Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Titlesort ascending Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
ABC’s Bird-Smart Wind Energy Campaign: Protecting Birds from Poorly Sited Wind Energy Development Hutchins, M., Parr, M., Schroeder, D. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
A Workshop on Raptors and Energy Development Howard, R., Gore, J. January 1980 Workshop Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds, Raptors
A Well-Being Framework for Impact Evaluation: The Case of the UK Offshore Wind Industry Hattam, C., Hooper, T., Papathanasopoulou, E. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
A Visual and Acoustic Study of Nocturnal Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Roaring Brook Wind Project, New York, Fall 2007 Mabee, T., Schwab, N. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
A Vessel Noise Budget for Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound, Washington (USA) Bassett, C., et al. September 2012 Journal Article N/A Noise Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Navigation
A Vehicle-Mounted Radar for Dual-Purpose Monitoring of Birds Harmata, A., Leighty, G., O'Neil, E. September 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
A Unifying Framework for the Underlying Mechanisms of Avian Avoidance of Wind Turbines May, R. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general Static Device Birds
A three-dimensional underwater sound propagation model for offshore wind farm noise prediction Lin, Y., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
A Theoretical Approach to Estimating Bird Risk of Collision with Wind Turbines Where Empirical Flight Activity Data Are Lacking Furness, R., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
A Test for Bias Attributable to Seabird Avoidance of Ships during Surveys Conducted in the Tropical Pacific Borberg, J., et al. January 2006 Journal Article N/A Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
A Synthesis of Operational Mitigation Studies to Reduce Bat Fatalities at Wind Energy Facilities in North America Arnett, E., et al. March 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
A synthesis of human-related avian mortality in Canada Calvert, A., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
A Synchronized Sensor Array for Remote Monitoring of Avian and Bat Interactions with Offshore Renewable Energy Facilities Suryan, R., Albertani, R., Polagye, B. July 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
A Sustainability Index of Potential Co-Location of Offshore Wind Farms and Open Water Aquaculture Benassai, G., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish, Socio-economics
A Sustainability Index for Offshore Wind Farms and Open Water Aquaculture Benassai, G., et al. January 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Nearfield Habitat
A Survey of Acoustic Harassment Device (AHD) Use in the Bay of Fundy, NB, Canada Johnston, D., Woodley, T. January 1998 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
A Summary of Bat Fatality Data in a Nationwide Database Allison, T., Butryn, R. July 2018 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
A Summary and Comparison of Bird Mortality from Anthropogenic Causes with an Emphasis on Collisions Erickson, W., Johnson, G., Young, D. June 2005 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
A study of White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla movements and mortality at a wind farm in Norway Nygård, T., et al. January 2010 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
A Study of the Risk of Collision with Power Lines by Waterbirds in Winter at Shotton Steel Works, North Wales Balmer, D., Henderson, I., Clark, N. April 1995 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Waterfowl
A Study of Bird and Bat Collision Fatalities at the Mountaineer Wind Energy Center, Tucker County, West Virginia: Annual Report for 2003 Kerns, J., Kerlinger, P. February 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
A strategic policy framework for promoting the marine energy sector in Spain Vazquez, S., Astariz, S., Iglesias, G. December 2015 Journal Article Tidal, Wave, Offshore Wind N/A Legal and Policy
A Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Fish & Shellfish Resources with Respect to Proposed Offshore Wind Farms in the Eastern Irish Sea Lockwood, S. March 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Socio-economics
A strategic analysis of tidal current energy conversion systems in the European Union Segura, E., Morales, R., Somolinos, J. February 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
A Stochastic Collision Risk Model for Seabirds in Flight McGregor, R., et al. April 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
A Spring 2005 Radar, Visual, and Acoustic Survey of Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Deerfield Wind Project in Searsburg and Readsboro, Vermont Roy, R., Pelletier, S. November 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors
A Spring 2005 Radar, Visual, and Acoustic Survey of Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Clayton Wind Project in Clayton, New York Stantec Consulting September 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors, Waterfowl
A Special Purpose: The Migratory Bird Treaty Act and Wind Energy Rose, R. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Socio-economics
A Spatial Explicit Agent Based Model Approach to Evaluate the Performance of Different Monitoring Options for Mortality Estimates in the Scope of Onshore Windfarm Impact Assessments Santos, M., et al. February 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
A Spatial Conservation Prioritization Approach for Protecting Marine Birds Given Proposed Offshore Wind Energy Development Winiarski, K., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
A Spatial Analysis for Ecologically Conscious Wind Farm Siting in the Pacific Northwest Moore, E. June 2017 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
A Sound Approach to Assessing the Impact of Underwater Noise on Marine Fishes and Invertebrates Hawkins, A., Popper, A. March 2017 Journal Article N/A Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
A Socio-Technical Framework for Examining the Consequences of Deforestation: A Case Study of Wind Project Development in Northern Europe Enevoldsen, P. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
A smart curtailment approach for reducing bat fatalities and curtailment time at wind energy facilities Hayes, M., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
