Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author*sort descending Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Comparing bird and bat fatality-rate estimates among North American wind-energy projects Smallwood, S. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds
Comparing Bird And Bat Data For New Wind Power Generation Smallwood, S., Neher, L. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Partial Re-Assessment of an Adaptive management Plan for the APWRA: Accounting for Turbine Size Smallwood, S., Spiegel, L. March 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Is EIA Part of the Wind Power Planning Problem? Smart, D., Stojanovic, T., Warren, C. November 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Bat activity during autumn relates to atmospheric conditions: implications for coastal wind energy development Smith, A., McWilliams, S. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Static Device Bats
The social dynamics of turbine tourism and recreation: Introducing a mixed-method approach to the study of the first U.S. offshore wind farm Smith, H., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Recreation
Media and policy in a complex adaptive system: Insights from wind energy legislation in the United States Smith, H., et al. September 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics
Avian interactions with renewable energy infrastructure: An update Smith, J., Dwyer, J. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Birds
Predation risk: a potential mechanism for effects of a wind energy facility on Greater Prairie-Chicken survival Smith, J., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Indirect Effects of an Existing Wind Energy Facility on Lekking Behavior of Greater Prairie-Chickens Smith, J., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Utilisation of Space by Grey and Harbour Seals in the Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters SMRU January 2011 Report N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Renewables-To-Reefs? Decommissioning Options for the Offshore Wind Power Industry Smyth, K., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
The Rhode Island Ocean Special Area Management Plan 2008-2015: From Inception through Implementation Smythe, T., Andrescavage, N., Fox, C. January 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
A Comparison of Offshore Wind Power Development in Europe and the US: Patterns and Drivers of Development Snyder, B., Kaiser, M. October 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Ecological and Economic Cost-Benefit Analysis of Offshore Wind Energy Snyder, B., Kaiser, M. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Individual Consistency in the Foraging Behaviour of Northern Gannets: Implications for Interactions with Offshore Renewable Energy Developments Soanes, L., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Progress in Renewable Energies Offshore Soares, C. October 2016 Book Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Feasibility and LCA for a Wave Dragon platform with wind turbines Soerensen, H.C., et al. June 2016 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources and Sustainable Management of the Territory: Wind Farms in Regione Liguria Solari, P., Minervini, G. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Impacts of climate change on wind energy power – Four wind farms in Spain Solaun, K., Emilio, C. January 2020 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Climate Change
Mating Eastern Red Bats Found Dead at a Wind Energy Facility Solick, D., et al. June 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Acuity of a Cryptochrome and Vision-Based Magnetoreception System in Birds Solov'yov, I., Mouritsen, H., Schulten, K. July 2010 Journal Article N/A EMF Birds
Status of Marine Mammals in Korea Song, K. April 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
MERiFIC 3.2.1: Documentary Summary of the Environmental Impact of Renewable Marine Energy Sotta, C. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Marine Renewable Energy Clustering in the Mediterranean Sea: The Case of PELAGOS Project Soukissian, T., Adamopoulos, C., Prospathopoulos, A. February 2019 Journal Article N/A N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Feasibility Appraisal of an Offshore Wind Farm Located in Greece Soursou, P. October 2017 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
A Review and Inventory of Fixed Autonomous Recorders for Passive Acoustic Monitoring of Marine Mammals Sousa-Lima, R., et al. March 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Marine Mammals
Behavioral Responses of Beaked Whales and Other Cetaceans to Controlled Exposures of Simulated Sonar and Other Sounds Southall, B., et al. October 2009 Presentation N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Marine Mammal Noise Exposure Criteria: Initial Scientific Recommendations Southall, B., et al. December 2007 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Masking in Three Pinnipeds: Underwater, Low-Frequency Critical Ratios Southall, B., Schusterman, R., Kastak, D. June 2000 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Marine Mammal Noise Exposure Criteria: Updated Scientific Recommendations for Residual Hearing Effects Southhall, B., et al. March 2019 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals
South West Marine Energy Park Prospectus Southwest Marine Energy Park Coalition January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Contextualizing Avian Mortality: A Preliminary Appraisal of Bird and Bat Fatalities from Wind, Fossil-Fuel, and Nuclear Electricity Sovacool, B. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Megawatts are not megawatt-hours and other responses to Willis et al. Sovacool, B. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
