaptive governance of marine resources: A review of knowledge and research needs Cvitanovic, C., et al. August 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Knowledge Brokerage Context Factors - What Matters in Knowledge Exchange in Impact Assessment? Saarela, S., Söderman, T., Lyytimäki, J. August 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Seasonally-Dynamic Presence-Only Species Distribution Models for a Cryptic Migratory Bat Impacted by Wind Energy Development Hayes, M., Cryan, P., Wunder, M. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Integrated Environmental Mapping and Monitoring, a Methodological Approach to Optimise Knowledge Gathering and Sampling Strategy Nilssen, I., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Effects of wind‐energy facilities on breeding grassland bird distributions Shaffer, J., Buhl, D. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Enablers Task Force on Marine Spatial Planning: Report to the Inter-Departmental Marine Coordination Group Enablers Task Force July 2015 Report N/A N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
ACME: A Partially Periodic Estimator of Avian & Chiropteran Mortality at Wind Turbines Wolpert, R. July 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
A Collision Risk Model to Predict Avian Fatalities at Wind Facilities: An Example Using Golden Eagles, Aquila chrysaetos New, L., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Temporal Variation in Environmental Conditions and the Structure of Fish Assemblages around an Offshore Oil Platform in the North Sea Fujii, T. July 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Identifying Information Needs and Approaches for Assessing Potential Impacts of Offshore Wind Farm Development on Fisheries Resources in the Northeast Region Petruny-Parker, M., et al. July 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
MR7.1.2 The Density and Behaviour of Marine Mammals in Tidal Rapids Macaulay, J., et al. July 2015 Report N/A N/A Marine Mammals

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