A Semi Analytical Model for the Prediction of Underwater Noise from Offshore Pile Driving Tsouvalas, A., Metrikine, V. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
A Roadmap for PIER Research on Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines in California Sterner, D. December 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
A Review of Vessel Traffic and Fishing Activity Standards for Offshore Wind Farm in Domestic Areas Based on the Analysis of Foreign Cases Kwon, Y., Lee, C., Rim, G. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Fishing
A Review Of The Records Of Giant Squid In The North-Eastern Atlantic And Severe Injuries In Architeuthis Dux Stranded After Acoustic Explorations Guerra, A., González, A., Rocha, F. September 2004 Conference Paper N/A Noise Benthic Invertebrates
A Review of the Potential Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy Development on Scotland's Marine Environment Aquatera June 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave N/A Nearfield Habitat
A review of the occurrence of inter‐colony segregation of seabird foraging areas and the implications for marine environmental impact assessment Bolton, M., et al. October 2018 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds
A Review of the Impacts of Wind Farms on Hen Harriers Circus cyaneus and an Estimation of Collision Avoidance Rates Whitfield, D., Madders, M. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
A Review of the Impacts of Wind Farms and Other Aerial Structures Upon Birds Gill, J., Townsley, M., Mudge, G. January 1996 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
A Review of the Impacts of Onshore Wind Energy Development on Biodiversity Tosh, D., Montgomery, W., Reid, N. January 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Ecosystem
A review of the environmental and human impacts from wind parks. A case study for the Prefecture of Lasithi, Crete Katsaprakakis, D. June 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
A Review of the Application of Lifecycle Analysis to Renewable Energy Systems Lund, C., Biswas, W. April 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
A review of potential impacts of submarine power cables on the marine environment: Knowledge gaps, recommendations and future directions Taormina, B., et al. November 2018 Journal Article N/A EMF, Static Device N/A
A Review of Options for Mitigating Take of Golden Eagles at Wind Energy Facilities Allison, T., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
A Review of Offshore Windfarm Related Underwater Noise Sources Nedwell, J., Howell, D. October 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
A review of noise abatement systems for offshore wind farm construction noise, and the potential for their application in Scottish waters Verfuss, U., Sinclair, R., Sparling, C. January 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
A Review of Methods to Monitor Collisions or Micro-Avoidance of Birds with Offshore Wind Turbines - Part 2: Feasibility Study of Systems to Monitor Collisions Collier, M., Dirksen, S., Krijgsveld, K. February 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
A Review of Methods to Monitor Collisions or Micro-Avoidance of Birds with Offshore Wind Turbines - Part 1: Review Strategic Ornithological Support Services Project Collier, M., Dirksen, S., Krijgsveld, K. September 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
A Review of Killer Whale Interactions with Other Marine Mammals: Predation to Co-existence Jefferson, T., Stacey, P., Baird, R. December 1991 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
A Review of Goose Collisions at Operating Wind Farms and Estimation of the Goose Avoidance Rate Fernley, J., Lowther, S., Whitfield, P. June 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
A Review of Flight Heights and Avoidance Rates of Birds in Relation to Offshore Wind Farms Cook, A., et al. May 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
A review of crustacean sensitivity to high amplitude underwater noise: Data needs for effective risk assessment in relation to UK commercial species Edmonds, N., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Benthic Invertebrates
A Review of Bird Strike Mortality at Irish Onshore Windfarms Fennelly, R. June 2015 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
A Review Of Assessment Methodologies For Offshore Windfarms Maclean, I., et al. May 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
A Review of Approaches for Classifying Benthic Habitats and Evaluating Habitat Quality Diaza, R., Solan, M., Valente, R. November 2004 Journal Article N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates
A Review and Inventory of Fixed Autonomous Recorders for Passive Acoustic Monitoring of Marine Mammals Sousa-Lima, R., et al. March 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals
A Report on the Perceptions of the Fishing Industry into the Potential Socio-Economic Impacts of Offshore Wind Energy Developments on their Work Patterns and Income Mackinson, S., et al. October 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Socio-economics
A Report on National Greater Sage-Grouse Conservation Measures Sage-grouse National Technical Team December 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
A Radar Study of Nocturnal Bird Migration at the Proposed Mount Storm Wind Power Development, West Virginia, Fall 2003 Mabee, T., Cooper, B., Plissner, J. March 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Passerines
A Radar Study of Nocturnal Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Hatchet Ridge Wind Project, California, Fall 2007 Mabee, T., Sanzenbacher, P. February 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Passerines
A radar and visual study of nocturnal bird and bat migration at the proposed Prattsburgh-Italy wind power project, New York, spring 2005 Mabee, T., Plissner, J., Cooper, B. March 2005 Report Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
A Radar and Visual Study of Nocturnal Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Flat Rock Wind Power Project, New York, Fall 2004 Mabee, T., Plissner, J., Cooper, B. March 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Passerines
A Quantitative-Based Evaluation of the Environmental Impact and Sustainability of a Proposed Onshore Wind Farm in the United Kingdom Phillips, J. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
A Quantitative Method to Analyze the Quality of EIA Information in Wind Energy Development and Avian/Bat Assessments Chang, T., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