The avian and wildlife costs of fossil fuels and nuclear power Sovacool, B. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
The Avian Benefits of Wind Energy: A 2009 Update Sovacool, B. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Genetic Diversity in Migratory Bats: Results from RADseq Data for Three Tree Bat Species at an Ohio Windfarm Sovic, M., Carstens, B., Gibbs, H. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Bat Surveys: Good Practice Guidelines Sowler, S., et al. January 2012 Book Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
South African Good Practice Guidelines for Surveying Bats in Wind Farm Developments Sowler, S., Stoffberg, S. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
South African Good Practice Guidelines for Surveying Bats at Wind Energy Facility Developments - Pre-construction Sowler, S., Stoffberg, S. January 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Responses of the Big Brown Bat, Eptesicus fuscus, to an Acoustic Deterrent Device in a Lab Setting Spanjer, G. December 2006 Report N/A N/A Bats
An Overview of Monitoring for Raptors in Bulgaria Spasov, S., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Scientific Advice on Matters Related to the Management of Seal Populations Special Committee on Seals January 2012 Website N/A N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Environmental Impacts of Renewable Energy Spellman, F. December 2014 Book Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Noise Generation of Upwind Rotor Wind Turbine Generators Spencer, R. February 1981 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise N/A
Determining Fine-Scale Use and Movement Patterns of Diving Bird Species in Federal Waters of the Mid-Atlantic United States Using Satellite Telemetry Spiegel, C., et al. January 2017 Report N/A N/A Birds, Seabirds
Offshore Wind Farms Development in Relation to Environmental Protected Areas Spiropoulou, I., Karamanis, D., Kehayias, G. February 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Worldviews as predictors of wind and solar energy support in Austria: Bridging social acceptance and risk perception research Sposato, R., Hampl, N. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
Stakeholder empowerment through participatory planning practices: The case of electricity transmission lines in France and Norway Späth, L., Scolobig, A. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Ecological Monitoring using Wildlife Detection Dogs: Bat Carcass Searches at the Wanlip Wind Turbine Stanhope, K. June 2015 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Grey Seals use Anthropogenic Signals from Acoustic Tags to Locate Fish: Evidence from a Simulated Foraging Task Stansbury, A., et al. January 2015 Journal Article N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
A Spring 2005 Radar, Visual, and Acoustic Survey of Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Clayton Wind Project in Clayton, New York Stantec Consulting September 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Raptors, Waterfowl
Spring 2006 Bird and Bat Migration Surveys at the Proposed Deerfield Wind Project in Searsburg and Readsboro, Vermont Stantec Consulting December 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Spring 2007 Radar, Visual, and Acoustic Survey of Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Windpark in Coos County, New Hampshire by Granite Reliable Power, LLC Stantec Consulting October 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Summer 2005 Breeding Birds Surveys at the Proposed Top Notch Wind Project in Fairfield and Norway, New York Stantec Consulting December 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Summer 2006 Indiana Bat Surveys at the Proposed Clayton Wind Project in Clayton, New York Stantec Consulting November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Summer-Fall 2006 Bat Detector Survey and Two-year Summary at the Proposed Deerfield Wind Project in Searsburg and Readsboro, Vermont Stantec Consulting January 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
White Pines Wind Project: Natural Heritage Assessment and Environmental Impact Study Stantec Consulting May 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
2006 Rare Bird Survey at the Proposed Clayton Wind Project in Clayton, New York Stantec Consulting September 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
2009 Spring, Summer, and Fall Avian and Bat Surveys Stantec Consulting December 2009 Report N/A N/A Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
A Fall 2005 Radar and Acoustic Survey of Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Deerfield Wind Project in Searsburg and Readsboro, Vermont Stantec Consulting November 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Fall 2006 Radar Surveys of Nighttime Migration Activity at the Proposed Windpark in Coos County, New Hampshire by Granite Reliable Power, LLC Stantec Consulting October 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Melancthon Grey Wind Project Environmental Screening Report Stantec Consulting February 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Avian and Bat Protection Plan for the Buckeye Wind Power Project Stantec Consulting Services June 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Grande Prairie Wind Farm Bird and Bat Conservation Strategy Stantec Consulting Services May 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Seasonal Variation in Bat Activity in Relation to Detector Height: A Case Study Staton, T., Poulton, S. December 2012 Journal Article N/A N/A Bats
The Impact of Offshore Wind Farms on the Marine Environment Steen, H., et al. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Static Device Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