A Protocol for Implementing the Interim Population Consequences of Disturbance (PCoD) approach: Quantifying and Assessing the Effects of UK Offshore Renewable Energy Developments on Marine Mammal Populations Booth, C., et al. November 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A Marine Mammals
A procedure for deriving wind turbine noise limits by taking into account annoyance Fredianelli, L., Carpita, S., Licitra, G. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Socio-economics
A Probabilistic Approach to Introduce Risk Measurement Indicators to an Offshore Wind Project Evaluation - Improvement to an Existing Tool ECUME Douard, F., Domecq, C., Lair, W. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
A Preliminary Review of the Impact of Placing Portions of an Extra-High Voltage Transmission Line Beneath the Chesapeake Bay & Other Waters Community & Environmental Defense Service February 2011 Report N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
A Preliminary Overview of Monitoring for Raptors in Sweden Hellstrom, P., Helander, B. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
A Preliminary Overview of Monitoring for Raptors in Croatia Mazal, V., Mikulic, K. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
A Preliminary Evaluation on the Use of Dogs to Recover Bat Fatalities at Wind Energy Facilities Arnett, E. December 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
A Preliminary Assessment of Potential Avian Interactions at Four Proposed Wind Energy Facilities on Vandenberg Air Force Base, California: Period of Performance: November 2001 - May 2002 BioResource Consultants August 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
A Practical Sampling Design for Acoustic Surveys of Bats Rodhouse, T., Vierling, K., Irvine, K. July 2011 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
A portfolio model for siting offshore wind farms with economic and environmental objectives Cranmer, A., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem, Socio-economics
A Population Study of Golden Eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Second-Year Progress Report Predatory Bird Research Group July 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
A Population Study of Golden Eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Population Trend Analysis 1994-1997 Hunt, W., et al. June 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
A Pioneer in Transition: Horizon Scanning of Emerging Issues in Germany's Sustainable Wind Energy Development Köppel, J., et al. March 2019 Book Chapter Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics
A Pilot Study of the Distribution and Abundances of Rockfishes in Relation to Natural Environmental Factors and an Offshore Oil and Gas Production Platform off the Coast of Southern California Love, M., et al. September 1994 Journal Article N/A Static Device Fish
A Pilot Golden Eagle Population Study in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area California Predatory Bird Research Group May 1995 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
A path planning approach based on multi-direction A* algorithm for ships navigating within wind farm waters Xie, L., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Navigation
A Noisy Spring: The Impact of Globally Rising Underwater Sound Levels on Fish Slabbekoorn, H., et al. July 2010 Journal Article N/A Noise Fish
A New Wave of Marine Evidence-Based Management: Emerging Challenges and Solutions to Transform Monitoring, Evaluating, and Reporting Addison, P., et al. December 2017 Journal Article N/A N/A Farfield Environment
A New Stochastic Dynamic Tool to Improve the Accuracy of Mortality Estimates for Bats Killed at Wind Farms Bastos, R., Santos, M., Cabral, J. November 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
A New Model for Environmental and Economic Evaluation of Renewable Energy Systems: The Case of Wind Turbines Savino, M., et al. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Farfield Environment, Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
A new method to determine bird and bat fatality at wind energy turbines from carcass searches Korner-Nievergelt, F., et al. December 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
A New Context-Based Approach to Assess Marine Mammal Behavioral Responses to Anthropogenic Sounds Ellison, W., et al. February 2012 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
A Net-Present Value Analysis for a Wind Turbine Purchase at a Small US College Johnson, N., Solomon, B. May 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
A Multi-National Project Management Framework Audit of a European Union Marine Spatial Planning Project Sangiuliano, S. March 2018 Report N/A N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
A Multi-Method Approach to Determine the Impact of Existing Wind Power Plants on Bird and Bat Migration on the Island of Fehmarn, Germany Reichenbach, M., Grunkorn, T. May 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
A modelling framework to predict bat activity patterns on wind farms: An outline of possible applications on mountain ridges of North Portugal Silva, C., et al. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
A Modelling Approach to Infer the Effects of Wind Farms on Landscape Connectivity for Bats Roscioni, F., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
A modelling approach for offshore wind farm feasibility with respect to ecosystem-based marine spatial planning Pınarbaşı, K., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
A Model for Passive Underwater Noise Suppression by Bubble Curtains Surrounding Point or Line Sources in Shallow Water Hay, T., et al. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
A Methodology for Multi-Criteria Design of Multi-Use Offshore Platforms for Marine Renewable Energy Harvesting Zanuttigh, B., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
A Methodology for Assessment of Wind Turbine Noise Generation Kelley, N., Hemphill, R., McKenna, H. May 1982 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
A methodological update of the Framework for the Appropriate Assessment of the ecological effects of Offshore Windfarms at the Dutch Continental Shelf Boon, A., et al. July 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
A Method to Assess the Population-Level Consequences of Wind Energy Facilities on Bird and Bat Species Diffendorfer, J., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds

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