When tourists meet transmission lines: The effects of electric transmission lines on tourism in Iceland Stefánsson, P., Sæþórsdóttir, A., Hall, C. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Recreation
Threats From Industrial Wind Turbines to Ontario’s Wildlife and Biodiversity Stelling, K., Petrie, S. January 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Towards a Spatially Explicit Risk Assessment for Marine Management: Assessing the Vulnerability of Fish to Aggregate Extraction Stelzenmüller, V., Ellis, J., Rogers, S. January 2010 Journal Article N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Practical tools to support marine spatial planning: A review and some prototype tools Stelzenmüller, V., et al. March 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Co-location of passive gear fisheries in offshore wind farms in the German EEZ of the North Sea: A first socio-economic scoping Stelzenmüller, V., et al. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Fishing
Integrated Modelling Tools to Support Risk-Based Decision-Making in Marine Spatial Management Stelzenmüller, V., et al. November 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish, Socio-economics
Wind Power Siting, Incentives, and Wildlife Guidelines in the United States Stemler, J. October 2007 Report Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Wind Power Siting Regulations and Wildlife Guidelines in the United States Stemler, J. April 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Effect of the Horns Rev 1 Offshore Wind Farm on Fish Communities: Follow-up Seven Years after Construction Stenberg, C., et al. December 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Offshore Wind Farms and their Impact on Fish Abundance and Community Structure Stenberg, C., et al. September 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Long-Term Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm in the North Sea on Fish Communities Stenberg, C., et al. May 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish
A Roadmap for PIER Research on Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines in California Sterner, D. December 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
Large Eddy Simulation Studies of the Effects of Alignment and Wind Farm Length Stevens, R., Gayme, D., Meneveau, C. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal N/A
An Analysis of Displacement from Wind Turbines in a Wintering Grassland Bird Community Stevens, T., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Poor Evidence-Base For Assessment Of Windfarm Impacts On Birds Steward, G., Pullin, A., Coles, C. February 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Effects of Wind Turbines on Bird Abundance: Systematic Review Stewart, G., Pullin, A., Coles, C. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Sound Solutions: Construction of Offshore Wind Farms Without Underwater Noise Stichting de Noordzee January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Habitat Engineering by Decadal-Scale Bioturbation around Shipwrecks on the Great Barrier Reef Mid-Shelf Stieglitz, T. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Sex-Based Mortality of Common Tern in Farm Collisions Stienen, E., et al. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
The Birds of Blyth Harbour Still, D., et al. June 1994 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Shorebirds
Best available science? Are NOAA Fisheries marine mammal noise exposure guidelines up to date? Stocker, M. May 2019 Conference Paper N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
The Development of World Oceans & Coasts and Concepts of Sustainability Stojanovic, T., Farmer, C. November 2013 Journal Article N/A N/A Socio-economics
Mitigation of Underwater Pile Driving Noise During Offshore Construction: Final Report Stokes, A., et al. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Windpower and reindeer Strand, O., et al. March 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Terrestrial Mammals
Changes in Fish Catch Rates in the Presence of Air Gun Sounds in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska Streever, B., et al. December 2016 Journal Article N/A Noise Socio-economics, Fishing
Comprehensive Guide to Studying Wind Energy Wildlife Interactions Strickland, D., et al. June 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
A Field Study on the Aesthetics of Small Wind Machines: A Preliminary Report Strojan, C., Lawrence, K., O'Donnell, D. January 1980 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Port Elizabeth Wind Energy Facility Avifaunal and Bat Impact Assessment Strugnell, L., Smallie, J., Patterson-Abrolat, C. October 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Flight Height Distribution and Collision Risk of the Marbled Murrelet Brachyramphus Marmoratus: Methodology and Preliminary Results Stumpf, J., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Fly-and-Forage Strategy in the Bat Pipistrellus nathusii During Autumn Migration Suba, J., Petersons, G., Rydell, J. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Status of herpatofaunal diversity of Ramagiri east and west reserve forests of Ananthapuramu district, Andhra Pradesh Subramanyam, B., Khan, I., Kumari, K. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Non-Conventional Energy Sources: A Geo-Spatial Study of Site, Situation, Production and Economy of Wind Farms in Satara District Sule, B. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
Assessment of the Potential for Conflict between Existing Ocean Space Use and Renewable Energy Development off the Coast of Oregon Sullivan, C. June 2012 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics

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